# Geography Skills

```Geography Skills
World Map
Arctic Ocean
North
America
Pacific
Ocean
Europe
Atlantic
Ocean
Asia
Pacific
Ocean
Africa
Indian Ocean
South
America
Australia
Antartica
Mediterranean Sea
Red Sea
Black Sea
Eurasia
Mediterranean Sea
Black
Sea
Huang He
Tigris
Euphrates
Egypt
Nile
China
Indus
Persian
Gulf
Italy
Greece
Ganges
India
Mesopotamia
Understanding Maps
Compass Rose

Compass Rose is a marker that indicates directions. The
four cardinal directions are North, South, East, and
West. They are usually indicated with arrows or points of
a star.
Studying Maps

Cartographers use a variety of symbols to represent map
information.
Map Key



A map key helps you
understand information on the
map.
A map key or legend is included
with a map to unlock it. It gives
you the information needed for
the map to make sense.
Maps often use symbols or
colors to represent things, and
the map key explains what they
mean.
Scale


Scale bar shows the relationship between map
measurements and actual distance.
On political maps of large areas, boundary lines highlight
the borders between different countries, states, or
countries.
Latitude


Lines of latitude, or parallels, circle the earth parallel to
the equator and measure the distance north or south of
the Equator in degrees.
The equator is at 0 degrees latitude, while the poles lie at
latitude 90 degrees North and 90 degrees South.


Lines of longitude, or meridians, circle the earth from Pole to
Pole. These lines measure distances east or west of the starting
line, which is at 0 degrees longitude and is called the Prime
Meridian.
The Prime Meridian runs through Greenwich, England. Directly
on the opposite side of the earth from the Prime Meridian is
located the 180&deg; meridian. This is the highest longitude possible.
Relative Location


People use relative direction to indicate location.You may
be told, for example, to look for a street that is “two
blocks north” of another street.
Relative location is the location of one location in
relation to another location.
Absolute Location

Absolute Location indicates the exact position of a place
on the earth’s surface. We use longitude and latitude to
find exact position.
Physical Geography

Physical maps show the location and the shape of the
earth’s physical features. They use colors or patterns to
indicate the differences in elevation or landforms.
Political Geography

Political maps show the boundaries between countries
and smaller divisions, such as states or countries. Political
maps usually feature capitals and other cities.
Latitude and Longitude
Latitude comes first. It is North/South.
Longitude comes second. It is East/West.
Example: 40&deg;S, 60&deg; E
60&deg;N, 120&deg;E
45&deg;N, 105&deg;W
60&deg;N, 0&deg;
45&deg;N, 30&deg;E
60&deg;N, 180&deg;
30&deg;N, 90&deg;W
15&deg;N, 15&deg;W
0&deg;, 120&deg;E
0&deg;, 0&deg;
15&deg;S, 60&deg;W
30&deg;S, 30&deg;E
30&deg;S, 150&deg;E
```