Unit 3 Lesson 4

Unit 3 Lesson 4
Human Geography: Economy, Government, & Globalization
This lesson provides students with a strong foundation on the interaction between systems of
government and economic practices. The role of globalization is also explored. The lesson
includes vocabulary activities, group research, and a PowerPoint.
Key Understandings and Guiding Questions:
Economic systems, whose activities are affected by globalization, share a relationship
with a region’s (or country’s) form of government.
socialist, and communist economic systems?
and communism?
and services? Include subsistence agriculture versus commercial agriculture or cottage
industries versus commercial industries.
Vocabulary of Instruction:
Background Information:
Economic systems and economic activities share a relationship with the region’s or
nation’s government. Economic systems include traditional, free enterprise,
command economy, and mixed economies. Traditional economies are based on
agriculture or hunter-gather societies which are small in nature and usually based on a
family structure (clan, tribe, etc.) This system is usually found in regions within a country
which can be a large or small part of the country’s economy. Although most examples
are found in developing countries, there are some examples within developed nations
that usually involve indigenous groups. A free enterprise economy is also often referred
to as capitalism or free market. It is important for students to know that these terms are
used interchangeably but essentially have the same meaning.
Free market societies usually have limited government involvement (regulations) and
businesses are privately owned. The United States is an example of a free market
economy. Command economies are on the opposite side of the economic spectrum.
Command economies (also referred to as controlled economies) consist of limited to no
private ownership of businesses and the government controls most if not all of the
economy. Even individual jobs are decided and sometimes dictated by the government.
China is an example of a command economy. Although it should be noted, China has
“free economic zones” where foreign investment and market economic activities are
In a mixed economy there is a combination of ownership between the state
(government) and private ownership. In some instances, both the state and privately
owned businesses work together. Many countries have mixed economies.
Economic activities include primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary sectors.
The primary sector may include production of raw materials, and activities associated
with this sector include farming, hunting or grazing. The secondary sector manufactures
goods and activities associated with this sector include the automobile industry, energy
utilities and construction, etc. The tertiary sector is the service industry and activities
related to this sector include retail sales, restaurants, healthcare, etc. The quaternary
sector is the sector that is associated with research, education, libraries, etc. It is easier
for students to understand the different sectors when the teacher provides an example
involving taking a raw material through the levels of development. For example: Paper.
First, the tree must be harvested (primary). Second, the tree is manufactured or
processed into paper (secondary). Third, the paper is sold at Walmart, Target, etc.
(tertiary). Research involving the best type of trees, manufacturing process, region of
the world for trees, etc. is used to develop a plan to harvest trees and manufacture
paper (quaternary). Also, data is collected and disseminated about the best way to
harvest, replant, and take care of the land (quaternary).
Modification of environment: transportation
Systems of Government