Organization of the Human Body

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Organization of the Human Body
An Introduction to Human Anatomy
and Physiology
Leonardo da Vinci’s
Vitruvian Man
Leonardo da Vinci’s
Vitruvian Man expresses the
correlation of man’s body
proportions. For example, man’s
outstretched arms are equivalent
to his height.
What else does da Vinci
prove within his Vitruvian
Man sketch?
* Extra credit on the first test.
Key Terms
Anatomy –
The science
of structure
and the
relationships
among
structures
Physiology –
The science
of body
functions and
how the body
parts work.
You can’t have one without the
other.
Function can never be separated
completely from structure.
Example:
The bones of the skull are tightly joined
to form a rigid structure (anatomy)
The function of the rigid structure is to
protect the delicate brain within
(physiology)
Levels of Organization
Atoms ( C, H, N, O, P, S )
Molecules ( DNA & RNA )
Cell ( muscle, nerve and blood )
Tissue ( connective, muscle and nervous )
Organ ( heart, liver, brain )
Organ System ( digestive system )
Organism ( human )
The 6 Life Processes
Metabolism
Responsiveness
Movement
Growth
Differentiation
Reproduction
Survival Needs
• Nutrients
Slide 1.17a
• Chemicals for energy and cell building
• Includes carbohydrates, proteins, lipids,
vitamins, and minerals
• Oxygen
• Required for chemical reactions
Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Survival Needs
• Water
• 60–80% of body weight
• Provides for metabolic reaction
• Stable body temperature
• Atmospheric pressure must be
appropriate
Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Slide 1.17b
Homeostasis
• Maintenance of a stable internal
environment = a dynamic state of
equilibrium
Slide 1.18
• Homeostasis must be maintained for
normal body functioning and to sustain
life
• Homeostatic imbalance – a disturbance
in homeostasis resulting in disease
Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Maintaining Homeostasis
• The body communicates through neural
and hormonal control systems
Slide 1.19a
• Receptor
• Responds to changes in the environment
(stimuli)
• Sends information to control center
Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Maintaining Homeostasis
• Control center
• Determines set point
Slide 1.19b
• Analyzes information
• Determines appropriate response
• Effector
• Provides a means for response to the
stimulus
Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Feedback Mechanisms
• Negative feedback
Slide 1.20a
• Includes most homeostatic control
mechanisms
• Shuts off the original stimulus, or reduces
its intensity
• Works like a household thermostat
Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Feedback Mechanisms
Positive Feedback
– Increases the original stimulus to push
the variable farther
– In the body this occurs only in blood
clotting and child birth
The Language of Anatomy
• Special terminology is used to prevent
misunderstanding
• Exact terms are used for:
• Position
• Direction
• Regions
• Structures
Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Slide 1.21
Anatomical Position I
Anatomical Position II
Planes of the Human Body
Orientation and Directional Terms
Table 1.1
Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Slide 1.22
Orientation and Directional Terms
Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Table 1.1 (cont)
Slide 1.23
Directional Terms
Directional terms
precisely locate
various parts of the
body in relation to one
another.
Not shown are
superficial (surface)
and deep ( interior )
Directional Terms II
The hand is distal to the
shoulder.
The lungs are lateral to
the heart.
The heart is Superior to
the bladder.
The ribs are Deep to the
skin.
Body Systems
The human body is composed of
11 body systems
The Integumentary System
Consists of the skin and
the structures derived
from it.
Includes hair, nails,
sweat and oil glands.
Regulates body temp.
Protects body
Dectects sensations
The Skeletal System
Consists of the bones,
cartilage and joints.
Supports and protects the
body.
Assists with movement.
Stores cells that produce
blood cells.
Stores minerals and fats.
The Muscular System
Consists of skeletal
muscle, but also includes
cardiac and smooth
muscle.
Aides in movement.
Maintains posture.
Produces heat.
Digestive System
Physically and chemically breaks
down food.
Absorbs nutrients and eliminates
wastes.
Consists of mouth,
esophagus, stomach, small
and large intestines, rectum
and anus.
Also includes salivary
glands, liver, pancreas and
gallbladder.
Nervous System
Consists of brain, spinal
cord, nerves and sense
organs such as the eyes
and ears.
Regulates body activities
through nerve impulses.
Responds to changes via
muscular contractions or
glandular secretions.
The Cardiovascular System
Consists of the heart,
blood and blood vessels.
Heart pumps blood
through blood vessels.
Blood carries O2 and
nutrients to the cells.
Regulates body temp.
Blood components help to
fight disease and mend
damaged vessels.
The Respiratory System
Consists of lungs, larynx,
pharynx, trachea and
bronchial tubes.
Transfers oxygen from
inhaled air to blood and
carbon dioxide from blood to
exhaled air.
Regulates acidity of body
fluids.
Aides in sound production.
The Endocrine System
Consists of all of the
glands and tissues that
produce chemical
regulators of body
functions through
hormones to various
target organs.
The Reproductive System
Female ~
Consists of the ovaries,
uterus, uterine tubes, vagina
and mammary glands.
Makes oocytes
Male ~
Consists of the testes,
epididymis, vas deferens and
penis.
Makes sperm
Urinary System
Consists of the kidneys,
ureters, urinary bladder and
urethra.
It functions to produce, store
and eliminate urine.
Regulates volume and
chemical make up of blood.
Regulates red blood cell
production.
Lymphatic and Immune
System
Consists of the lymph,
spleen, tonsils,
lymphatic fluid,
thymus and immune
cells.
Returns proteins and
fluid to blood.
Aides in protection
against disease
causing organisms.
Proportions of the Human Body
The average adult is
7 and a half heads
tall and 3 heads
wide from shoulder
to shoulder.
Hips are
halfway from
your head to
toes and arms
out to the side
equals your
height.
Arms and
hands at the
side fall
halfway
between the
hips and
knees.
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