Chapter 15-16 Study Guide

Chapter 15-16: Renaissance, Protestant Reformation, and Exploration Study Guide
Renaissance: 1300-1600s
Terms to know: Renaissance, causes of the Renaissance (p. 439), classicism, humanism, secular, patron,
printing press, clergy, questioning spirit, vernacular, effect on art/literature/architecture
People to Know (and why they’re important!): Leonardo DaVinci, Michelangelo, Niccolo Machiavelli,
Johannes Gutenberg,
1. What factors led to the Renaissance? (Chapter 14 Section 2 worksheet)
2. How were Renaissance ideas different from previous ideas?
3. How did the use of the vernacular language bring Renaissance ideas to a new audience? (Think:
what language/writing was used before?)
4. What was the effect of the printing press on books and bookmaking?
Protestant Reformation: 1500s
Terms to Know: Protestant Reformation, indulgences, reform, theocracy, annulled, 95 Theses,
predestination, Anglican Church of England
People to Know (and why they’re important!): Pope, clergy, Martin Luther, John Calvin, Henry VIII,
Mary I, Elizabeth I, other reformers (your notes list 6 others!)
Why were people displeased with the Catholic Church?
What happened to spark the Reformation?
How does the printing press relate to the Reformation?
What was Luther’s intention when he posted his 95 Theses? Give examples of reactions to
Luther’s work.
5. What are the causes/effects of the Protestant Reformation? (p. 460)
Exploration: 1400-1700s
Terms to Know: caravel, circumnavigate, 3 G’s, encomienda, conquistador, viceroys, Columbian
Exchange, mercantilism, capitalism, joint-stock companies, plantation, triangular trade, Middle Passage
People to know (and why they’re important!): Henry the Navigator, Vasco da Gama, Christopher
Columbus, Ferdinand Magellan, Sir Francis Drake, Hernan Cortez +Montezuma (Aztecs, Mexico),
Francisco Pizarro + Atahualpa (Inca, Peru), Bartolome de Las Casas
How does the Renaissance and Protestant Reformation relate to Exploration?
What were the push factors (causes) of Exploration?
What discoveries were made by Portuguese and Spanish explorers?
What was the relationship like between Native Americans and Explorers?
How did the Columbian Exchange work? What were the results of this exchange?
What caused Explorers to turn to Africa for slaves? What were the effects of the slave trade?