1 CHAPTER 3: DIVERSITY IN THE CLASSROOM Behavior Management: Applications for Teachers (5th Ed.) Thomas J. Zirpoli Copyright © 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 2 CHAPTER OVERVIEW This chapter examines the five categories of worldview and how a teacher’s worldview is likely to influence how he/she responds to specific behavioral challenges within the classroom. Specific definitions of terms are provided. Cultural influences on behaviors are examined and discussed. Recommendations for schools and teachers on how to integrate and celebrate diversity are provided. Behavior Management: Applications for Teachers (5th Ed.) Thomas J. Zirpoli Copyright © 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 3 CHAPTER OUTLINE I. Historical Foundations to Understanding Behavior and Behavior Analysis A. Classical conditioning 1. Ivan P. Pavlov: The father of classical conditioning 2. John B. Watson: The father of behaviorism B. Operant conditioning 1. What happens prior to the behavior? 2. What happens after the behavior? 3. Edward L. Thorndike: The laws of behavior 4. Burrus Frederic Skinner: The father of operant conditioning C. The behavioral versus psychoanalytic approach D. Social learning theory 1. Albert Bandura: The father of social learning theory E. Behavior therapy 1. Systematic desensitization 2. Modeling 3. Biofeedback F. Applied behavior analysis 1. Ivar Lovass: The father of applied behavior analysis II. Basic Concepts of Behavior and Behavior Management A. B. C. D. E. F. G. Behavior Responses Stimuli Antecedents Reinforcement Punishment Prompts and cues 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Natural prompts Verbal prompts Gestural prompts Modeling prompts Physical prompts Behavior Management: Applications for Teachers (5th Ed.) Thomas J. Zirpoli Copyright © 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 4 CHAPTER OUTLINE III. Basic Assumptions About Behavior and Behavior Management IV. A. Most behaviors are learned B. Most behaviors are stimulus-specific C. Most behaviors can be taught, changed or modified D. Behavior change goals should be specific and clearly defined E. Behavior change programs should be individualized F. Behavior change programs should focus on the here and now Myths and Misconceptions About Behavior and Behavior Management A. B. Myth: Myth: C. Myth: D. E. Myth: Myth: Changing another person’s behavior is coercive The use of reinforcement to change behavior is a form of bribery Children will learn to behave appropriately only for reinforcement Children should “work” for intrinsic reinforcers All children should be treated in the same way Behavior Management: Applications for Teachers (5th Ed.) Thomas J. Zirpoli Copyright © 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 5 CHAPTER SUMMARY Before we can begin to understand a child’s behavior, we must first have at least a basic understanding of the child’s cultural identity, including race and ethnicity. Otherwise, our behavioral expectations will be invalid, and we will be guilty of ethnocentrism and enculturation. We believe, however, that, in addition to the challenges, educators should consider the many educational opportunities of working with an increasingly diverse population of students. The first step, however, is for educators to learn about their students’ cultures and the cultural influences on their behavior. A second, but just as important, step is for educators to have a clear sense of their own worldview and cultural identity. Worldview, how a person perceives his or her relationship to the world, is an important concept to understand and apply to self, students, and community. Exploring one’s own worldview and how it may differ from a student’s worldview can help bridge communication gaps and decrease misinterpretation of behaviors. Recognizing ecological and socio-political factors related to cultural identity that influence behavior can also help educators with classroom management. Things like collectivism, nonverbal communication, discipline practices, and enculturation levels influence behavior in the classroom. Racial and ethnic minorities make up over 37% of elementary and secondary students in the United States, and 29.6% of the overall U.S. population. They include students from diverse cultural backgrounds such as African Americans, Native Americans, Asian Americans, Hispanic/Latino Americans, and many others. African Americans are the largest minority group in the United States. They represent about 12.8% of the current U.S. population and, by the year 2050, will represent 14.4% of the population. Although their educational status has improved significantly, African Americans are still disproportionately represented in programs for students with special academic and behavioral needs. They are still more likely than white children to be behind a grade level in school and drop out of school. Nearly one of every two African American children lives in poverty, and they are less likely than white children to have the benefits of a college education. The Hispanic/Latino American population grew faster than any other racial or ethnic group from 1980 to 1998. Thirty million Hispanic/Latino Americans now comprise 11.9% of the U.S. population. Hispanic/Latino Americans include Dominicans, Cubans, Puerto Ricans, Central and South Americans, and Mexican Americans. Mexican Americans account for the largest percentage of Hispanic/Latino Americans. The primary influences on Hispanic/Latino behaviors include the Hispanic/Latino family, the Spanish language, and religion/spirituality. Family relationships and duties have an all-encompassing importance. Hispanics/Latinos are noted for their festivals and celebrations, usually centered around family, church, or community. Touching and hugging are common during interactions, as are sharing and helping others within the community. Thus, Hispanic/Latino children are usually comfortable within cooperative learning environments and may perform less favorably in situations demanding individual competition. The Asian American population is one of the fastest growing ethnic groups in the United States. Asian Americans, 10 million strong, make up 4% of the U.S. population. Asian Americans include the Chinese, Filipinos, Japanese, Koreans and many other ethnic groups. While it is true that many Asian Americans are model students and almost 30% of Asians arrive in the United States with 4 years of college education, these facts often obscure the immense diversity within Asian American communities and the many existing challenges for Asian American students. Asian Americans are also a very diverse group. For the Chinese, Japanese, and Koreans, however, Confucianism serves as the foundation for most social and cultural issues. According to Confucian society, the worth of a person is primarily determined by sex, age, and social status, not by the intrinsic value of life or self. The Native American population is a small but growing population. They make up 0.94% of the total U.S. population and about 1% of the public school population. The Native American population consists of approximately 400 different nations, languages, dialects, and customs. Many Native Americans do not share the same culture and certainly not the same behavioral traits. There are, however, some cultural influences on Native Americans of which educators should be aware. Behavior Management: Applications for Teachers (5th Ed.) Thomas J. Zirpoli Copyright © 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 6 DISCUSSION QUESTIONS FROM TEXT 1. Discuss the concept of worldview and how it may contribute to better understanding of classroom behavior. Give examples for some of the ethnicities discussed in this chapter. 2. Frequently, the social skills learned by children within the home environment conflict with behavioral expectations within the school environment. Offer some examples of these conflicts and how they may be resolved in a way that is sensitive to cultural differences. 3. What are some ways in which classroom teachers can better understand and clarify their own cultural identity and behavior? 4. Pick two or three web sites mentioned in this chapter and explore the resources offered. Compare the usefulness of each for your own classroom. 5. What are some ways in which a classroom teacher can make the educational environment more inviting to students from different cultural backgrounds? How may these changes influence the behavior of some students and their relationship with others? Behavior Management: Applications for Teachers (5th Ed.) Thomas J. Zirpoli Copyright © 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 7 ADDITIONAL DISCUSSION QUESTIONS 1. Think about and discuss the diversity found within your own school. Do administrators and teachers reflect the diversity found within the student population? 2. What kind of activities does your school have throughout the school year to celebrate religious holidays of all the students within your school? 3. If your school lacks diversity, what efforts are made and can be made to expose students to people of other races, cultures and religions? Behavior Management: Applications for Teachers (5th Ed.) Thomas J. Zirpoli Copyright © 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 8 TABLE 3.1 Percent of United States Elementary and Secondary Schools Nonwhite Population, 1998 African American Hispanic American Indian Asian Total 17.1% 15.0% 1.1% 4.0% 37.2% Source: National Centers for Educational Statistics (2000). Behavior Management: Applications for Teachers (5th Ed.) Thomas J. Zirpoli Copyright © 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 9 TABLE 3.2 Percent of United States Nonwhite Population, 1999, and Projected Population for 2050 African American Hispanic American Indian Asian Total 1999 12.8 11.9 .88 4.08 29.6 2050 14.4 22.5 .90 9.7 47.5 Projected Increase 12.5% 89.0% 2.3% 137.4% 60.4% Source: U.S. Department of Commerce (1999). Behavior Management: Applications for Teachers (5th Ed.) Thomas J. Zirpoli Copyright © 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 10 TABLE 3.3 Percent of Students Receiving Special Education Services by Disability Category Category Percent of All Students Ages 6-12 Learning Disability 4.24 Speech of Language Impairments 1.73 Mental Retardation .84 Emotional Disturbances .73 All Other Disabilities 1.22 Source: Special Education Programs (http://IDEAdata.org, 2004). Behavior Management: Applications for Teachers (5th Ed.) Thomas J. Zirpoli Copyright © 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 11 TABLE 3.4 • Percent of Students Receiving Special Education Services by Race/Ethnicity and Disability Category Ages 6–21. Percent of Race/Ethnicity Category American Indian/Alaskan Native Asian/Pacific Islander Black (Not Hispanic) Hispanic White (Not Hispanic) Learning Disability 1.74 1.67 20.13 19.74 56.72 Speech or Language Impairments 1.31 2.95 15.89 16.12 63.74 Mental Retardation 1.21 1.98 33.46 12.35 51 Emotional Disturbances 1.52 1.17 28.42 10.46 58.44 Estimated Resident Population .98 4.1 15 17.6 62.2 Source: US Office of Special Education Programs (http://www.IDEAdata.org, 2004). Behavior Management: Applications for Teachers (5th Ed.) Thomas J. Zirpoli Copyright © 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.