Exam Review English 10 First Semester Symbols Beetle • refers to the color and shape of the fireman’s helmet • refers to the cars in this society • the beetle is often connected with dark or black feelings Sieve • relates to a cruel childhood prank suffered by Montag • refers to a sense of hopelessness • is a perforated metal utensil used for straining Hearth • maintains a warming rather than destructive flamedifferent from the large fires that destroy books • is a nostalgic symbol of family life Python • is a snakelike hose • spews kerosene • resembles a great serpent 451 • is the number which appears on Montag’s helmet • links Montag with his job • is the temperature at which book paper catches fire Phoenix • emblem on the disc worn on Montag’s uniform • a first cousin to humankind (according to Granger) • mythical bird which consumes itself in fire • reborn from its ashes Salamander • endures flames without burning • a visual representation of fire • an emblem worn on Montag’s uniform • the name of the fire truck Moonstones • refer to the glazed look of Mildred’s sedated eyes • gems valued for their pearl appearance • suggest something of value Kerosene • smells like perfume to Montag • identifies Montag as a fireman Dandelions • represents Clarisse’s natural innocence • sometimes leave a yellow mark when rubbed under one’s chin (love) Writing Concepts ABSOLUTES • An absolute is a noun plus a verb form. • Noun + Verb (ing), Noun + Verb (ed) • Eyes shutting, • Teeth clenched, APPOSITIVES • An appositive is a descriptive phrase describing a noun. An appositive is usually a nonessential clause. The eyes, brown and wide, closed slowly as the boy became tired. The shooting star, quick as lightning, darted across the night sky. PREPOSITION • A preposition tells the relationship between a noun (or pronoun) and another word in a sentence. • A trick to help you remember prepositions is the following: A preposition is “Anywhere a mouse can go.” Prepositional Phrase • To create a prepositional phrase, take a PREPOSITION and START your sentence with it. Prepositional Phrase • Above the goal, the shot soared. We lost the game! • Into the net, the ball was drilled. We won the game! Notice the placement of the comma (after the end of the introductory phrase). Participial Phrases PRESENT PARTICIPLE • A present participle is a verb in the present tense, happening right now. • The verb has an --ING ending. Tapping the marker on the desk, Frank annoyed me. PAST PARTICIPLE • A past participle is a verb in the past tense, it happened in the past. • The verb has an --ED ending. Warmed up, the team ran onto the field. Personification • Gives non-human objects human characteristics The shoes speak to me about her travels. Imagery • Imagery uses the five senses to aid in descriptive writing. Sight Smell Touch Taste (Movement) Sound • He slithered through the room, moving sleek and slow so as to go unnoticed by his parents. Simile • Compares two unlike things using “like” or “as” Her cheeks are like red apples. Metaphor • Compares two unlike things (sometimes uses “is” or “are”) Her cheeks are red apples. Adverb • An adverb describes a verb. • The adverb can also describe an adjective, another adverb, a phrase, or a clause. Typically, most adverbs end in –ly. Ex: Ironically, honestly, presently, brilliantly, etc. ADJECTIVES • An adjective describes a noun or pronoun by describing, identifying, or quantifying words. o The mighty Bees won the game. BE VERBS (Forms of be) • NOT active = they do NOT show the actions of the sentence is were am be are being was been Speech and Communication Concepts Why Study Public Speaking? o Public speaking is valued because it is necessary if we are to live in a civilized world. You will gain a high degree of self-satisfaction. Why Study Public Speaking? o You will become more sensitive to other people and other ideas. – A number of skills taught in public speaking courses are transferable to other academic areas. • You will learn active listening skills. Communication Communication is the process of sending and receiving messages in order to share meaning. Communication Model Sender Receiver Message Hi baby! Feedback Hi cutie pie! Want to go to the game with me? Interference Two types of interference • External –Blocks the sender’s message from reaching the receiver ( something in the environment). • Internal –Exists within the communicators. Vocal Characteristics • Pitch –The highness or lowness of a voice. • Rate –How quickly or slowly you speak. • Volume –The loudness or softness of your voice. • Quality –The overall sound of your voice. Vocalized Pauses This is a common problem among speakers. People fill in periods of silence with • • • • • “ah” “um” “you know” “okay” “like” Steps of the Voice Process Phonation 2. Resonation 3. Articulation 1. Humans speak on a stream of exhaled air. Articulation: • Making each word clear. Inflection: • Varying the tone of your voice during words and sentences. This allows your voice to be expressive and interesting. • Stage fright is the anxiety, fear, or nervousness which may occur in an individual when he/she is required to perform in front of an audience. • Stage fright may cause physical reactions such as trembling, blushing, cold hands, perspiring, and stuttering. Terms to Know • Feedback The receiver tells you in some way how accurately he or she received your message. RESPONSE • Channel The means through which a message is transmitted. Terms to Know • Encoding –Selecting the best message and channel to make your point. • Decoding –The receiver’s filtering process. Types of Speeches • Impromptu – Speaking on the spur of the moment (without formal presentation or preparation). • Manuscript – Written out word for word. • Memorized – Requires you to memorize the speech and deliver it word for word without notes. • Extemporaneous – You prepare, outline, and practice then deliver using a few notes. Speech Anxiety • Speech anxiety is getting nervous when you speak in public. The biggest fear of 42% of Americans is public speaking. STUDY!