Biosocial Development Newborn to two-years Brain Development • “use it or lose it” • Babies are born with 100 billion neurons: nerve cells, but the networks of axons and dendrites between these establish few connections Transient Exuberance • Exuberance: the sheer magnitude of growth in neural connections • Transient: rate of growth of connections slows as child grows older and overtime, unused connections atrophy and disappear. Myelination • Proceeds most rapidly from age 4 and continues through adolescence, allowing children to gain increasing neurological control over their motor functions and sensory abilities and facilitates their intellectual functioning as well. Experience • A key factor in brain development • A certain minimal level of stimulation for each of the senses in need for these connections to be established optimally. • Cognitive and emotional experiences during this time can foster later language development Low birth weight factors • Smoking • poverty • problems associated with innercity Nourishment Issues • Undernourishment: weight gain more slowly than expected, illness, vitamin deficiencies • Both malnutrition and undernutrition can lead to impaired hearning. • Overfed infants are fed too much of what they do not need, is associated with slower motor skill development and health problems later in life. Advantages of Breastfeeding • • • • • Convenience Sterile Body temp. Easier to digest Fewer upset stomachs, digestive problems, and allergies. • Decreases ailments • • • • More nutritious: iron vitamin C, A antibodies to protect against flues, measles, polio , etc. • Hormones to aid brain development and decrease pain. Breastfeeding • Recommended for at least one year for all babies except those with HIV, malnourished or drug using mothers • Primary food for first six months • Bottle feeding is still more popular • Nestle example: Breastfeeding to table food • At about 6 months, solid foods are introduced • Cereals and then other foods slowly introduced • Avoid wheat , honey, and sugar for first year Cognitive Development • Read Chapter 6, concentrating on behavioral objectives. Poverty in the U.S. Effects on the pregnant mother, developing fetus and infant.