Biosocial Development

Biosocial Development
Newborn to two-years
Brain Development
• “use it or lose it”
• Babies are born with 100 billion neurons:
nerve cells, but the networks of axons and
dendrites between these establish few
Transient Exuberance
• Exuberance: the sheer magnitude of growth
in neural connections
• Transient: rate of growth of connections
slows as child grows older and overtime,
unused connections atrophy and disappear.
• Proceeds most rapidly from age 4 and
continues through adolescence, allowing
children to gain increasing neurological
control over their motor functions and
sensory abilities and facilitates their
intellectual functioning as well.
• A key factor in brain development
• A certain minimal level of stimulation for
each of the senses in need for these
connections to be established optimally.
• Cognitive and emotional experiences during
this time can foster later language
Low birth weight factors
• Smoking
• poverty
• problems associated with innercity
Nourishment Issues
• Undernourishment: weight gain more
slowly than expected, illness, vitamin
• Both malnutrition and undernutrition can
lead to impaired hearning.
• Overfed infants are fed too much of what
they do not need, is associated with slower
motor skill development and health
problems later in life.
Advantages of Breastfeeding
Body temp.
Easier to digest
Fewer upset stomachs,
digestive problems,
and allergies.
• Decreases ailments
More nutritious:
vitamin C, A
antibodies to protect
against flues, measles,
polio , etc.
• Hormones to aid brain
development and
decrease pain.
• Recommended for at least one year for all
babies except those with HIV, malnourished
or drug using mothers
• Primary food for first six months
• Bottle feeding is still more popular
• Nestle example:
Breastfeeding to table food
• At about 6 months, solid foods are
• Cereals and then other foods slowly
• Avoid wheat , honey, and sugar for first year
Cognitive Development
• Read Chapter 6, concentrating on
behavioral objectives.
Poverty in the U.S.
Effects on the pregnant mother,
developing fetus and infant.