Chapter 1: Overview of the Body Outline A.Introduction to Anatomy & Physiology B.Human Body Orientation C. Body Positions D. Movement E. Body Regions A. Introduction Anatomy (morphology): “cutting up”; the structural make-up of an organism Physiology: The functions of an organism Fine or Microscopic Anatomy: examines microscopic features of the body (cells / tissues) Gross Anatomy: examines features of the body visible to the naked eye (systems / organs) Pathology: study of human diseases B. Human Body Orientation When the body is in Anatomical Position it is: 1) in an erect posture, 2) with arms at the sides, 3) palms & feet facing forward. Directional orientation refers to the view one has of a person Directional planes describe different ways a body can be viewed & divided Directional Orientation Superior: • toward the head Inferior: • toward the feet Ex. Lungs are superior to the diaphragm. Directional Orientation Medial: toward the midline Lateral: away from the midline Ex. Big toe is medial to the little toe. Proximal : close to an attachment point Directional Orientation Distal: far from an attachment point Ex. Elbow is proximal to the wrist. Directional Orientation Superficial: towards the surface Deep away from the surface Deep: away from the surface Ex. Skin is superficial to muscles. Anterior: Directional Orientation (Ventral) • front view Posterior: (Dorsal) • back view Ex. Chest is anterior to shoulder blades Directional Planes Sagittal Plane: • lengthwise planes dividing the body into right & left sections Midsagittal Plane: • divides the body into equal halves Directional Planes Frontal Plane: • divides the body vertically into anterior & posterior sections Coronal Plane: • anterior & posterior sections referring to head region Directional Planes Transverse Plane: • divides the body horizontally into upper & lower sections Concept Check 1 1. Define anatomy. 2. What is the difference between the study of fine anatomy and gross anatomy? 3. Distinguish the difference between the terms physiology and pathology? Concept Check 2 1. Distinguish between the terms lateral and medial. 2. What is the difference between the terms inferior and distal? 3. What are alternate terms for anterior and posterior? Concept Check 3 1. What is the difference between a sagittal plane and midsagittal plane? 2. Define the term frontal plane? 3. What does transverse plane mean? C. Body postions SUPINE: body is lying face up PRONE: body is lying face down Lithotomy: legs are placed on supports that hold the ankles and spread out the legs D. Movement • Antagonistic: opposing movements Flexion Extension Abduction Adduction Inversion Eversion E. Body Regions and Cavities • Body regions are divided into general locations, abdominopelvic regions, and quadrants Bilateral: – body parts located laterally on both sides of the body Unilateral: – single body part found in a lateral location Dorsal cavity • The human body is naturally divided into internal cavities Ventral cavity Ventral Body Cavity 1. Thoracic cavity: – esophagus, heart, lungs, respiratory tree Pericardial cavity: encases heart Pleural cavities: encase the lungs Cutting Edge Research: Smoking and the Thoracic Cavity Pneumothorax – condition in which one or both lungs collapse Spontaneous pneumothorax – occurs in the absence of injury to the chest or lungs; • 7X more likely to occur in males than female • male smokers are 20X more likely to develop SP than male nonsmokers • female smokers are 9X more likely to develop SP than female nonsmokers 2. Abdominopelvic cavity: abdominal and pelvic regions Abdominal : liver, gallbladder, intestines, kidneys, spleen, stomach Pelvic: rectum, reproductve system, urinary bladder Abdominopelvic Regions & Quadrants Dorsal Body Cavity 1. Cranial cavity: brain 1. Spinal cavity: spinal cord Online Review Game of Terms http://www.wisc-online.com/objects/index_tj.asp?objID=AP15405 Concept Check 4 1. Define the term antagonistic in relation to body movement. 2. Distinguish between the terms flexion and extension. 3. Name and describe the antagonistic movements for flexion, abduction, and eversion. Concept Check 5 1. Define the abdominopelvic region. 2. What is the name of the center-most section of the abdominopelvic region? 3. How does the quadrant system differ from the abdominopelvic sections. Concept Check 6 1. What structures are found in the abdominopelvic cavity? 2. Distinguish between the thoracic cavity and the spinal cavity. 3. What are the sections of the spinal cavity? Case Study Investigation #1: Conclusion What region did the knife enter? How do you know? What organs can be found in this region? Why might it be dangerous if these organs are punctured? Why do you think the patient is having trouble breathing? Is there a name for this condition?