Ch 4 Atlantic World and Exploration Powerpoint

Chapter 4
The Atlantic World
The Age of Exploration
► Age
of Exploration
 A time period when Europeans began to
explore the rest of the world
► Improvements of the time:
 mapmaking
 Shipbuilding
 rigging
 navigation
Made long voyages possible
► Why
did European countries explore?
 New trade routes, New trading partners
 Mercantilism drives exploration
What’s Mercantilism?
Power = Wealth!
► Policy that stated there was a limited
amount of money in the world
►Gold, silver
 “To grab what they can before it is gone”
 Export more than you import
= creates a favorable balance of trade!
Explorers explored for many reasons
► To
find a sea route to the spices of Asia
 Easier, faster, more goods from one place to another
► Find
gold, silver, and precious stones, animal furs
 greed
► To
expand their knowledge of the world
 Discovery, knowledge
► To
control a larger empire
 power
► To
expand Christianity
 Religious spreading
“Gold, God, and Glory!”
Vasco de Gama!
• from Portugal
• Landed in India in
• Established an
important trade route
from Europe
to India
and the East Indies
Ferdinand Magellan
convinced King of Spain to fund a
voyage to a newly discovered ocean
 Heard about from another explorertoday’s “Pacific Ocean”
►Sailed southern end of South Americareached Guam
►His crew completed
the first circumnavigation
of the world in 1525
►Magellan was killed in the
Philippines in a local war
Magellan’s Voyage
Christopher Columbus
► From
Spain- in search for Gold
► Believed he could reach the East Indies
faster by traveling west
► found North America instead [Bahamas,
Caribbean] and claimed it Spain’s property
► Wanted to turn it into individual
 Definition:
lands controlled by another nation.
He established…
The Columbian Exchange!
massive exchange of goods, plants, animals
and diseases!
►Exchange between New and Old Worlds
“Everyone wants a piece of the pie”
European countries fought for power, land,
resources in the New World
France, England, Spain, Portugal
Italy: Giovanni da Verrazzano: found N.Y.
Harbor when looking for a sea route to the
France: Jacques Cartier: found eat coast of
Samuel de Champlain: found Canada’s
“New France” (Quebec) area = French
colonial empire
► King
James’ of England’s explorers:
► founded Jamestown
Looking for gold, riches.
In first year, many died of starvation
Because they were not focusing on farming.
Pilgrims and Puritans:
 founded Plymouth in Massachusetts
Came to America for religious freedom
From England’s Anglican Church
Struggle Turns to Conflict
► England
wanted more land: “Hungriest” nation
 First defeated the Dutch by the Hudson River
► Dispute
over lands in the Ohio Valley led to a
war in 1754
 This began the Seven Years’ War with France
►The battle in the New World was known as the
French and Indian War
►British defeat French in 1763
►Seize eastern half of North America
Spanish Conquer!
Spanish conquerors=
Spanish men + Native
American women=
“MESTIZO” population
Spanish forced into workfarming, ranched, mined…
- Abolished in 1542
- 1600’s Native American
The Conquistadors
► Spain-
Explorers- made colonies in regions
that today include: Mexico, S. America, U.S.
► Hernan
Cortes in Mexico
 Landed in Aztec Empire
 “disease of the hart only gold could cure”
 Aztec believed him- saw him as Godlike because
of his armor- gave him gold
 Able to defeat the mighty Aztec Empire
 Used superior weapons, allies, and disease
 96% Aztec population died from 1500-1620
 Francisco Pizzaro
the Incan Empire in Peru, S.
►Ambushed and kidnapped the Incan rulerAtahualpa
►Alahualpa gave gold and
silver for release
Pizzaro strangled and
killed him anyway
The Atlantic Slave Trade
► Europeans
needed slave labor in their
colonies to grow crops, mine, etc.
 Native Americans were used, but many died
due to disease
 Needed work done on sugar & tobacco farms!
 Africans replaced the Natives as the main
source of slave labor for the Europeans
Slavery existed in Africa:
- BUT: had rights, social mobility, choices,
some had power/authority
Why were African slaves useful in America?
Already exposed to European diseasesimmunity
Strong, good workers
Experienced farming- could be taught
Less likely to escape because they didn’t
know the terrain
Skin made them easier to catch upon
The Atlantic Slave Trade Timeline
► 1500-1600s
 Spain and Portugal began the trade
 Originally went their for gold but got slaves too
► 1600-1700s
 Slave Trade grows dramatically
► 1690
 England increases the Slave Trade
► 1870
 The Atlantic Slave Trade ends
► Begins
a system of “Triangular Trade”
 Africa, Europe, and Americas all participate
Middle Passage= Slave’s transportation
► Slave
 The captain could be a “tight” or “loose” packer
►“Tight” meant slaves would be placed lying
on each other
►Typically 20 percent or more Africans would
die on the trip
►Disease, malnutrition, beatings, suicide,
► Once in the New World
 Slaves were auctioned of to the highest bidder
The Middle Passage
The Middle Passage
Atlantic Slave Trade Effects
► African
rulers and traders made deals with
Europeans for slaves
 Introduction of guns into African continent
 Western African economy and empires
 Slaves are transported through the “Middle
up families
►Lost generation’s fittest members
Slavery in the New World
► Slave
 Slaves tried to keep their cultural
traditions and Ancestral
 Lost families, slaves for life, kids
were slaves for life…
► Slave
 Often broke tools or worked slowly
 Many ran away
 Numerous revolts throughout the
Growth of Global Trade
Economic systems of
Europe drastically
► Colonial empires that
 stretched through
multiple continents
 led to a new business
and trade practices
► Capitalism
is an economic system based on
private ownership and the investment of
resources, such as money, for profit
 Economic system where things are owned by
people or an individual, not by a government
► Profits
allow individuals and businesses to
become extremely wealthy, not just the
What is a Joint-Stock Company?
► Like
today’s corporations.
► A business in which a number of investors
combine their wealth for a common purpose
 Buy shares of stock in a company!
► Early
on in the 1500-1600s the purpose was
 Overseas colonies were very expensive, but
could be very profitable
 $$$$ = Land
Changes in European Society
► Exploration
and colonization led to an
economic growth and boom in Europe
 Spurred the growth of towns and cities
 Rise of the merchant class with great wealth
 European nations became very wealthy
► Majority
monarchs increased greatly
of Europeans still remained poor
and rural, however