Blind and Low Vision Kelly Castino Stimulation of Being Visually Impaired How would you describe your feelings,what you saw, heard or imagined while watching this video. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=v9CawJSUy2 c&feature=related How many? • Wear glasses, • Have seen contacts? Braille? • Nearsighted? • Have Farsighted? unknowingly Astigmatism? treated a person • Have had Lasik? with blind or low • Know someone who is vision differently? blind or has low vision? • Know someone • Has seen someone with Glaucoma or with a walking stick? cataracts? Definition • If even with some type of correction, the person has 20/200 acuity or less they are considered legally blind. 20/200 means that a person sees 20 ft when a person without vision problems sees 200 ft. • If a person is legally blind, the person “has a field of vision so narrow that its widest diameter subtends an angular distance no greater than 20 degrees” (Hallahan, Kauffman & Pullman, 2009,pg. 380) • Low vision or partially sighted is when a person has visual acuity between 20/70 and 20/200 in the better eye even with some form of correction. Prevalence • More prevalent in adults. • “Visually impaired” age 6 to 17: 0.05 percent of population. “Visually impaired” includes blind and low vision. • One of the least prevalent of disabilities in children • “Visual impairment” in children under age 18: 12.2 per 1000. • Legally or totally blind under age 18: .06 per 1000. Etiology •Eye disorders like retinal degeneration, albinism, cataracts, glaucoma, muscular problems that result in visual disturbances, corneal disorders, diabetic retinopathy, congenital disorders, and infection can lead to visual impairment. •Retinitis pigmentosa is a “hereditary condition resulting in degeneration of the retina: causes a narrowing of the field of vision and affects night vision” (Hallahan, Kauffman & Pullman, 2009, pg. 387). •Excessive amounts of oxygen to an infant’s brain can cause Retinopathy of Prematurity (ROP) which results in an abnormal growth of blood vessels in the eye. Different kinds of vision impairment Mostly Adults • Glaucoma • Diabetic retinopathy Everyone • Myopia(nearsightedness) • Hyperopia (Farsightedness) • Astigmatism (Blurred vision) More common in children • Cortical visual impairment—damage to parts of brain responsible for vision” Leading cause of visual impairment in the Western world” (Hallahan, Kauffman, & Pullman, 2009, pg. 387) • Strabisumus (Crossed eyed) results when eyes are directed outward or inward • Excessive amounts of oxygen to an infant’s brain can cause Retinopathy of Prematurity (ROP) which results in an abnormal growth of blood vessels in the eye. Characteristics of Blind and Low Vision people • Stereotypic behaviors to stabilize arousal which include repetitive behaviors like “rocking, poking or rubbing the eyes, repetitive hand or finger movements and grimacing” (Hallahan, Kauffman & Pullman, 2009, pg. 393). • Usually carries a cane, or has a guide dog • Might be awkward in social situations because does not know social cues. Social cues need to be taught. • Everyone is different because it depends on age of onset, type of visual impairment, severity and prior functioning of adult. Its affects on development • Motor delays such as sitting up, crawling, and walking in infants are common • Intelligence is not usually affected • Conceptually lag behind their peers because they rely on touch more than any other sense but eventually recover it • The mobility of each person varies • Does not affect language development or the ability to understand or use language • Do not know social cues which causes difficulties in social adjustment • Often stigmatized by non-visually impaired Assessment and Diagnosis • Identification of people that are legally blind or vision impaired is by finding the visual acuity of the individual by using the Snellen Eye Chart. • When a person is taking the test, he or she covers one eye is twenty feet away and tries to read the lowest line on the chart. There are eleven lines on the chart, the size of the letters decrease and the number of letters increase. • The last letter of the last line a patient reads accurately is his or her visual acuity. • Assessment and diagnosis is conducted by an optamalogist. Bedingus, Troy. (2009). “Snellen Eye Chart.” The New York Times Company. Retrieved from. http://vision.about.com/od/visionglossary/g/Snellen_Chart.htm. Treatments/Therapies • • • • The earlier the treatment, the better. White Cane Seeing eye dog Some forms of eye diseases can be helped such as Glaucoma and Cataracts • Children with cross eyes wear special types of glasses or an eye patch to correct their vision Against All Odds • http://www.youtube.com/watch? v=DYQSejzdCxU&feature=related Accommodations • • • • Large print books Magnifying devices Test in Braille Extra time to take test because it takes longer to read Braille Modifications • • • • • Use of Braille Books on tape Talking computers Speech recognition software Computerized magnification devices Braille • Louis Braille, in France, introduced Braille because he was blind. His system included reading and writing. • Braille is made up of quadrangular cells consisting of one to six dots. • Braille is read by using both hands • If Braille is used it is recorded in the IEP • Not everyone uses Braille • Braille can be expensive, heavy and hard to find • Books can be made but it takes a while • Braille has been replaced by many electronic helpers. Feel the pages of the Braille Book I brought “Go Dog, Go” By Dr. Seuss Transition into Adulthood • People who are blind or vision impaired are often stigmatized by people who are not visually impaired • Blind can lead independent lives • Stress the need of teaching independent living skills and transitioning skills • Most blind are unemployed or overqualified for job that they are working • Job modifications include: “car pools, better lighting, tinted office windows to filter light, prompt snow removal, regularly scheduled fire drills to ensure spatial orientation, hallways that are free of obstacles, computer software and reading machines that convert print into braille” (Hallahan, Kauffman & Pullman, 2009, pg. 415) New Advances to help the Blind • http://www.youtube.com/watch? v=OKd56D2mvN0&feature=relate d References • Anonymous. (2009). “Strabismus - Treatment Overview. “ WebMD. Retrieved from http://children.webmd.com/tc/strabismustreatment-overview. • Bedingus, Troy. (2009). “Snellen Eye Chart.” The New York Times Company. Retrieved from. http://vision.about.com/od/visionglossary/g/Snellen_Chart.htm. • Blindness/Visual Impairment. (January 2004). National Dissemination Center for Children with Disabilities. Retrieved from http://www.nichcy.org/Disabilities/Specific/Pages/VisualImpairment.aspx#Definition.aspx • CBS. (Producer). (2007). Blind learn to see with tongue. Available from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OKd56D2mvN0&feature=related • Hallahan,D., Kauffman, J. and Pullen, P. (2009) Exceptional Learners: An Introduction to Special Education (11th ed.)Boston: Pearson. • N5N. (Producer). (2006). Blind student uses innovative learning methods. Available from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DYQSejzdCxU&feature=related • Products for Independent Living. (2009). MaxiAids. Retrieved from http://www.maxiaids.com/store/default.asp?idstore=1&category=Blind/Low_Vision • SunSentinel. (Producer). (2007). Blind elementary school teacher in Florida. Available from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=E_S8HM7dkg0&feature=related • Youtube. (Producer). (2007). What’s it like to be visually impaired? Available from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=v9CawJSUy2c&feature=channel_page Assessment 1 • Watch a movie about the legally blind teacher in FL. • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=E_S8HM7dkg0&feature=relat ed • What accommodations or modifications were made in order for the legally blind woman to teach? How do you think the students and administration view that teacher? OR Assessment 2 • Look up the name Kirby Puckett and how his vision affected his career. Write a paragraph about what vision problem he had and how his career was affected and any treatments or surgeries that were or could have been done.