Blind and Low Vision

Blind and Low Vision
Kelly Castino
Stimulation of Being
Visually Impaired
How would you describe your feelings,what
you saw, heard or imagined while watching
this video.
How many?
• Wear glasses,
• Have seen
• Nearsighted?
• Have
treated a person
• Have had Lasik?
with blind or low
• Know someone who is
vision differently?
blind or has low
• Know someone
• Has seen someone
with Glaucoma or
with a walking stick?
• If even with some type of correction, the person
has 20/200 acuity or less they are considered
legally blind. 20/200 means that a person sees 20 ft
when a person without vision problems sees 200 ft.
• If a person is legally blind, the person “has a field of
vision so narrow that its widest diameter subtends an
angular distance no greater than 20 degrees” (Hallahan,
Kauffman & Pullman, 2009,pg. 380)
• Low vision or partially sighted is when a person has
visual acuity between 20/70 and 20/200 in the better
eye even with some form of correction.
• More prevalent in adults.
• “Visually impaired” age 6 to 17: 0.05 percent
of population.
“Visually impaired” includes blind and low vision.
• One of the least prevalent of disabilities in
• “Visual impairment” in children under age 18:
12.2 per 1000.
• Legally or totally blind under age 18: .06 per
•Eye disorders like retinal degeneration, albinism, cataracts, glaucoma,
muscular problems that result in visual disturbances, corneal disorders,
diabetic retinopathy, congenital disorders, and infection can lead to visual
•Retinitis pigmentosa is a “hereditary condition resulting in degeneration of
the retina: causes a narrowing of the field of vision and affects night vision”
(Hallahan, Kauffman & Pullman, 2009, pg. 387).
•Excessive amounts of oxygen to an infant’s brain can cause Retinopathy of
Prematurity (ROP) which results in an abnormal growth of blood vessels in
the eye.
Different kinds of vision impairment
Mostly Adults
• Glaucoma
• Diabetic retinopathy
• Myopia(nearsightedness)
• Hyperopia (Farsightedness)
• Astigmatism (Blurred vision)
More common in children
• Cortical visual impairment—damage to parts of brain
responsible for vision” Leading cause of visual
impairment in the Western world” (Hallahan, Kauffman,
& Pullman, 2009, pg. 387)
• Strabisumus (Crossed eyed) results when eyes are
directed outward or inward
• Excessive amounts of oxygen to an infant’s brain can
cause Retinopathy of Prematurity (ROP) which results in
an abnormal growth of blood vessels in the eye.
Characteristics of Blind and Low Vision people
• Stereotypic behaviors to stabilize arousal
which include repetitive behaviors like
“rocking, poking or rubbing the eyes, repetitive
hand or finger movements and grimacing”
(Hallahan, Kauffman & Pullman, 2009, pg.
• Usually carries a cane, or has a guide dog
• Might be awkward in social situations because
does not know social cues. Social cues need to
be taught.
• Everyone is different because it depends on age
of onset, type of visual impairment, severity
and prior functioning of adult.
Its affects on development
• Motor delays such as sitting up, crawling, and walking in
infants are common
• Intelligence is not usually affected
• Conceptually lag behind their peers because they rely on
touch more than any other sense but eventually recover
• The mobility of each person varies
• Does not affect language development or the ability to
understand or use language
• Do not know social cues which causes difficulties in
social adjustment
• Often stigmatized by non-visually impaired
Assessment and Diagnosis
• Identification of people that are legally blind or vision
impaired is by finding the visual acuity of the individual
by using the Snellen Eye Chart.
• When a person is taking the test, he or she covers one
eye is twenty feet away and tries to read the lowest line
on the chart. There are eleven lines on the chart, the
size of the letters decrease and the number of letters
• The last letter of the last line a patient reads
accurately is his or her visual acuity.
• Assessment and diagnosis is conducted by an
Bedingus, Troy. (2009). “Snellen Eye Chart.” The New York Times Company. Retrieved
The earlier the treatment, the better.
White Cane
Seeing eye dog
Some forms of eye diseases can be helped such
as Glaucoma and Cataracts
• Children with cross eyes wear special types of
glasses or an eye patch to correct their vision
Against All Odds
Large print books
Magnifying devices
Test in Braille
Extra time to take test because it
takes longer to read Braille
Use of Braille
Books on tape
Talking computers
Speech recognition software
Computerized magnification
• Louis Braille, in France, introduced Braille because he
was blind. His system included reading and writing.
• Braille is made up of quadrangular cells consisting of
one to six dots.
• Braille is read by using both hands
• If Braille is used it is recorded in the IEP
• Not everyone uses Braille
• Braille can be expensive, heavy and hard to find
• Books can be made but it takes a while
• Braille has been replaced by many electronic
Feel the pages of the Braille Book I brought
“Go Dog, Go” By Dr. Seuss
Transition into Adulthood
• People who are blind or vision impaired are often
stigmatized by people who are not visually impaired
• Blind can lead independent lives
• Stress the need of teaching independent living skills and
transitioning skills
• Most blind are unemployed or overqualified for job that
they are working
• Job modifications include: “car pools, better lighting,
tinted office windows to filter light, prompt snow removal,
regularly scheduled fire drills to ensure spatial
orientation, hallways that are free of obstacles, computer
software and reading machines that convert print into
braille” (Hallahan, Kauffman & Pullman, 2009, pg. 415)
New Advances to help the
Anonymous. (2009). “Strabismus - Treatment Overview. “ WebMD. Retrieved from
Bedingus, Troy. (2009). “Snellen Eye Chart.” The New York Times Company. Retrieved from.
Blindness/Visual Impairment. (January 2004). National Dissemination Center for Children with Disabilities. Retrieved from
CBS. (Producer). (2007). Blind learn to see with tongue. Available from
Hallahan,D., Kauffman, J. and Pullen, P. (2009) Exceptional Learners: An Introduction to Special Education (11th ed.)Boston:
N5N. (Producer). (2006). Blind student uses innovative learning methods. Available from
Products for Independent Living. (2009). MaxiAids. Retrieved from
SunSentinel. (Producer). (2007). Blind elementary school teacher in Florida. Available from
Youtube. (Producer). (2007). What’s it like to be visually impaired? Available from
Assessment 1
• Watch a movie about the legally
blind teacher in FL.
• What accommodations or
modifications were made in order
for the legally blind woman to
teach? How do you think the
students and administration view
that teacher?
OR Assessment 2
• Look up the name Kirby Puckett
and how his vision affected his
career. Write a paragraph about
what vision problem he had and
how his career was affected and
any treatments or surgeries
that were or could have
been done.