Season Your Lectures with Active Learning Michael J. Quinn 1 June 2007 Complete this sentence: Three things I’d like to know about active learning are _________________. Structure of This Lecture Critiquing lecturing Defining active learning Implementing active learning Listening Teams Questioners Agreers Nay-sayers Example-givers I How come the more I talk the less my students learn? Advantages of Lecturing Spark interest Provide unavailable information Convey large amounts of information Reach large audiences Model ways of thinking Maintain control Protect students Help auditory learners Source: Sutherland and Bonwell Disadvantages of Lecturing Passive students Inadequate feedback Flagging attention Poor retention Burden on lecturer Non-auditory learners Source: Sutherland and Bonwell Students Tune Out Source: Pollio As lecture continues, retention of new material declines. Source: Johnson, Johnson, and Smith Retention of New Material 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% First 10 Minutes Last 10 Minutes Source: McKeachie Lectures Assume Homogeneity Listening Teams Questioners Agreers Nay-sayers Example-givers Source: Silberman II Active learning to the rescue! Fundamentals 1. 2. 3. 4. Learning is an active process. Different people learn in different ways. We often don’t know what we think until we try to say it or write it. Just because you’ve said it doesn’t mean they’ve learned it. Genuine Learning Test Reception Recap Explain Engage More Parts of Brain Talking and listening Reading Writing Reflecting “When learning is active, students do most of the work” [Silberman]. Counter the Objections “That’s not how I learned the material.” “Active learning is great for children, but college students don’t need it.” “It’s too slow paced— I’ll spend a lot of time watching instead of talking.” “I won’t be able to cover all the material.” III Fit active learning to your needs and personal style. Ask Students to... Restate information Give examples Recognize instances Make connections Apply concepts Predict consequences State converse In-class Writing Assignments Be specific — ask students to analyze contrast describe justify summarize – – – – – compare define evaluate prove synthesize Source: Fulwiler Learning Partners Compare class notes Discuss an example Solve a problem Critique each other’s writing Question partner about reading Recap lecture Develop questions for teacher Test each other More Examples Pop quiz (manual or electronic) Response cards (anonymous) Whips Games (Family Feud or Jeopardy) Complete outline of lecture Use in Moderation! Complete this sentence: Three different ways I can add active learning to my lectures are ________________. References 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Fulwiler, T. Teaching with Writing. Boynton/Cook. 1987. Holt, J. How Children Learn. Pitman. 1967. Johnson, D. W., Johnson, R. T., and Smith, K. A. Active Learning: Cooperation in the College Classroom. Interaction Book Company. 1991. McKeachie, W. Teaching Tips: A Guidebook for the Beginning College Teacher. D. C. Heath. 1986. Meyers, C., and Jones, T. B. Promoting Active Learning: Strategies for the College Classroom. Jossey-Bass. 1993. Pollio, H. R. “What Students Think About and Do in College Lecture Classes.” Teaching-Learning Issues No. 53. University of Tennessee. 1984. Silberman, M. Active Learning: 101 Strategies to Teach Any Subject. Allyn and Bacon. 1996. Sutherland, T. E., and Bonwell, C. C. Using Active Learning in College Classes: A Range of Options for Faculty. Jossey-Bass. 1996.