Do Now
How would you solve the issue of slavery in the
United States?
◦Think back to the conflict from Unit 2.
I. Slavery in American
A. Compromise of 1850
California applied to join the
Union as a free state
Started debate over whether we
should have slavery in new
◦ This territory was acquired from
Mexico in the Treaty of Guadalupe
◦ Northern for free states, Southern for
slaves states
A. Compromise of 1850
Henry Clay’s compromise
Four parts – the North got:
◦ California as a free state
◦ Ended the slave trade in Washington, DC
The South got:
◦ Fugitive Slave Act
◦ No more interference with the slave trade
B. Kansas-Nebraska Act
1854 - Championed by Stephen Douglas to territory
in present day Nebraska.
Established popular sovereignty:
◦ Allow each state to decide whether to have slavery or not.
◦ How?
◦ Reversed the Missouri Compromise.
Took blame off federal government – now the
people decide.
C. Bleeding Kansas
•Had popular sovereignty to decide
whether Kansas would be a slave or free
• Why could Kansas decide?
•Result: People from both sides of the
argument rushed in to settle in Kansas so
they could vote for their side.
•Fight broke out – about 200 people died
and lots of property destruction.
The violence even finds its
way onto the floor of the
United States Senate!
Senator Sumner of
Massachusetts gave a fierce
speech against slavery and
senators who supported the Butler’s nephew was a member of the
institution, including
House of Representatives at that
Senator Butler of South
time, and he walked onto the floor of
the Senate and beat Sumner to the
ground with a cane!
Sumner said that Butler
“had chosen a mistress to
The whole incident becomes known
whom he has made his vows
… the harlot, Slavery.”
Guided Practice
Make a graphic organizer that explains how the U.S. tried to solve the problem of slavery.
Main Ideas
II. Impact of Politics on
A. Fugitive Slave Act
•All police/law enforcement had
a duty to arrest a runaway slave
and would receive a bonus for
doing so.
•Those caught were not given a
jury trial or right to testify in
their own defense.
•Anyone suspected of helping
the runaway slave would be
fined and go to prison for 6
A. Fugitive Slave Act
Effect: many free
blacks were
arrested and put
into slavery.
B. Underground Railroad
Network of escape
routes for slaves
created by Harriet
◦Escape slave herself
◦Tubman made 19 trips
back to the South to
help slaves escape.
B. Underground Railroad
•Not literally a railroad –
had “conductors” who led
slaves on the path and
made stops at “safe
houses” along the way.
•These networks led to
cities in the North or
C. Dred Scott v. Sanford (1857)
•Dred Scott: a slave owned by a
Missouri slaveholder, was taken
to live in free territory, still
working as a slave.
•Said he should be free since he
was living in a free state, case
went to the Supreme Court.
C. Dred Scott v. Sanford (1857)
Two questions:
◦Are slaves citizens?
◦Can the federal government ban slavery in
territories, like the Missouri Compromise?
C. Scott v. Sanford (1857)
◦Slaves are not citizens.
◦Slaves are _________ and can be taken anywhere in the
U.S. legally.
◦The federal government cannot ban ___________
anywhere in the U.S.
◦Makes the _____________ invalid.
Independent Practice
Imagine you are Dred Scott’s attorney in the
Supreme Court and are outraged by this ruling.
Write your response to EACH of the three parts
of the Dred Scott ruling.
Your response should be at least 6 sentences.
Exit Ticket
1)According to the principle of popular sovereignty,
a. Congress would determine whether a territory would have slavery.
b. Territorial legislatures would determine whether a territory would
have slavery.
c. Settlers would determine whether a territory would have slavery.
d. The Supreme Court would determine whether a territory would
have slavery.
Exit Ticket
2) Which of the following was NOT part of the Supreme Court’s
decision in Dred Scott v. Sanford (1857)?
a. According to the Constitution, no slave or descendant of a save is
a citizen.
b. Just because Dred Scott had lived on free soil did not mean he was
not a slave.
c. The Missouri Compromise applied to Dred Scott because he was a
citizen of Missouri.
d. Dred Scott couldn’t bring a case to federal court.
Exit Ticket
3) How did political differences develop into
sectionalism and conflict? Use two examples for your