Do Now How would you solve the issue of slavery in the United States? ◦Think back to the conflict from Unit 2. I. Slavery in American Politics A. Compromise of 1850 California applied to join the Union as a free state Started debate over whether we should have slavery in new territory ◦ This territory was acquired from Mexico in the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo ◦ Northern for free states, Southern for slaves states A. Compromise of 1850 Henry Clay’s compromise Four parts – the North got: ◦ California as a free state ◦ Ended the slave trade in Washington, DC The South got: ◦ Fugitive Slave Act ◦ No more interference with the slave trade B. Kansas-Nebraska Act 1854 - Championed by Stephen Douglas to territory in present day Nebraska. Established popular sovereignty: ◦ Allow each state to decide whether to have slavery or not. ◦ How? ◦ Reversed the Missouri Compromise. Took blame off federal government – now the people decide. C. Bleeding Kansas •Had popular sovereignty to decide whether Kansas would be a slave or free state. • Why could Kansas decide? •Result: People from both sides of the argument rushed in to settle in Kansas so they could vote for their side. •Fight broke out – about 200 people died and lots of property destruction. The violence even finds its way onto the floor of the United States Senate! Senator Sumner of Massachusetts gave a fierce speech against slavery and senators who supported the Butler’s nephew was a member of the institution, including House of Representatives at that Senator Butler of South time, and he walked onto the floor of Carolina. the Senate and beat Sumner to the ground with a cane! Sumner said that Butler “had chosen a mistress to The whole incident becomes known whom he has made his vows as the SUMNER-BROOKS … the harlot, Slavery.” INCIDENT. Guided Practice Make a graphic organizer that explains how the U.S. tried to solve the problem of slavery. 1820 Main Ideas Results 1850 1854 II. Impact of Politics on Slaves A. Fugitive Slave Act •All police/law enforcement had a duty to arrest a runaway slave and would receive a bonus for doing so. •Those caught were not given a jury trial or right to testify in their own defense. •Anyone suspected of helping the runaway slave would be fined and go to prison for 6 months. A. Fugitive Slave Act Effect: many free blacks were arrested and put into slavery. B. Underground Railroad Network of escape routes for slaves created by Harriet Tubman ◦Escape slave herself ◦Tubman made 19 trips back to the South to help slaves escape. B. Underground Railroad •Not literally a railroad – had “conductors” who led slaves on the path and made stops at “safe houses” along the way. •These networks led to cities in the North or Canada. C. Dred Scott v. Sanford (1857) •Dred Scott: a slave owned by a Missouri slaveholder, was taken to live in free territory, still working as a slave. •Said he should be free since he was living in a free state, case went to the Supreme Court. C. Dred Scott v. Sanford (1857) Two questions: ◦Are slaves citizens? ◦Can the federal government ban slavery in territories, like the Missouri Compromise? C. Scott v. Sanford (1857) Ruling: ◦Slaves are not citizens. ◦Slaves are _________ and can be taken anywhere in the U.S. legally. ◦The federal government cannot ban ___________ anywhere in the U.S. ◦Makes the _____________ invalid. Independent Practice Imagine you are Dred Scott’s attorney in the Supreme Court and are outraged by this ruling. Write your response to EACH of the three parts of the Dred Scott ruling. Your response should be at least 6 sentences. Exit Ticket 1)According to the principle of popular sovereignty, a. Congress would determine whether a territory would have slavery. b. Territorial legislatures would determine whether a territory would have slavery. c. Settlers would determine whether a territory would have slavery. d. The Supreme Court would determine whether a territory would have slavery. Exit Ticket 2) Which of the following was NOT part of the Supreme Court’s decision in Dred Scott v. Sanford (1857)? a. According to the Constitution, no slave or descendant of a save is a citizen. b. Just because Dred Scott had lived on free soil did not mean he was not a slave. c. The Missouri Compromise applied to Dred Scott because he was a citizen of Missouri. d. Dred Scott couldn’t bring a case to federal court. Exit Ticket 3) How did political differences develop into sectionalism and conflict? Use two examples for your answer.