The Self in Interpersonal Communication - Word

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CH 3: Perception of Self and Others in Interpersonal Communication (slide 1)
Copyright © 2013, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
Chapter 3: Perceptions of Self
and Others in Interpersonal
Communication
1) How we perceive ourselves
2) How we present ourselves (or try to present
ourselves)
3) How we actually are
CH 3: Perception of Self and Others in Interpersonal Communication (slide 2)
Copyright © 2013, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
The Self in Interpersonal
Communication
Self concept – how you perceive yourself comes
from four sources
1. Others’ images of you (looking glass self)
2. Social comparisons
Upward
Downward
3. Cultural teachings
4. Self evaluation
CH 3: Perception of Self and Others in Interpersonal Communication (slide 3)
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The Self in Interpersonal
Communication
Self awareness – how well you know yourself
The Johari Model emphasizes four aspects of self
awareness
1.
2.
3.
4.
Open – known to self and others
Blind – known to others but not self
Hidden – known to self but not others
Unknown – no one knows
CH 3: Perception of Self and Others in Interpersonal Communication (slide 4)
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The Self in Interpersonal
Communication (cont.)
Unknown Known to
to others
others
The Johari Model
Known to self
Unknown to self
Open Self
Blind Self
Hidden Self
Unknown Self
CH 3: Perception of Self and Others in Interpersonal Communication (slide 5)
Copyright © 2013, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
The Self in Interpersonal
Communication (cont.)
Growing in self awareness
 Ask yourself about yourself
 Listen to others
 Actively seek information about yourself
 See your different selves
 Increase your open self
CH 3: Perception of Self and Others in Interpersonal Communication (slide 6)
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The Self in Interpersonal
Communication (cont.)
Self Esteem – how valuable you think you are.
Ways to increase self esteem
1. Attack self destructive beliefs
2. Seek out nourishing people
3. Work on projects that will result in success
4. Secure affirmation
CH 3: Perception of Self and Others in Interpersonal Communication (slide 7)
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The Self in Interpersonal
Communication (cont.)
 Perception is the process by which we
become aware of objects, events, and people
around us
 Interpersonal perception is a continuous
series of processes that blend into each other
 We separate processes into five stages for
study and analysis
CH 3: Perception of Self and Others in Interpersonal Communication (slide 8)
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Perception in Interpersonal
Communication
Five stages of perception
Stage One: Stimulation
 Selective perception
 Selective attention (Only attend to what we like)
 Selective exposure (Expose ourselves only to what confirms our
existing beliefs)
CH 3: Perception of Self and Others in Interpersonal Communication (slide 9)
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Perception in Interpersonal
Communication (cont.)
Stage Two: Organization (of received info)
1. Rules
 Proximity (physically close things perceived as a unit)
 Similarity (similar things = a unit)
 Contrast (different things = don’t belong with each other.
2. Schemata (schema) (mental templates /stereotypes/ developed via
experience)
3. Scripts (general idea of how some event should unfold; i.e. eating in a
restaurant)
CH 3: Perception of Self and Others in Interpersonal Communication (slide 10)
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Perception in Interpersonal
Communication (cont.)
Stage Three: Interpretation and Evaluation
 Combined because they are simultaneous
Stage Four: Memory (storing interp. to memory– What would you
remember about Ben, the football player?)
Stage Five: Recall (likely to recall info consistent with your schema OR
contradicts your schema)
CH 3: Perception of Self and Others in Interpersonal Communication (slide 11)
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Perception in Interpersonal
Communication (cont.)
Impression formation processes
1.Self-fulfilling prophecy
2.Implicit personality theory

“Halo effect” (if you believe a person has some positive qualities, you’re
likely to infer he also has other positive qualities)


Ex. “Susan is cheerful, positive, and (outgoing, shy).
“Reverse halo effect” or “horns effect” (opposite of halo)
3.Perceptual accentuation (magnify what will satisfy your needs: a
thirsty person will see a mirage of water)
CH 3: Perception of Self and Others in Interpersonal Communication (slide 12)
Copyright © 2013, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
Impression Formation
4. Primacy-recency effect
4.
5.
Primacy: What comes first exerts most influence (i.e. first impressions)
Recency :What comes last exerts most influence.
“Ben is smart, attractive, a good conversationalist, insecure, and
selfish.
“Ben is selfish, insecure, smart, attractive, and a good
conversationalist.”
CH 3: Perception of Self and Others in Interpersonal Communication (slide 13)
Copyright © 2013, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
Impression Formation (cont.)
4. Consistency (expect certain things to go together)
4.
“I expect my friend to (like, dislike) my friend.”
6. Attribution of control
6.
7.
8.
“I couldn’t tear myself away from the beach. I wanted to get a
tan.” (Selfish, therefore negative response)
“I was driving here when I saw an old man get mugged. I
broke it up and drove the couple home, but they didn’t have a
phone, so I couldn’t call.” (Good Samaritan, therefore positive
response)
“I got in a car accident and was taken to the hospital.” (Feel
sorry that he got into an accident)
CH 3: Perception of Self and Others in Interpersonal Communication (slide 14)
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Impression Formation (cont.)
 Impression management – how to
communicate to others the image of yourself
you want them to see
 Self-presentation
 Identity-management
CH 3: Perception of Self and Others in Interpersonal Communication (slide 15)
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Impression Management:
Goals and Strategies
Impression management strategies
1.To be liked
 Immediacy strategies– connects you to the
other person
 Affinity seeking strategies – techniques to get
others to like you
 Politeness strategies– make ourselves appear
likeable (“Would you mind opening a window.” vs. “Open that window!”
CH 3: Perception of Self and Others in Interpersonal Communication (slide 16)
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Impression Management (cont.)
Politeness and Face
Positive face – desire to be seen favorably or
positively by others
 Keep positive face – help someone look favorably
 Attack positive face – make someone look bad
CH 3: Perception of Self and Others in Interpersonal Communication (slide 17)
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Impression Management (cont.)
Politeness and Face
Negative face – desire to be autonomous or free to
act as we wish
 Keep negative face – ask someone nicely to do
something
 Attack negative face – order or command someone to
do something
CH 3: Perception of Self and Others in Interpersonal Communication (slide 18)
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Impression Management (cont.)
2. To be believed
 Credibility strategies (ex. emphasizing your education)
3. To excuse failure
 Self-handicapping strategies
4. To secure help
 Self-deprecating strategies
CH 3: Perception of Self and Others in Interpersonal Communication (slide 19)
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Impression Management (cont.)
5. To hide faults
 Self-monitoring strategies (closely censor what you share with
others)
6. To be followed
 Influencing strategies (stress your knowledge, expertise, or
position)
7. To confirm self image
 Image-confirming strategies (behaviors that confirm your selfimage i.e. as a funny person)
CH 3: Perception of Self and Others in Interpersonal Communication (slide 20)
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Impression Management (cont.)
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