Introduction to Animals Chapter 26 General Features of Animals • Animals are multicellular, heterotrophic organisms with cells that lack cell walls. • Multicellular (made of more than one cell) • Heterotrophs- organism that obtains food by eating other organisms. – Filter feeders = catch particles of food that drift by in the water. Movement • Animals are unique among living things because animals can move rapidly and in complex ways. • Swim, walk, run, and fly. • Locomotion is a big advantage for animals: – Finding food – Avoiding predators Kinds of Animals • Kingdom Animalia contains about 35 major divisions called phyla. • Animals are often informally grouped as invertebrates or vertebrates, although vertebrates make up only a subgroup of one phylum (Chordata). • The vast majority of animals are invertebrates. Invertebrates • Include any animal that does not have a backbone. • Most primitive = sponges • Advanced = ants, octopuses. • Can form the basis of an entire ecosystem. Vertebrates • Chordates that have a backbone. • Many of the animals you see in a zoo: – Lions, elephants, turtles, snakes, and birds. • Have a cranium and an internal skeleton • Backbone supports and protects a dorsal nerve cord. • Also provides a site for muscle attachment. Assignment • Pg. 626, 1-4 • Read section 2 • Pg. 630, 1-6 Animal Body Systems • Allows animals to function • Not all animals have every body system • Body systems reflect/shape the lifestyles that animals have Support • An animals skeleton provides a framework that supports the animal’s body. • The skeleton is also vital to an animals movement. • Hydrostatic skeleton – a cavity that is filled with water and that has a support function • Endoskeleton – an internal skeleton made of bone and cartilage • Exoskeleton – a hard, external, supporting structure that develops from the ectoderm Digestive and Excretory Systems • The digestive system is responsible for extracting energy and nutrients from an animal’s food. • The excretory system removes waste products from the animal’s body. Digestive System • Gastrovascular cavity – a digestive cavity that serves both digestive and circulatory purposes in some animals. • Single-celled organisms do not have a digestive system. • Other animals have a digestive tract with two openings. Excretory System • Waste products such as ammonia will hurt or kill an organism if they are not removed. • Terrestrial animals need to minimize water loss. • Simple aquatic invertebrates and some fishes excrete ammonia through their skin or gills. Nervous System • The nervous system carries information about the environment through the body and coordinates responses and behaviors. 1. Simple Nervous System 2. Complex Nervous System Respiratory and Circulatory Systems • The respiratory system is responsible for exchanging oxygen and carbon dioxide between the body and the environment. • The circulatory system transports gases, nutrients and other substances within the body. Reproduction • The two types of reproduction in animals is asexual and sexual. – Asexual occurs when an individual produces exact copies of itself and does not mix its genes with those of others. – Sexual occurs with a new individual is formed by the union of a male and female gamete.