Watson's Theory of Caring: Metaparadigm

Jean Watson’s Theory of
Caring: Metaparadigm
By: Sheldon Hubert
Jean Watson
Caring is a moral ideal
that can be demonstrated
through carative factors
(nursing interventions)
that allow for contact
between the subjective
world of the experiencing
persons (Watson/1985).
• Is subjective and unique, not objective,
predictable and calculating.
• Has distinct human needs, which are
biophysical, psychophysical, psychosocial
and interpersonal.
• Is to be valued, cared for, respected,
nurtured, understood and assisted.
• Is a functioning whole, there is no division
among the mind, body and spirit
• Is directly influenced by their external
• Is crucial to the holistic healing (mental, physical,
social, emotional, spiritual, developmental,
protective, supportive environments), which is
conducive to a patients health and wellbeing.
• Affects both patients and nurses within a caringhealing model. (Bernick, 2004).
• Is usually designed as a home-like environment
but these “systems still fall short as healing
spaces” (Watson/1999).
• Contains “noise, privacy, light, access to nature,
color, space and smells that can have an impact
on the caring-healing process” (Watson/1999).
• Is viewed holistically, as the unity
between the physical, social, mental and
spiritual self, with all parts working
together in harmony and functioning to
their full capacity.
• Is a perceived by the patient and is
influenced by their own unique life
experiences (Bernick/2004).
• Entirely includes a individuals physical,
social, aesthetic and moral realms, not
just their behaviour and physiology
• Is a caring, meaningful and
harmonic connective bond that is
shared between the nurse and the
patient (George/2002).
• Is providing caring, professional
and thoughtful interactions to
restore and promote holistic health
and to prevent illness.
• Is a holistic practice that is
complementary to medicine.
Watsonian Praxis: Application of
her Theory to My Own Practice
“I reflect on what is meaningful for them and how
their experiences are influencing their quality of
life and peace of mind, body and soul” (Bernick/2004).
Presentation References
• George, J. (2002). Nursing Theories: The Base for Professional Nursing
Practice, 5th Edition, Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall
• Bernick, L. (2004). Caring for Older Adults: Practice Guided by
Watson’s Caring-Healing Model. Nursing Science Quarterly, 17(2) 128134
• Watson, J. (1985). Nursing: The Philosophy and Science of Caring.
Colorado: Associated University Press.
• Watson, J. (1999). Postmodernism and Knowledge Development in
Nursing. Perspectives on Philosophy of Science in Nursing: An
Historical and Contemporary Anthology, Lippincott, 471-6
Picture References
Holding Heart Picture: www.ps21.gov.sg/.../2007_12/images/caring.jpg
Caring Dad Picture: www.coloradoan.com/graphics/blogs/caring_dads.jpg
Nursing Art Picture: www.adventurequilter.com/.../Caring-web.jpg
Jean Watson Picture: www.sttialphakappa.org/Watson_Jean.jpg
Patient Picture: www.spacelabs.com/patient-monitoringconnectivity/images/patient-monitoring-connectivity.jpg
Environment Picture: http://nymag.com/health/besthospitals/24095
Health Picture:
Nursing Picture: www.centegra.org/.../Nurse_and_Patient.jpg