Endocrine System Chapter 10 Classification of hormones Water Soluble Lipid based “steroid” Protein based • Insulin TSH • Cortisol • Glucagon Thyroxine • Aldosterone • Epinephrine ACTH • Growth hormone Epinephrine • Androgens • Estrogen • Progesterone • Testosterone • Prolactin • FSH • LH • Calcitonin Oxytocin MSH ADH PTH Target Tissues • Melatonin: brain • Prolactin: breast • TSH: thyroid • ACTH: adrenal glands • FSH and LH: gonads • Antidiuretic Hormone: • Melanocyte Stimulating Hormone: melanocytes • Growth Hormone: bone, muscle, organs kidneys • Oxytocin: breast, uterus • Thyroxine: bone, neurons, most tissues • Calcitonin: bone, kidney Target Tissues • PTH: bone, kidney • Thymosin: thymus • Epinephrine: liver, heart, • Cortisol:liver, muscle, adipose, MOST tissues skeletal muscle, adipose • Aldosterone: kidney tissue • Glucagon: Liver, muscle • Norepinephrine: skeletal muscle, adipose tissue, liver, blood vessels • Insulin: Liver, muscle, satiety center of hypothalamus How do protein based hormones and lipid based hormones differ in how they affect cells? • Lipid based will be the primary messenger, going directly into the cell • Protein based must use a second messenger after docking to a receptor on the outside of the cell membrane What are three ways endocrine glands can be stimulated? • Changes in the blood (humoral ) • By other hormones • By neuronal pathways (the sympathetic nervous system will stimulate the adrenal medulla to release epinephrine) Which of the following is involved in normal development of the immune response: A. Adrenal medulla B. Thyroid C. Pancreas D. thymus Which of the following is NOT a tropic hormone of the anterior pituitary gland? A. Adrena Cortiocotropin Hormone B. Thyroid Stimulating Hormone C. Growth hormone D. Luteinizing H0rmone E. Follicle Stimulating Hormone Which of the following does growth hormone NOT promote? A. Promotes bone growth B. Promotes muscle growth C. Promotes production of sperm D. Promotes growth of organs What is Negative Feedback? A. Cause a great fluctuation in hormone concentration within the blood B. Inhibit hormone release once a set point for that hormone has been reached C. Create imbalances in homeostasis and potential disease D. Signal the endocrine organs to shut down completely A hormone is a chemical that A. Is produced by living cells B. Regulate metabolic activities C. Is distributed via the blood or other body fluids (like lymph) D. All of the above Most hormones are classified as: A. Nucleic acids or amino-acids B. Amino acids or carbohydrates C. Steroids or amino-acids D. Carbohydrates or nucleic acids Which element is important for building thyroxine? A. Iron B. Iodine C. Calcium D. Potassium E. Sodium Which element is regulated by Parathyroid hormone? A. Iron B. Iodine C. Calcium D. Potassium E. Sodium Which of the following is able to bind only to receptors on the outside of cell membranes? A. Steroid hormones B. Water soluble hormones C. Carbohydrates D. Iodine hormones The anterior pituitary secretes all of the following EXCEPT: A. Antidiuretic hormone B. Growth hormone C. Gonadotropins D. Thyroid stimulating hormone Which is NOT a tropic hormone? A. Thyroid stimulating hormone B. Follicle stimulating hormone C. Releasing hormones from the hypothalamus D. Prolactin Which hormone is NOT involved with sugar metabolism? A. Glucagon B. Cortisol C. Aldosterone D. Insulin Which hormone acts to increase blood volume?? A. Insulin B. Melatonin C. Epinephrine D. Antidiuretic hormone When too little thyroxine is produced from childhood, which disease develops? A. Graves disease B. Diabetes mellitus C. Congenital Hypothyroidism D. Osteoporosis When too little thyroxine is produced from childhood, which disease develops? A. Graves disease B. Diabetes mellitus C. Congenital Hypothyroidism D. Osteoporosis Gonadotropins: A. Are produced by the gonads B. Are hormones that act on the gonads C. Are produced in only one gender The ability of a tissue to respond to a specific hormone depends on: A. The location of the tissue with respect to the gland producing the hormone B. The presence of appropriate receptors on the cells of the tissue C. Nothing – all hormones of the body can affect all tissues When “fight or flight” becomes necessary, which hormone is released? A. Estrogen B. Epinephrine C. Thyroxine D. Antidiuretic hormone The major target for growth hormones include: A. Blood vessels B. Adrenal glands C. Liver D. Bones and skeletal muscles E. Kidneys The major target tissues for insulin: A. Blood vessels B. Adrenal glands C. Liver D. Bones and skeletal muscles E. Kidneys The pathway to release cortisol is : A. Anterior pituitary – hypothalamus – adrenal gland B. Anterior pituitary – adrenal gland – hypothalamus C. Adrenal gland – anterior pituitary - hypothalamus D. Hypothalamus – adrenal gland – anterior pituitary E. Hypothalamus – anterior pituitary- adrenal gland Follicle stimulating hormone is NOT: A. A gonadotropin B. Produced by females C. Produced by males D. A tropic hormone E. A steroid hormone Which gland? A Which gland? A Which gland is #1? Which gland is #7? Which gland is #4?