Roots-Using Word Parts09

Name: ______________________ Class: ______________
Using Word Parts
Many English words are a combination of word parts (prefixes, suffixes and
roots). If you know the meanings of the parts, you can figure out the meanings of the
words that contain these parts.
Rejuvenate combines
• the prefix re (meaning again)
• the root juven (meaning young)
• the suffix ate (meaning to make)
 To rejuvenate is “to make young again.”
Orthodontist combines
• the root ortho (meaning straight)
• the root dont (meaning tooth, teeth)
• the suffix ist (meaning a person who)
 An orthodontist is “a person who straightens teeth.”
FYI: English words that are not a combination of word parts are called base words. A
base word cannot be divided into parts. (“Base” and “word” are both base words).
However, base words can be combined with other base words, prefixes and suffixes.
Base word + Base word= background, handshake, football
Base word + Prefix = underground, forehand, premeditated
Base word + Suffix = groundless, handful, quickly
A root is a base upon which other words are built. Knowing the root of a difficult
word can go a long way toward helping you figure out its meaning – even without a
dictionary. For that reason, learning the following roots will be very valuable in all of your
classes. Begin your study by highlighting the definitions of the roots. Remember to study!
Directions: Beginning on Friday, September 11th, you will have a word parts
quiz every Friday. Study the word parts in sets of ten. Your quizzes will consist
of defining the word part and giving two example words.
Study tips:
 Don’t wait until the last minute to study! Make flashcards!
 Quiz yourself. Write the word parts, definitions and examples five times
 NOTE: YOU must make sure you have TWO example words (even if only
ONE is listed on the list below!! – Make sure to find one on your own!)
 Repetition is the best way to memorize!
Name: ______________________ Class: ______________
Roots Words Quiz #1
1. A, an: not, without – atom (not able to cut), atypical (, anesthesia (without sensation)
2. Ab, abs, a: from, away – abnormal, absent
3. Acro: high – acrobat, acrophobia (fear of height)
4. Ambi, amb: both, around – ambidextrous (skilled with both hands), amble
5. Amphi: both – amphibious
6. Ante: before – antecedent, anteroom
7. Anti, ant: against – anticlimax, antacid, antidote
8. Be: on, away – beloved, bequest, bestow
9. Bene, bon: well – benefit, bon voyage, benediction, bonus
10. Bi, bis, bin: both, double – bicycle, biscuit, binoculars
Roots Words Quiz #2
1. By: Side, close, near – bypass, bystander, byline
2. Cata: down, against – catapult, catastrophe
3. Cerebro: brain – cerebral, cerebrum
4. Circum, circ: around – circumference, circumnavigate
5. Co, con, col, com: together, with – compose, collect, conspire, copilot
6. Contra, counter: against – controversy, contradict
7. De: Down, from – demote, depress, degrade, deject, deprive
8. Deca: ten – decade
9. Di: two, twice – divide, dilemma
10. Dia: through, between – diameter, diagonal, dialogue
Roots Words Quiz #3
1. Dis, diff: apart, away, reverse – dismiss, distort, distinguish
2. Dys: badly, ill – dystrophy, dystopia
3. Em, en: in, into – embrace, enslave
4. Epi: upon – epidermis (upon the skin, outer layer of the skin), epitaph
5. Eu: well – euphoria, eulogize
6. Ex, e, ec, ef: out – expel, eject, eccentric (out of the center position)
7. Extra, extro: beyond, outside – extraordinary, extrovert
8. For: away or off – forswear (to renounce an oath)
9. Fore: before in time – forecast, foretell, foreshadow
10. Hemi, demi, semi: half – hemisphere, semicircle
Name: ______________________ Class: ______________
Roots Words Quiz #4
1. Hex: six – hexagon, hexameter
2. Homo: man – homicide, homo sapiens
3. Hyper: over, above – hypersensitive, hyperactive
4. Hypo: under – hypodermic
5. Il, ir, im: not – illegal, irregular, immoral
6. In, il, im: into – inject, inside, illuminate
7. Infra: beneath – infrared, infrasonic
8. Inter: between – interrupt, intervene
9. Intra: within – intravenous
10. Intro: into, inward – introduce, introvert (turn inward)
Roots Words Quiz #5
1. Macro: large, excessive – macrocosm
2. Mal: badly, poorly – maladjusted, malnutrition, malady
3. Meta: beyond, after, with – metaphor, metaphysical, metamorphosis
4. Mis: incorrect, bad – misuse, misprint
5. Miso: hate – misogynist, misanthrope
6. Mono: one – monologue, monotone
7. Multi: many – multiply, multiform
8. Neo: new – neonatal, neoclassic
9. Non: Not – nontaxable, nontoxic, nonsense
10. Ob, of, op, oc: toward, against – obstruct, offend
Roots Words Quiz #6
1. Oct: eight – octagon, octopus
2. Paleo: ancient – paleontology
3. Para: beside, almost – parasite, parallel, paramedic
4. Penta: five – pentagon, pentathlon
5. Per: throughout, completely – permanent, persuade, perfect
6. Peri: around – perimeter, periscope
7. Poly: many – polygamy, polyglot
8. Post: after – postpone, postwar, postscript (PS)
9. Pre: before – preview, precede, prevent
10. Pro: forward, in favor of – project, promote, prohibition
Name: ______________________ Class: ______________
Roots Words Quiz #7
1. Pseudo (pronounced sue-doe): false – pseudonym, pseudophobia
2. Quad: four – quadruple, quadrant
3. Quint: five – Quintet, quintile
4. Re: back, again – rewind, revive
5. Retro: backward – retrospective, retrorocket
6. Se: aside – secede, segregate
7. Self: by oneself – selfish, self-serve
8. Sex, sest: six – sextuplet, sestet
9. Sub: under – submarine, submerge
10. Suf, sug, sup, sus: from under – sufficient, suffer, suggest, suspend, support
Roots Words Quiz #8
1. Super, supr: above, over, more – supervise, superman, superwoman, supreme
2. Sy, sym, sys, syl: with, together – system, synchronize, symphony
3. Trans, tra: across, beyond – transfusion, transmit
4. Tri: three – tricycle, trimester
5. Ultra: beyond, exceedingly – ultraviolent, ultramodern
6. Un: not, release – unfair, unbutton
7. Under: beneath – underground, underlying
8. Uni: one – universe, unify, unique
9. Vice: in place of – viceroy, vice president
10. Sanct: holy – sanctify, sanctuary
Roots Words Quiz #9
1. acer, acid, acri: bitter, sour, sharp – acrid acidity, acerbic, acrimony
2. acu: sharp – acute, acupuncture
3. ag,, agi, ig, act: do, move, go – agent (doer), agenda (things to do), navigate (move
by sea), ambiguous (going both ways), action
4. ali, allo, alter: other – alias, alien, alter
5. alt: high, deep – altitude, altimeter (a device for measuring heights)
6. am, amor: love, liking – amiable, amorous, enamored
7. anni, annu, enni: year – anniversary, annually, centennial
8. anthrop: man – anthropology, philanthropy (love of mankind), misanthrope (hater
of mankind)
9. anti: old – antique, antiquated, antiquity
10. arch: chief, first, rule – archangel, architect (chief worker), archaic (first, very
early), matriarchy (rule by the mother)
Name: ______________________ Class: ______________
Roots Words Quiz #10
aster, astr: star – astronomy (star law), astronaut (star traveler), asteroid
aud, aus: hear, listen – audible, audio, audition
aug, auc: increase – augmentation, augment (add to, increase), auction
auto, aut: self – autograph (self writing), automobile (self moving vehicle),
author, automatic
5. belli: war – bellicose, rebel, belligerent
6. bibl: book – Bible, bibliophile (book lover), bibliography
7. bio: life – biology (study of life), biopsy
8. brev: short – abbreviation, brevity, brief
9. cad, cas: to fall – cadaver, cadence, cascade
10. calor: heat – calorie (unit of heat), calorify (to make hot)
Roots Words Quiz #11
capit, capt: head – decapitate, captain, caption
cap, cip, cept: take – capable, capacity, capture, reciprocate, accept, except
carn: flesh – carnal, carnivorous, reincarnation
caus, caut: burn, heat – caustic, cauterize (to make hot, to burn)
cause, cuse, cus: cause, motive – because, excuse (to attempt to remove blame
or cause), accusation
6. ced, ceed, cede, cess: move, yield, go, surrender – procedure, secede (move
aside), success
7. centri: center – concentric, eccentric
8. chrom: color – chromosome (color body in genetics), monochrome (one color),
9. chron: time – chronology, chronicle, synchronize
10. cide, cise: cut down, kill – suicide, homicide, pesticide, incision, scissors,
Roots Words Quiz #12
cit: to call, start – incite, citation, cite
civ: citizen – civic (relating to a citizen), civil, civilian
clam, claim: cry out – exclamation, clamor, proclamation, acclaim
clud, clus, claus: shut – include (to take in), claustrophobia (abnormal fear of
being shut in), recluse (one who shuts herself away from others)
5. cognosc, gnosi: know – recognize (to know again), incognito (not known),
prognosis (forward knowing)
6. cord, cor, cardi: heart – cordial (hearty, heartfelt), discord, courage, encourage
(put heart into), core, cardiac
7. corp: body – corpse, corpulent, corporation (a legal body)
8. cosm: universe, world – cosmic, cosmos (the universe), cosmopolitan (world
9. crat, cracy: rule, strength – democratic, democracy, autocratic, bureaucrat
10. crea: create – creature (anything created), creation, creator
Name: ______________________ Class: ______________
Roots Words Quiz #13
1. Cred: believe – creed (statement of beliefs), credence, credit (belief, trust)
2. Cresc, cret, crease, cru: rise, grow – crescendo (growing in loudness or intensity),
concrete (grown together, solidified), increase, decrease
3. Crit: separate, choose – critical, hypocrite
4. Cur, Curs: run – current (running or flowing), concur (run together), recur, cursive
5. Cura: care – curator, curative, manicure (caring for the hands)
6. Cycl, Cyclo: wheel, circular – bicycle, unicycle, cyclone (a wind blowing circularly),
7. Deca: ten – decathlon, decade
8. Dem: people – democracy (people-rule), demography, epidemic (on or among the
9. Dent, Dont: tooth – dentist, orthodontist, denture
10. Derm: skin – hypodermic (injected under the skin), dermatology (skin study),
Roots Words Quiz #14
Dict: say, speak – dictate, diction (how one speaks), verdict, benediction
Doc: teach – document, doctrine, indoctrinate
Domin: master – dominate, domain, predominate
Don: give – donate, condone
Dorm: sleep – dormant, dormitory, dormir (Spanish: to sleep)
Dox: opinion, praise: orthodox (having the correct, commonly accepted opinion),
paradox (contradictory)
7. Drome: run, step – syndrome (run-together symptoms), hippodrome (a place where
horses run)
8. Duc, Duct: lead – induce (lead into, persuade), seduce (lead aside), conduct, reduce
9. Dura: hard, lasting – durable, duration, endurance
10. Dynam: power – dynamo (power producing), dynamic, dynamite
Roots Words Quiz #15
Endo: within – endoral (within the mouth), endocardial (within the heart)
Equi: equal – equidistant, equinox, equilibrium
Erg: work – energy, erg (unit of work), allergy, ergophobia (fear of work), ergonomic
Fac, Fact, Fic, Fect: do, make – factory (place where workers make goods of various
kinds), fact (a thing done), manufacture, confection
5. Fall, fals: deceive – false, falsify, fallacy
6. Fer: bear, carry – ferry (carry by water), fertile (bearing richly), defer, infer, refer
7. Fid, Fide, Feder: faith, trust – confidante, Fido, Semper Fi (always faithful - Marines’
creed), fidelity, confederacy
8. Fila, Fili: thread – filament ( a single thread or threadlike object), filigree, filibuster
9. Fin: end, ended, finished – final, finite, finish, confine, fine, define, finale
10. Fix: attach – fix, fixation (the state of being attached), suffix
Name: ______________________ Class: ______________
Roots Words Quiz #16
Flex, Flect: bend – flex, reflex (bending back), flexible, deflect
Flu, Fluc, Fluv: flowing – influence (to flow in), fluid, flush, fluently
Form: form, shape – conform, deform, conform, perform
Fort, Forc: strong – fort, fortress ( a strong place), fortify, forte (one’s strong point),
5. Fract, Frag: break – fracture, fragile (easy to break), fraction, refract
6. Gam: Marriage – bigamy, monogamy, polygamy
7. Gastr(o): stomach – gastric, gastronomic
8. Gen: birth, race – generation, genesis (birth, beginning), genetic, generate
9. Geo: earth – geology, geography (earth writing), geometry (earth measurement)
10. Germ: vital part – germination (to grow), germ (seed; living substance, as the germ of
an idea), germane
Roots Words Quiz #17
Gest: carry, bear – gestation, congestive (clog, clogging), congest (bear together)
Gloss, Glot: tongue – glossary, polyglot (many tongues, i.e. languages)
Glu, Glo: lump, bond, glue – glue, conglomerate (bond together)
Grad, Gress: step, go – grade (step, degree), gradual, graduate (make all the steps),
5. Graph, Gram: write, written – graphic (written, vivid), photography (light writing).
diagram, bibliography
6. Grat: pleasing – gratitude, congratulate, ingrate (not thankful)
7. Grav: heavy, weighty – grave, gravity, aggravate
8. Greg: herd, group, crowd – segregate (tending to group aside or apart), gregarious,
9. Helio: sun – heliotrope (a plant that turns to the sun), heliograph (an instrument for
using the sun’s rays to send signals)
10. Hema, Hemo: blood – hemorrhage (an outpouring or flowing of blood), hemophilia,
Roots Words Quiz #18
1. Here, Hes: stick – adhere, cohere, cohesion
2. Hetero: different – heterosexual (with interest in the opposite sex), heterogeneous
(different in birth)
3. Hydr, Hydra, Hydro: water – dehydrate, hydrant, hydrogen, hydrophobia
4. Hypn: sleep – hypnosis, Hypnos (god of sleep)
5. Ignis: fire – ignite, ignition
6. Ject: throw – deject, inject, project (throw forward), object
7. Join, Junct: join – injunction, adjoining, juncture
8. Juven: youth – juvenile, rejuvenate
9. Lau, lav, Lot, Lut: wash – launder, lotion, dilute (to make a liquid thinner and weaker),
absolution, lavatory
10. Leg: law – legal, legislature, legitimize
Name: ______________________ Class: ______________
Roots Words Quiz #19
1. Levi: light – levity (light conversation, humor), levitate
2. Liber, Liver: Free– liberty, liberal, deliverance
3. Liter: letters– literary (concerned with books and writing), literature, literal,
4. Loc, Loco: place – location, local, relocate, locomotion (act of moving from place to
5. Log, Logo, Ogue, Ology: word, study, speech – catalog, prologue, dialogue
6. Loqu, Locut: talk, speak – eloquent (speaking well), loquacious (talkative), soliloquy
7. Luc, Lum, Lus, Lun: light– luminary, translucent, luster, Luna (the moon goddess)
8. Magn: great – magnify (make great, enlarge), magnificent, magnitude
9. Mand: command – reprimand, mandate, mandatory (commanded)
10. Mania: madness – mania (insanity, craze), maniac, pyromania (insane tendency to set
Roots Words Quiz #20
1. Mar, mari, mer: sea, pool – mermaid, marine, marsh, maritime
2. Matri: mother – matricide, matriarch, matrimony, matron
3. Medi: half, middle, between, halfway – mediate, medieval, Mediterranean (lying
between islands)
4. Mega: great, million – megalopolis, megaphone
5. Mem: remember – memory, memo, memorial
6. Meter: measure – meter, thermometer
7. Micro: small – microwave, micron, microbe (small living thing)
8. Migra: wander – migrate, emigrant (one who leaves a country), immigrant (to come
into the land)
9. Mit, miss: send – missile, admit, commit, permit, transmit, omit, mission,
10. Mob, mot, mov: move – mobile, motionless, promotion, demote, movement
Roots Words Quiz #21
1. Mon: warn, remind – monument, premonition, admonish, monitor
2. Mor, Mort: mortal, death – mortal, mortality, mortuary, morgue
3. Morph: form – metamorphosis, amorphous (with no form, shapeless)
4. Multi: many, much – multiply, multiple, multiped (an organism with many feet)
5. Nat, nasc: to be born, to spring forth – natal, native, nativity, innate (inborn)
6. Neur: nerve – neurology, neural, neurotic,
7. Nom: law, order – autonomy, astronomy, economy
8. Nomen, nomin: name – nominate, nonmenclature
9. Nov: new – novel, renovate, novice, nova, innovate, novice
10. Nox, Noc: night – nocturnal, equinox