The Leadership Practices of Executive women in local government

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Dr. Janisse L. Green
University of Phoenix
June 9, 2015
Michigan American Council on Education (MI-ACE)
Women’s Network annual conference
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1. FACTS
2. PROBLEM
3. PURPOSE
4. TERMS TO
UNDERSTAND
5. FIVE VARIABLES
6. LEADERSHIP
PRACTICES (LP)
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8. METHODOLOGY
9. DEMOGRAPHICS
RESULTS
10. LP RESULTS
11. SIGNIFICANT
RESULTS
12. CONCLUSION
FACTS
The four industries with the
largest percentage of total
employed women in 2013 were:
Department of Labor, Data & Statistics,
Women in the Labor Force
3
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Women represent 46.8% of U.S. labor force (U.S.
Department of Labor, 2014)
Employment of women has had a continuous
growth over the last 10 years (U.S. Department of
Labor, 2014)
Executive management positions are low in
comparison to men (U.S. Department of Labor,
2014)
The number of women in the city of Detroit,
Michigan local government’s workforce increased
from 38% in 1968, 68% in 2007, and 69% in 2011
(City of Detroit Human Resources department
[CDHRD], 2012).
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1974 first African American mayor elected to the
city of Detroit
Employment, in the local government, is primarily
clerical and entry-level positions.
Although women made up 69% of the workforce
of the city of Detroit local government, only 9% of
executive managers are women (CDHRD, 2012).
Female executives are still facing many obstacles in
their effects to achieve high-level management and
leadership positions (Dennis and Kunkel, 2004).
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The lack of insight local government leaders
have of the exemplary leadership practices of
women in executive management.
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To share and explain the results of a
quantitative descriptive study of the leadership
practices of 124 women executives in local
government. Also, to provide an informational
guide for local government, public, and notfor-profit organizations to increase the hiring
and retention of women in executive positions.
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Executive-management position
Glass ceiling
Civil Service Commission
Transformational Leadership
Leadership practices
Leadership Practices Inventory (LPI-S)
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Number of Years of employment- 0-5, 6-11, 1217, and over 18 years.
Years as executive manager-05, 6-11, 12-17, and
over 18 years.
Education level-Associate, Bachelor, and
Master.
Hiring criteria-entry level nonmanager, entry
level manager, mid-manager, executive
manager.
Number of subordinates-10-25, 26-50, 51-75,
and greater than 75.
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Modeling the way -articulates and exemplifies
values such as trust and respect
Inspiring a shared vision -foresee the future and
plan for opportunities. People are willing to
follow.
Challenging the process -search for opportunities
and change existing processes.
Enabling others to act -foster collaboration and
strengthen other. Creating a climate of trust and
facilitating relationships.
Encouraging the heart -acknowledge the followers
need for recognition and encourages other to
respond to change (Kouzes & Posner, 2007).
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Design
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Quantitative, descriptive correlational research
Measureable outcomes
Data Collection
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124 Executive women in city of Detroit local
government
Demographic questionnaire and Leadership
Practices Inventory-Self-survey
30 days availability – Survey Monkey
Results of DQ1. How Long Have You Worked in
Local Government?
Years of employment Frequency
Percent
0-5 years
8
13.33
6-11 years
14
23.33
12-17 years
21
35.00
Over 18 years
17
28.33
Total
60
100.00
Results of DQ2. How Many Years as an Executive
Manager in Local Government?
Years as executive manager
Frequency Percent
0-5 years
25
41.67
6-11 years
29
48.33
11-17 years
6
10.00
Over 18 years
0
0
Total
60
100.00
Results of DQ3. What is Your Highest Completed
Level of Education?
Educational background
Frequency Percent
Associate degree/equivalent 1
1.67
Bachelor degree
14
23.33
Master degree
45
75.00
Total
60
100.00
Results of DQ4. At What Level in Local Government
Were You Hired?
Hiring criteria
Frequency
Percent
Entry-level non-manager 30
50.00
Entry-level manager
26
43.33
Mid-manager
3
5.00
Executive manager
1
1.67
Total
60
100.00
Results of DQ5. How Many Direct and Indirect
Subordinates Are You Responsible for?
Number of subordinates
Frequency Percent
10-25
31
51.67
26-50
23
38.33
51-75
5
8.33
Greater than 75
1
1.67
Total
60
100.00
Results of Leadership Practices Inventory Self (LPI-S)
Leadership practice
Frequency
Percent
Encouraging the heart
27
45.00
Enabling others to act
14
23.33
Challenging the process
8
13.35
Modeling the way
7
11.66
Inspiring a shared vision
4
6.66
Total
60
100.00
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One goal of the study results was to provide
decision-making insight and knowledge to local
government.
The hiring criteria and length of employment
results implications.
Results can serve as a tool for those women
seeking leadership opportunities in local
government, public, and not-for-profit
organizations.
Results can serve as an informational guide for
these organizations to increase the hiring and
retention of women in executive positions.
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Encouraging the heart was the most
prevalent practice of the women
executive participants.
A noticeable relationship between the
hiring criteria and the leadership
practice of encouraging the heart.
No significant relationship between
the demographics and the leadership
practice.
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In 2011, 58% of university presidents were age 61
or older (American Council on Education, 2012).
The passage of Title IX of the Educational
Amendments Act of 1972 and the Women’s
Educational Equity Act in 1974 brought the
greatest change in the treatment of women in
higher education (Stromquist, 1993; Glazer-Raymo,
2008).
Although women earn the majority of
postsecondary degrees, they occupy just 26 percent
of all college presidencies (American Council on
Education, 2012).
Year
1986
1998
2001
2006
2011
Public and
Private
Percent
Percent
Percent
Percent
Percent
DoctorateGranting
3.8
13.2
13.3
13.8
22.3
Master’s
10.0
18.7
20.3
21.5
22.8
Bachelor’s
16.1
20.4
18.7
23.2
22.9
Associate
7.9
22.4
26.8
28.8
33.0
Special
Focus
6.6
14.8
14.8
16.6
20.5
All other
9.5
19.3
21.1
23.0
26.4
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Equal Opportunity Laws have had some
impact on the hiring of women to executive
positions. But, there still exists a disparity the
hiring of women to executive management
positions.
Provide women in entry-level nonmanagement
positions with training and leadership
development.
Research the leadership practices of women in
post-secondary education.
American Council on Education (2012). The American college president. Washington, DC.
City Charter. (1993). City of Detroit Chapter Commission.
City of Detroit Human Resources Department, Statistical departmental and employment data
(2012). Retrieved from the city of Detroit, Michigan archived department.
Dennis, M. R., & Kunkel, A. D. (2004). Perceptions of men, women, & CEOS: The effects of
gender identity. Social Behavior & Personality an International Journal. 32(2), 155-171.
Glazer-Raymo, J. (2008). The Feminist Agenda. In J. Glazer-Raymo (Ed.) Unfinished
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agendas: New and continuing gender challenges in higher education (pp. 1-34). Baltimore, MD:
Johns Hopkins University Press.
Kouzes, J. M., & Posner, B. Z. (2007). The leadership challenge(4th ed). San Francisco, CA: John
Wiley.
Stromquist, N.P. (1993). Sex-equity legislation in education: The state as promoter of women’s
rights. Review of Educational Research, 63(4).
United States Bureau of Labor Statistics. (2014 ed.). Data from the Bureau of Labor StatisticsLabor Force Statistics from the Current Population Survey.
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Thank you for your attention and audience.
Are you interested in being a part of a research
study on women, executive positions, and
education?
Any Questions?
Please contact me:
[email protected][email protected]
 Also on Linkedin
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