Jan. 2015 - International Multidisciplinary Refereed Journal

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RESEARCH PAPER
YEAR-2/ VOL.1/ISSUE-9/JAN.-2015/ISSN 2320 -7620
A STUDY OF CONSUMER BEHAVIOR
TOWARDS MUTUAL FUNDS WITH SPECIAL
REFERENCE TO SBI MUTUAL FUNDS AS
WELL AS IN PEER BRANCHES OF MUTUAL
FUND COMPANIES
PROF. KINCHIT P. SHAH
ASSISTANT PROFESSOR,GROW MORE INSTITUTIONS,HIMMATNAGAR.
SUBJECT :
ABSTRACT
A mutual fund is a type of professionally-managed collective investment vehicle that
pools money from many investors to purchase securities. As there is no legal definition of
mutual fund, the term is frequently applied only to those collective investments that are
regulated, available to the general public and open-ended in nature. Mutual funds have
both advantages and disadvantages compared to direct investing in individual securities.
Today, they play an important role in household finances. So, the present study aims at
consumer behavior towards mutual funds with special reference to SBI Mutual Funds,
Nadiad. Data was collected through primary and secondary sources. Primary data was
collected through structured questionnaire. Convenience sampling method was used to
collect the data and entire study was conducted in Nadiad City. The study explains about
investors’ awareness towards mutual funds, investor perceptions, their preferences and
the extent of satisfaction towards mutual funds. Some suggestions were also made to
increase the awareness towards mutual funds and measures to select appropriate mutual
funds to maximize the returns.
INTRODUCTION
“Growth is Life” (Reliance Mutual Fund)
“Continuing a Tradition of Trust” (HDFC Mutual Fund)
“A Partner of Life” (SBI Mutual Fund)
“Tarakii Karein” (ICICI Prudential Mutual Fund)
“Relax. It’s Axis” (Axis Mutual Fund)
Among various financial instruments, i.e., shares, bonds and debentures. Mutual Fund is
a special type of financial instrument that pools the funds of investors who seek to
maximize ROI. Stocks provide high total returns with commensurate level of risk, while
bonds may provide lower risks along with regular income. MFs presently offer a variety of
options to investors such as income, balanced, liquid, gilt, index, exchange traded and
sectorial funds, The primary goal of mutual fund is pool small savings, use the idle
resources in corporations and invest in a well-diversified portfolio of securities, which
would allow the investor to significantly reduce, or even eliminate the asset specific (nonVIEWOF SPACE : INTERNATIONAL MULTIDISCIPLINARY JOURNAL OF APPLIED RESEARCH
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market) risk of securities, There are 36 asset management companies covering Indian
public sector, private sector and joint ventures with foreign players. These 36 mutual
fund houses put together mobilized about Rs 670,937 Crores worth assets. The total
resources mobilized by the private sector institutions is 91.04%, Public sectors
institutions other than UTI is 8.49%. The variation occurred in mobilization of funds
during various periods is very high with Private sector participations followed by the
public sector excluding UTI, and by UTI. There is considerable competition between
foreign and domestic owned bodies and within domestic owned bodies, The Indian
mutual funds industry is witnessing a rapid growth as a result of infrastructural
development, increase in personal financial assets, and rise in foreign participation. With
the growing risk appetite, rising income, and increasing awareness, mutual funds in India
are becoming a preferred investment option compared to other investment vehicles like
Fixed Deposits (FDs) and postal savings that are considered safe but give comparatively
low returns, according to “Indian Mutual Fund Industry”.
SBI Mutual Fund is India's largest bank sponsored mutual fund with an investor base of
over 3 million. SBI Mutual Fund is a joint venture between the State Bank of India, India's
largest banking enterprise and Society General Asset Management of France, one of the
world's leading fund management companies, Since its inception SBI Mutual Fund has
launched thirty-two schemes and successfully redeemed fifteen of them. SBI Mutual
Fund schemes have consistently outperformed benchmark indices. SBI Mutual is the first
bank-sponsored fund to launch an offshore fund - Resurgent India Opportunities Fund;
SBI Mutual Fund manages over Rs. 17000 Crores of assets. The fund has a network of 100
collection branches, 26 investor service centers, 28 investor service desks and 40 district
organisers.
HDFC Asset Management Company Ltd (AMC) was incorporated under the Companies
Act, 1956, on December 10, 1999, and was approved to act as an Asset Management
Company for the HDFC Mutual Fund by SEBI vide its letter dated July 3, 2000. In terms of
the Investment Management Agreement, the Trustee has appointed the HDFC Asset
Management Company Limited to manage the Mutual Fund. The paid up capital of the
AMC is Rs. 25.241 crore as on September 30, 2013.The equity shareholding pattern of the
AMC as on September 30, 2013 is as follows:
Particulars
% of the paid up equity
capital
59.81
39.87
Housing Development Finance Corporation Limited
Standard Life Investments Limited
Other Shareholders (shares issued on exercise of Stock
0.32
Options)
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CONCEPT
A Mutual Fund is a trust that pools the savings of a number of investor who share a
common financial goal. The money thus collected is then invested in capital market
instruments such as shares, debentures and other securities. The income earned through
these investments and the capital appreciations realized are shared by its unit holders in
proportion to the number of units owned by them. Thus a Mutual Fund is the most
suitable investment for the common man as it offers an opportunity to invest in a
diversified, professionally managed basket of securities at a relatively low cost.
DEFINITION
A mutual fund is a pool of assets invested on behalf of investors. Mutual funds invest in a
diversified portfolio of securities, which can include equity securities (such as common
and preferred shares), debt securities (such as bonds and debentures) and other financial
instruments issued by corporations and governments, according to the stated investment
objectives of the funds. Individual investors own a percentage of the value of the fund as
represented by the number of units they purchase. A collection of money invested in a
group of assets and managed by an investors company (a mutual fund company or
other). The money comes from investors who want to buy shares in the fund. The
benefits to investors in buying shares of mutual funds come primarily from
diversification, professional money management, and capital gains and dividend
reinvestment.
OPERATION FLOW CHART OF MUTUAL FUNDS
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TYPE OF MUTUAL FUNDS
Type of Schemes
Open –Ended
Close-Ended
Interval
Description
Daily sale/purchase
No fixed maturity
Fund is “secondary market
Sale during IPO
Fixed Maturity
SE is secondary market
Periodic sale/purchase
No fixed maturity
SE is secondary market
TYPE OF FUNDS (AS PER OBJECTIVE)
OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
To know about the preferences of investors towards mutual funds with special
reference to SBI Mutual Funds As Well As In Peer Branches of Mutual Fund Companies.
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To know about the extent of satisfaction of investors towards SBI Mutual Funds
As Well As In Peer Branches of Mutual Fund Companies.
To study the acceptability of SBI Mutual Fund Schemes As Well As In Peer
Branches of Mutual Fund Companies.
DATA ANALYSIS, FINDINGS AND INTERPRETATION
Descriptive Statistics
N
Std.
Minimum Maximum Mean Deviation
Respondents
100 1
100
50.50 29.011
Gender
100 0
1
.30
.461
Age
100 0
4
.66
1.094
Qualification
100 0
2
.78
.440
Occupation
100 0
3
1.81 .545
Annual Income
100 0
4
1.03 .904
Saving Annually
100 0
2
.56
.686
Investing in MF or Not?
100 0
0
.00
.000
Period of Investment in MF
100 0
4
1.57 1.335
Sources of Purchasing the MF
100 0
3
.58
.713
Investing your money in SBIMF
100 0
0
.00
.000
Satisfaction level for services of SBIMF 100 2
Company
5
3.93 .844
Valid N (list-wise)
100
SUGGESTIONS
Even though the mutual funds are good source of income, the people lack awareness and
information towards mutual funds:
1.
Increase awareness among investors;
2.
Provide complete information relating to mutual funds;
3.
Investors’ fee must be reduced by reducing paper work;
4.
Better commission should be paid to Asset Management Companies;
5.
Subsidized Investments to urban investors;
6.
Advertising campaigns must be conducted in urban & rural areas to increase
awareness among urban & rural investors.
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CONCLUSIONS

Mutual funds are good source of returns for majority of households and it is
particularly useful for the people who are at the age of retirement.

However, average investors are still restricting their choices to conventional
options like gold and fixed deposits when the market is flooded with countless
investment opportunities, with mutual funds. This is because of lack of information about
how mutual funds work, which makes many investors hesitant towards mutual fund
investments.
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In fact, many a times, people investing in mutual funds too are unclear about
how they function and how one can manage them. So, the organizations which are
offering mutual funds have to provide complete information to the prospective investors
relating to mutual funds.

The government also has to take some measures to encourage people to invest
in mutual funds even though it is offering schemes like Rajiv Gandhi Equity Savings
Scheme to the investors.

It is believed that some of these measures could lift the morale of the mutual
fund industry which has been crippled for the last so many years.
REFERENCES
1.
Ms. Kavitha Ranganathan “A Study of Fund Selection Behaviour of Individual
Investors towards Mutual Funds- With Reference to Mumbai City”, (M.Phil.-Commerce)
Madurai Kamaraj University.
2.
Sathya Swaroop Debasish, “Investing Performance of Equity-Based Mutual Fund
Schemes in Indian Scenario”, senior lecturer in the department of Business Management,
Fakir Mohan University, Balasore, Orissa, India.
3.
Deepak Agarwal (2011), “A Comparative Study of Equity Based Mutual Fund of
Reliance and HDFC”.
4.
Dr. K Lakshmana Rao (2011), “Analysis of Investors’ Perception towards Mutual
Fund Schemes (With Reference to awareness and adoption of personal and family
considerations), International Journal of Multi-Disciplinary Research, vol.1 Issue 8,
December 2011, ISSN 2231-5780.
5.
Prof. Kalpesh P Prajapati (Assistant Professor, S V Institute of Management, GTU,
Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India), “Comparative Study on Performance Evaluation of Mutual
Fund Schemes of Indian Companies”, International Journal of Arts, Science &
Commerce,vol.-3, Issue 3(3), July 2012, (E-ISSN 2229-4686), (ISSN 2231-4172).
6.
Shivani Inder & Dr. Shika Vohra (2012), “Mutual Fund Performance: An Analysis of
Index Funds”, International Journal of Research in Commerce & Management, vol. No. 3,
Issue No.9, September 2012 (ISSN 0976-2183 www.ijrcm.org.in)
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7.
Mrs. P Alekhya (2012), “A Study on Performance Evaluation of Public & Private
Sector Mutual Funds in India”, Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing & Management Review,
vol.1 No. 2, October 2012, ISSN 2319-2836.
8.
R Padmaja (2013) “A Study of Consumer Behaviour towards Mutual Funds With
Special Reference to ICICI Prudential Mutual Funds, Vijayawada”, International Journal of
Management Research and Business Strategy, vol. 2, No. 2, April 2013 (ISSN 2319-345x
www.ijmrbs.com)
9.
V. Rathnamani (2013), “Investor’s Preferences towards Mutual Fund Industry in
Trichy”, IOSR Journal of Business and Management (IOSR-JBM), ISSN: 2278-487X, Volume
6, Issue 6 (Jan.-Feb. 2013), PP 48-55.
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A STUDY ON FINANCIAL INCLUSION OF DENA
BANK ZONAL OFFICE, VADODARA – A
PERFORMANCE OVERVIEW
KINCHIT P. SHAH
ASSISTANT PROFESSOR,GROW MORE INSTITUTIONS,HIMMATNAGAR.
SUBJECT :
ABSTRACT
Financial Inclusion, The transfer of banking services at a reasonable cost to the huge
sections of deprived and low income group, which focuses of financial inclusion in India,
To promote sustainable development and generating employment in rural areas for the
rural population,Many factors affecting access to financial services by weaker section of
society in India. Several steps have been taken by the RBI and the Government to bring
the financially excluded people to the fold of the formal banking services. Where
Financial Exclusion, which opposite of financial inclusion,There is a growing divide, with
an increased range of financial options for a segment of high and middle income
population and a significant large section of the population who lack access to even the
most basic banking services. These people particularly, those live an low incomes, cannot
access mainstream financial products such as bank accounts, credit, remittances and
payment services, financial advisory services, insurance facilities,Financial exclusion
signifies the lack of access by certain segments of the society to appropriate, low-cost,
fair and safe financial products and services from mainstream providers.
Introduction of Financial Inclusion
Financial Inclusion by way of access to formal financial system is of critical important for
economic upliftment of common man. Despite rapid expansion of the banking network
over the last four decades, there is a vast majority of people, in our country, which do not
have access to basic banking services resulting in financial exclusion. With a view to
understanding the extent of exclusion, the Committee perused data put out by various
sources.
Objective of study:
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To identify the role of banks towards financial inclusion.
To identify banks approach towards financial inclusion implementation.
To find new way to reach at the rural.
To identify how many families are excluded.
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To assess further thrust needed to achieve 100 percent financial inclusion so as
to enable appropriate policy modifications.
There are many constraints are arises at the time of implementation of Financial Inclusion
but before that we should know the financial exclusion term. And how it arise so entire
things are as under:

Financial exclusion:
Financial exclusion signifies the lack of access by certain segments of the society to
appropriate, low-cost, fair and safe financial products and services from mainstream
providers.

A.
Causes of financial exclusion:
Demand - Side Barriers:
1.
Low Income: The main reason for financial exclusion is the lack of a regular or
substantial income. Poor people have a tendency that banks are for rich and hence
excluding themselves from financial services.
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2.
Cultural factors: Most women are disadvantaged by credit requirements such as
collator since the money is on their father/husbands’ name forcing them to seek male
guarantees to borrow.
3.
Mistrust of financial institutions:The feeling that there is no point in applying
for financial products because he/ she expects to be refused as banks are not interested
to look into their cause has led to self-exclusion for many of the low income groups.
4.
Financial literacy and skills capacity: High information barriers, low awareness
and limited literacy, particularly financial literacy, i.e., basic mathematics, business
finance skills as well as lack of understanding often constrains demand for financial
services.
5.
Legal identity: Lack of legal identity like voter id, driving license, birth
certificates, employment identity card etc.
6.
Lack of awareness: Finally, people who lack basic education do not know the
importance of the financial products like Insurance, Finance, Bank Accounts, cheque
facility, etc.
B.
Supply - Side Barriers:
1.
Perception among banks about Rural Population:The perception is that rural
population is having irregular income and so that their payment is also delay. And rural
having low income so they don’t want to save or invest.
2.
Location constraints: Absence of physical infrastructure in interior-most parts of
the country leads to difficulties in accessing financial institutions (like banks, etc) resulting
in a substantial proportion of households in rural andremote areas being kept outside the
ambit of the formal financial system.
3.
Complicated procedures: Due to lack of financial literacy and basic education, it
is very difficult for those people who lack both to read terms and conditions and account
filling forms. Getting money for their financial requirements from a local money lender is
easier than getting a loan from the bank.
4.
Approaches and products: Generally, financial services tend to be concentrated
in urban areas, allowing rural clients little access to services andinformation for making
well grounded decisions.
5.
Focus on meeting financial targets: Moreover, banks give more importance to
meeting their financial targets and hence focus on larger accounts.
6.
Poor credit records: As we know the rural population has irregular income in
past and hence they are not able to repay the loans. So Bank having bad experience in
past so generally they are ignore to rural area for business.

Consequences of financial exclusion:
1.
Losing opportunities to grow: In the absence of finance, people who are not
connected with formal financial system lack opportunities to grow.
2.
Country's growth will retard:Due to vast unutilized resources that is in the form
of money in the hands of people who lack financial inclusive services.
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3.
Higher interest rate: Individuals/ families could get sucked into a cycle of
poverty and exclusion and turn to high cost credit from moneylender s, resulting in
greater financial strain and unmanageable debt. At the wider level of the society and the
nation, financial exclusion leads to social exclusion, poverty as well as all the other
associated economic and social problems.
4.
Loss due to theft: Banks provide various schemes of safety locker facility. It
mitigates the risk due to thefts.
5.
Other allied financial services:People who do not have bank accounts may not
go to bank as for as possible. So they lack basic financial auxiliary services like DD,
Insurance cover and other emergency need loans etc.
6.
Loss of opportunities to thrift and borrow: Financially excluded people,may lose
chances to save their some part of livelihood earnings and also toborrow loans.





Financial Inclusion:
Major Three Aspects :
Access financial markets
Access credit markets
Learn financial matters

National scenario of Financial Inclusion:
India has currently the second-highest number of financially excluded households in the
world. Approximately, 40% of India’s population has bank accounts, and only about 10%
have any kind of life insurance cover, while a merger 0.6% has non-life insurance cover.
The Reserve Bank of India setup a Khan Commission in 2004 to look into Financial
Inclusion and commission’s reviews were incorporated into the Mid-term review of the
policy (2005–06). In India, Financial Inclusion first featured in 2005, when it was
introduced from a pilot project in UT of Pondicherry, by K. C.Chakraborthy, the chairman
of Indian Bank. Mangalam Village became the first village in India where all households
were provided banking facilities. In India Financial inclusion will be good business ground
in which the majority of her people will decide the winners and losers.

Services Under Financial Inclusion:
Financial Inclusion Includes Accessing Of Financial Products And Services. In India the
basic concept of financial inclusion is having a saving or current account with any bank. In
reality it includes loans, insurance services and much more.

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

Low cost financial services
Overdraft facility
Savings facility
Credit and debit cards access
Electronic fund transfer
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All kinds of commercial loans
Cheque facility
Payment and remittance services
Insurance (Medical insurance)
Financial advice
Pension for old age and investment schemes
Access to financial markets
Micro credit during emergency
Entrepreneurial credit

Ways to make Inclusive Finance:
A.
No frill account:The minimum bearing deposits has been set to zero or minimum
Rs. 50 without identity and address proof and hence attracting poor and low income
people.
B.
Self Help Groups:SHGs are usually groups of women who get together and pool
money from their savings and lend money among them. The SHG is given loans against
the group members’ guarantee. Peer pressure within the group helps in improving
recoveries.
C.
Affordable Product:The main reason is that the products designed by the banks
are not satisfying the low income families. The provision of uncomplicated, small,
affordable products will help to bring the low income families into the formal financial
sector.
D.
Business facilitators & business correspondents:Banks have limitations to reach
directly to the low income consumers. In January 2006, the Reserve Bank permitted
commercial banks to make use of the services of non-governmental organizations
(NGOs/SHGs), micro-finance institutions, civil society organizations as intermediaries,
serving as an excellent channel which banks can use to distribute their product
information. Educating the consumers about the financial benefits and products of banks
which are beneficial to low income groups will be a great step to tap their potential.
E.
Regional Rural Banks:One of the reasons for opening new branches of Regional
Rural Banks in 1975 was to make sure that the banking service is accessible to the poor
Nationalization of the major private sector banks in 1969 was a big step.
F.
Bank Coverage expansion:As the competition increased in banking sector, they
encouraged expansion of bank branches especially in rural areas.
G.
Priority Sector Lending:The RBI guidelines to banks show that 40% of their net
bank credit should be lent to the priority sector. This mainly consists of agriculture, small
scale industries, retail trade etc. More than 80% of our population depends directly or
indirectly on agriculture. So 18% of net bank credit should go to agriculture lending.
H.
Simplified KYC Norms:Recent relaxations in KYC (Know your Customer) norms
are another milestone, built by RBI for people intending to open accounts with annual
deposits of less than Rs. 50, 000
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I.
Self - Controlling of Bank:Financial inclusion is a great step to alleviate poverty
in India. But to achieve this, the government should provide a less perspective
environment in which banks are free to pursue the innovations necessary to reach low
income consumers and still make a profit.
J.
Knowledge about Customer:Financial service providers should learn more about
the consumers and newbusiness models to reach them.
K.
Easy Credit Access:General Credit Cards (GCC) And Kisan Credit Card (KCC) was
issued to the poor and the disadvantage with a view to help them. Some of our banks
have now come forward with generalpurpose credit cards and artisan credit cards which
offer collateral-free small loans.
L.
Pursuing Campaigns:RBI asked the commercial banks in different regions to
start a 100%Financial Inclusion campaign on a pilot basis. Reserve Bank of India’s vision
for2020 is to open nearly 600Million new customers' accounts and service them througha
variety of channels by leveraging on IT.
Detail Report on Financial Inclusion Operation and its Progress of Dena Bank Zonal
Office, Vadodara:
PARTICULAR
Mar11
Mar12
Mar-13
Total
No. of BCs/BC Agents Deployed
76
72
125
273
Number of banking outlets in villages with population
above 2,000
77
77
73
227
0
0
53
53
77
1
76
0
77
5
72
0
126
1
125
0
280
7
273
0
10966
47.13
19190
82.48
24673
106.04
54829
235.65
11500
3.14
16100
4.39
18400
5.02
46000
12.55
14699
36.74
25722
64.31
33071
82.68
73492
183.73
3119
30.16
3992
38.61
5365
51.88
12476
120.65
Number of banking outlets in villages with population
less than 2,000
Total number of banking outlets in villages Of which
a) Through branches
b) Through BCs
c) Through Other Modes
covered through BCs
No-Frill accounts
Number
Amount (thousands)
No -Saving Accounts
Number
Amount (Lacs)
Overdraft availed in No -Frill Accounts
Number
Amount (thousands)
KisanCreditCard (DKCC)
Number of Accounts
Outstanding amount (Lacs)
General Purpose Credit Card (DGCC)
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Number of Accounts
Outstanding amount (Lacs)
ICT Based Accounts through BCs
Number of Accounts open in HHD Machine
Number of transactions(in HHD Machine) during the year
(thousands)
458
0.68
717
1.06
352
0.52
1527
2.26
3733
6532
8398
18663
7.48
46.15
77.42
131.05
Coverage of Financial Inclusion by Dena Bank (Zonal Office, Vadodara) in overall
operation (less than and more than 2000 Population):
Overall Performance(till May 31,2013)
N
o.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
Districts
under
Vadodara
Kheda
Anand
Vadodara
Bharuch
Dahod
Narmada
Panchmahal
Total villages of
Dist.
63
29
79
16
27
54
88
356
Total
Population
116657
75946
90293
29806
58889
45286
85332
Total
households
22604
15027
18658
5928
8768
7111
13625
Cover
ed
73%
80%
75%
62%
61%
64%
62%
68%
Uncover
ed
27%
20%
25%
38%
39%
36%
38%
32%
Overall performance
of Bank in Bharuch
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Overall
Performance of
Bank in Narmada
Interpretation:
The overall performance of all districts under Vadodara Zonal office is very good and
from above Again Anand District is Highest in Financial inclusion Coverage. The Anand is
covered by 80% which is good and if we talk about others than next comes Vadodara
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with having coverage 75% then Kheda with 73% and then after remaining four
respectively Narmada, Panchmahal, Bharuch, and Dahod with 64%, 62%, 62% and 61%.
So overall bank covered 68% in all districts.
Conclusion:
have find out other Zonal Bank performance through Lead Bank and finally say that Dena
Bank Zonal Office, Vadodara Performing very well compare to other Zonal offices of Dena
Bank. This Zonal office has completed phase-I almost and now they are working on
second Phase which signs good for financial inclusion Operation, The reason may be this
behind good performance is Dena Bank is extremely strong in rural area and that’s why
Dena Bank is one of the leading bank for financial inclusion.
References:
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



www.denabank.com
www.rbi.org.in
Dena bank journal
www.capitaline.com
www.moneycontrol.com
www.indiainfo.com
www.scribd.com
www.bankingfrontiers.com
www.cysd.org
www.theinternationaljournal.org
Document of Dena bank regarding financial inclusion policy and its detail.
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CAPITAL STRUCTURE PATTERNS OF
RETAIL INDUSTRY
DR. A. K. ADHIKARY
ASSISTANT PROFESSOR,SARDAR VALLABHBHAI INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY,VASAD
MR. BHATT SATYAKI J.
LECTURER, SHREE SWAMINARAYAN COLLEGE OF COMMERCE AND MANAGEMENT,BHAVNAGAR
SUBJECT :
ABSTRACT
This paper is analysis the explanatory power of some of the theories that have been
proposed in the literature to explain variations in capital structures across firms. In
particular, this study investigates capital structure determinants of retail industry firms
based on from 2006 to 2014 comprising 3 companies. The study is to analyze the effect of
Debt-Equity ratios on other ratio. An analysis of determinants of leverage based on total
debt ratios may mask significant differences in the determinants of long and short-term
forms of debt. Therefore, this paper studies determinants of total debt ratios as well as
determinants of short-term and long-term debt ratios.
The results indicate that most of the determinants of capital structure suggested by capital
structure theories appear to be relevant for firms. But we also find significant differences in
the determinants of long and short-term forms of debt. Due to data limitations, it was not
possible decompose short-term debt and long-term debt into its elements, but the results
suggest that future analysis of capital choice decisions should be based on a more detailed
level.
INTRODUCTION
How do firms choose their capital structures? In his answer to this question, Prof. Stewart
C. Myers, then President of American Finance Association in 1984 said that “we don’t
know”. Despite decades of intensive research, and hundreds of papers after Modigliani and
Millers’ seminal work, surprisingly there is lack of consensus even today among the finance
experts on this basic issue of corporate finance. In practice, it is observed that finance
managers use different combinations of debt and equity. Academicians and practitioners
alike have found it difficult to find out how a firm decides its capital structure in the perfect
capital markets of the west as well as in the imperfect capital markets, as in India. This has
led to an upsurge in research on company finance, particularly aimed at understanding how
companies finance their activities and why they finance their activities in these specific
ways. A practical question therefore is: What determines the capital structure? There are
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three major capital structure theories namely Trade‐off Theory [Kraus, A., Litzenberger, R.
(1973), Kim (1978)], Pecking‐Order Theory [Myers (1984) and Myers and Majluf (1984)],
Agency Cost Theory [Jensen and Meckling (1976)]. This paper undertakes study of firm level
data of 3 major companies listed in BSE, taken from aviation sectors and attempts to
identify main determinants of capital structure for the period 2008-09 to 2012-13 in the
light of the above mentioned theories. My purpose of this exercise is to verify whether any
particular theory can characterize Indian corporate behavior in determining capital
structure. The central issue I will address is to examine empirically the existence of
inter‐firm and inter‐industry differences in the capital structure of Indian firms and identify
the possible sources of such variation in capital structure. Efforts will be made to find out
the factors that determine the financing pattern of capital structure of Indian companies,
particularly in the private sector.
REVIEW OF LITERATURE
In the light of the vast literature on capital structure issues, we do not try to provide a
comprehensive review, and we do not discuss theory in detail. Rather, as a starting ground,
we will give a brief outline of the major theoretical ideas and the corresponding empirical
implications, and present some empirical studies on capital structure issues. The focus of
our discussion is on (subjectively) selected recent empirical studies. Sound financing
decisions of a firm basically should lead to an optimal capital structure. Capital structure
represents the proportion in which various long‐term capital components are employed.
Over the years, these decisions have been recognized as the most important decisions that
a firm has to take. This is because of the fact that capital structure affects the cost of
capital, net profit, earning per share, and dividend payout ratio and liquidity position of the
firm. These variables coupled with a number of other factors determine the value of a firm.
So, capital structure is a very important determinant of the value of a firm.
Franco Modigliani and Merton Miller (hereafter called MM) were the first to present a
formal model on valuation of capital structure. In their seminal papers (1958,1963), they
showed that under the assumptions of perfect capital markets, equivalent risk class, no
taxes, 100 per cent dividend‐payout ratio and constant cost of debt, the value of a firm is
independent of its capital structure. When corporate taxes are taken into account, the
value of a firm increases linearly with debt-equity (D/E) ratio because of interest payments
being tax exempted. MM'S work has been at the center stage of the financial research till
date. Their models have been criticized, supported, and extended over the last 50 years.
David Durand (1963) criticized the model on the ground that the assumptions used by M‐M
are unrealistic. Solomon (1963) argued that the cost of debt does not always remain
constant. Once the leverage level exceeds the accepted level, the probability of default in
interest payments increases by which the cost of debt rises. Stiglitz (1969, 1974) proved the
validity of the MM model under relaxed assumptions whereas Smith (1972), Krause and
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Litzenberger (1973), Baron (1974, 1975), and Scott (1976, 1977), supported the M‐M
model, but only under the conditions of risk free debt and costless bankruptcy.
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
The proposed research is intended to examine the trend and pattern of financing the
capital structure of Indian companies. The central issue we will address is to examine
empirically the existence of inter firm and inter industry differences in the capital structure
of Indian firms and identify the possible sources of such variation in capital structure in
order to find out the factors that determine the financing pattern of capital structure of
Indian companies, particularly in the private sector.
SOURCE OF DATA
For our study purpose, only secondary data is used which is sourced from the annual
reports of the selected companies and websites www.moneycontrol.com and
www.bseindia.com. The information relating to nature of industry, size, age, state and
region, company background, value of total assets and annual financial statements of
sample companies for the period of 2005-06 to 2013-2014 have been obtained from the
same.
HYPOTHESIS
1) Null Hypothesis:There is correlation between the Debt-Equity ratio and other selected variables.
2) Alternative Hypothesis:There is no correlation between the Debt-Equity ratio and other selected variables
DETERMINANTS OF CAPITAL STRUCTURE
Interest Coverage Ratio:A ratio used to determine how easily a company can pay interest on outstanding debt. The
interest coverage ratio is calculated by dividing a company's earnings before interest and
taxes (EBIT) of one period by the company's interest expenses of the same period.
Debt-Equity:In financial terms, debt is a good example of the proverbial two-edged sword. Astute use of
leverage (debt) increases the amount of financial resources available to a company for
growth and expansion. The assumption is that management can earn more on borrowed
funds than it pays in interest expense and fees on these funds. However, as successful as
this formula may seem, it does require that a company maintain a solid record of complying
with its various borrowing commitments.
Return on Net-worth:Return on net worth measures how much a company earns within a specific period in
relation to the amount that is invested in its common stock. It is calculated by dividing the
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company’s net income before common stock dividends are paid by the company’s net
worth which is the shareholder’s equity.
Return on capital employed:It is a ratio that indicates the efficiency and profitability of a company’s capital investments.
It should always be higher than the rate at which the company borrows. Otherwise any
increase in borrowing will reduce shareholder’s earnings.
Size:Many studies suggest that there is a positive relationship between firm size and leverage.
Marsh indicates that large firms more often choose long-term debt, while small firms
choose short term debt. The cost of issuing debt and equity is negatively related to firm
size. In addition, larger firms are often diversified and have more stable cash flows, and so
the probability of bankruptcy for larger firms is less, relative to smaller firms. This suggests
that size could be positively related with leverage. The positive relationship between size
and leverage is also viewed as support of asymmetric information. Larger size firms enjoy
economies of scale and creditworthiness in issuing long term debt and have bargaining
power over creditors. These arguments suggest that larger firms have tendency to use
higher leverage.
Data analysis:The data has been analyzed using various statistical tools like correlation, regression. The
data has been also analyzed using different test and statistical tools like SPSS. The figures
for the purpose of the analysis have been collected from various available secondary
sources like annual reports of the company, journals of the finance, and other periodicals.
Interest Coverage Ratio
Year
Shoperes
Stop
2006
31.79
2007
22.89
2008
9.35
4.1
0.95
2009
3.32
1.54
1.13
2010
10.19
1.87
1.04
2011
2.95
2.92
1.42
2012
1.18
3.43
1.49
2013
0.44
5.52
1.06
2014
0.63
7.55
1.1
V-Mart Retail
Future
Retail
3.12
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Anova
Source of Variation
Between Groups
Within Groups
Total
SS
270.41
1017.28
1287.69
df
2
21
23
MS
135.20
48.44
F
2.79
P-value
0.084
F crit
3.47
The calculated value is 2.79 and table value is 3.47 which is higher than the calculated
value. Hence the Null hypothesis is accepted and alternative hypothesis is rejected.
Therefore the difference is insignificant.
Year
Shoperes
Stop
V-Mart
Retail
Future
Retail
2006
0.24
2007
0.46
2008
0.73
1.71
1.39
2009
1.05
0.82
1.39
2010
0.79
0.76
1.64
2011
0.43
0.86
1.69
2012
0.74
0.73
2.8
2013
0.94
0.24
2.17
2014
1.11
0.26
1.75
1.35
Debt-Equity Ratio
Source of Variation
Between Groups
Within Groups
Total
SS
5.67
3.84
9.51
df
2
21
23
MS
2.83
0.18
F
15.50
P-value
7.33
F crit
3.47
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Anova
The calculated value is 15.50 and table value is 3.47 which is lower than the calculated
value. Hence the Null hypothesis is rejected and alternative hypothesis is accepted.
Therefore the difference is significant.
Return on Net-Worth
Year
Shoppers
Stop
V
Mart
Retail
Future
Retail
2006
9.06
2007
8.52
2008
0.93
29.3
3.23
2009
-28.96
2.98
1.06
2010
14.33
6.19
0.42
2011
8.62
14.25
2.59
2012
3.68
20.2
4.97
2013
-2.25
12.19
8.47
2014
-1.68
14.78
2.46
10.28
Anova
Source of Variation
SS
df
MS
F
P-value
Between Groups
698.67
2
349.33
4.02
0.033
Within Groups
1823.53 21
86.83
Total
2522.20 23
The calculated value is 4.02 and table value is 3.47 which is lower than the
value. Hence the Null hypothesis is rejected and alternative hypothesis is
Therefore the difference is significant.
F crit
3.47
calculated
accepted.
Return on Capital Employed
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Year
Shoppers
Stop
V
Mart
Retail
Future
Retail
2006
27.38
2007
27.5
2008
24.95
23.44
3.57
2009
20.78
7.86
4.47
2010
45.48
11.65
5.7
2011
12.13
17.8
8.63
2012
5.56
24.41
7.4
2013
2.46
17.36
16.81
2014
4.01
20.4
8.91
9.84
Anova
Source of Variation
SS
df
MS
F
P-value
F crit
Between Groups
557.45
2
278.72
3.01
0.07
3.47
Within Groups
1946.70 21
92.70
Total
2504.14 23
The calculated value is 3.01 and table value is 3.47 which is higher than the calculated
value. Hence the Null hypothesis is accepted and alternative hypothesis is rejected.
Therefore the difference is insignificant.
Size
Year
Shoppers
Stop
V
Mart
Retail
Future
Retail
2006
2.79
2007
2.92
2008
3.06
1.99
3.53
2009
3.12
2.15
3.72
2010
3.2
2.15
3.82
2011
3.29
2.33
3.8
2012
3.31
2.45
3.63
2013
3.35
2.58
3.84
2014
3.43
2.76
4.06
3.29
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Anova
Source of Variation
Between Groups
Within Groups
Total
SS
7.02
1.17
8.19
df
2
21
23
MS
3.51
0.06
F
62.93
P-value
1.35
F crit
3.47
The calculated value is 4.02 and table value is 3.47 which is lower than the calculated
value. Hence the Null hypothesis is rejected and alternative hypothesis is accepted.
Therefore the difference is significant.
FINDINGS & SUGGESTION
1.)
The retail industry nowadays is one of the growing sectors in our economy.
2.)
The selected companies are performing well in terms of selected variables
except some case.
3.)
V-Mart Retail is not performing well in selected variable. It is negative sign for
the company.
4.)
The order of the finance of company should be internal fund, debt and last one
owner’s fund.
5.)
The result of the Shopers Stop shows that it is strong in terms of return on
capital employed in some years.
6.)
All the three selected companies have very stable position in terms of sales
during selected period. It shows the position of the company in industry.
CONCLUSION
The study indicates that service sector companies relies more on the equity and less on
the debt, and vice versa in case of manufacturing companies. To sum up, Indian
companies prioritize their sources of financing according to the law of least effort, or of
least resistance, preferring to raise equity as a financing means “of last resort”. Hence
internal funds are used first, and when that is depleted debt is issued, and when it is not
sensible to issue any more debt, equity is issued. Equity capital as a source of fund is not
preferred across the board. This shows that somewhere or other, the financing pattern of
Indian pharma sector companies’ is in line with the packing order theory as propounded
by Myers and Majluf (1984). This gives a redeeming signal about the Indian corporate
behavior which is found out to show more dependence on their internally generated
funds than on external sources of finance.
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Reference:Books and Journals:
Grossman, S., and Hart O. (1982): Corporate Financial Structure and Managerial
Incentives, in: McCall, J. (ed.), The Economics of Information and Uncertainty, University
of Chicago Press.

Harris, M., and Raviv A. (1991): The Theory of the Capital Structure, Journal of
Finance.

Myers, S. (1977): The Determinants of Corporate Borrowing, Journal of Finance.

Titman, S., and Wessels R. (1988): The Determinants of Capital Structure Choice,
Journal of Finance.
Websites :
http://www.moneycontrol.com/annual-report

http://www.bseindia.com/stock-share-price/stockreach_annualreports.aspx

http://www.nseindia.com/corporates/corporateHome.html?id=eqFinResults
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suim+·n´dn p´t ke k·Vy me´
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SUBJECT :
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huIR hw û x·yd Is& k·rï kiv koikl se Ees· g·n g·ne ke ilE kht· hw ijsse
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TEACHER IN THE TWENTY FIRST
CENTURY - CHALLENGES
DR. PUNAM KUNDALIYA
LECTURER,LT. M.J. KUNDALIYA COLLEGE OF EDUCATION-RAJKOT
SUBJECT : EDUCATION
Teaching is a noble profession. It involves great deal of sacrifice and total commitment to
the welfare of students. Great men of old went through the hands of great teachers. The
great teachers of the world turned the world upside down with their philosophies and
ideas. Twenty first century is the age of learning. It calls for a teacher-learner partnership.
Teachers are no more information givers, but partners in the learning of new technologies
and agents of social change.
There is a paradigm shift in the role and responsibilities of the modern day teacher. Today's
teacher is not an instructor; he is a helper and a guide. His business is to suggest not
imposing. He does not impart knowledge to him; he shows him how to acquire it. That is,
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the teacher of today has to be different from his predecessors. The expanded role of the
teacher would comprise of the following.
 Teacher should make the learning a joyful experience.
 Teacher should involve himself in curriculum development.
 Teacher must be a role model for his students. (He should have the qualities -selfconfidence, honesty, truthfulness, tolerance etc.)
 Teacher should have faith in values and has a system of values of his own.
 Teacher has to bring the school to the community.
 Teacher should pay attention to the needs, attitudes and feelings of his students.
 Teacher should have a feeling of accountability
 Teacher should be an agent for social change.
The one single factor that enables a teacher to fulfill his responsibilities to nation is his
commitment, which is multi-dimensional. The major components of teacher's commitment
are: commitment to students, commitment to profession, commitment to the society, and
commitment to ethical value system.
The teacher in the past was only a source of information and has to use the information to
discharge his duties effectively. But the present day teacher is expected to produce
dynamic students who have to work and compete in this rapidly changing society. The
present day teacher faces a number of challenges due to the following:'
ICT REVOLUTION:
ICT, Information and Communication Technology is the most buzzword of the present
century. The teacher in an information age warrants to be a equipped with modern competencies to work effectively to cater the needs of information society to prove himself as a
knowledge worker. No amount of technological up gradation of educational institutions will
change the performance of our students without the active involvement and support of
teachers who are capable of exploiting the profound possibilities that ICT can offer for their
teaching learning process.
NEW TECHNIQUES AND TECHNOLOGIES IN INDIVIDUALIZING INSTRUCTION:
The teacher in the classroom should be highly conscious of the fact of individual differences
among students. Modern developments in psychology and education have thrown light on
the intensity of individual difference and have shown that each individual is unique in
nature. Accordingly the modern age has become the age of individualizing instruction. .
Some of them are Programmed Instruction, Teaching Machine, CAI, Modular Scheduling,
Keller planning, e-learning etc.
MODERN STRATEGIES IN TEACHING LEARNING AND EVALUATION:
Today the process of teaching has moved away from the 'quantum of information
transferred to the learner' to the more defensible concept of 'training the learner in
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information processing through self learning.' The learner controlled self-learning strategies
replaced the conventional strategies. Some of the important strategies which are being
applied in this direction are problem based learning, brain storming , simulation, models of
teaching, reflective practices, cooperative learning, e-learning, CAL etc.
KNOWLEDGE EXPLOSION:
Today's world has witnessed an unprecedented outburst of new knowledge in every walk of
life. This is experienced more or less with the same gravity in the educational sector. In
order to face the challenges of change, the teachers should equip themselves by updating
their knowledge.
E-LEARNING :
The growth of e-learning is a paradigm shift from the education's traditional focus on teaching young in the class room to the provision of education by different methods (often
distance) to diverse learners. Internet aware of faculty- and students bodies should take
advantage of the unprecedented global resources available in the internet
INTERNATIONALIZATION OF EDUCATION:
The present system of education in our country has encouraged the transmission and dissemination of knowledge beyond the borders of the country. Educational institutions of all
democratic countries and commonwealth nations have close associations, linkages and
exchange programmes among them. These linkages and exchanges among institutions of
learning are based on the principle of academic pursuit to strengthen curriculum and to
widen knowledge. It emphasizes national and international partnership based on common
interest, mutual respect and credibility. Sufficient basic skills, critical thinking, lifelong
learning and technological literacy have become the new keys to productivity in the
emerging knowledge based society. Such challenges and demands add new dimensions to
the teaching activity.
GLOBALIZATION IN EDUCATION:
Globalization has its own impact on education sector in the country leading to the several
structural changes in the form, organization and delivery of education services. It also
influenced the education sector in terms of reduced resource support; greater privatization
emergence and supremacy of IT related courses, increased use of ICT, revolutions in the
instructional design and delivery of educational services. . These factors have posed fresh
challenges to teachers who need to equip themselves with innovative delivery skills and
build rigorous professionalism into their roles.
REFERENCES:
1. Dick, Euan; Headrick, Debbie: Scott, Marsha. (2004) Technology based learning for
professional skils.Jounal of Educational Technology. 1(9), 69-95.
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2. Pillai, madhusoodanan, K.N.(2003). Imperatives for India in the wake of internationalization of higher education. New Frontiers in Education. 33 (4),324-326.
3. Singh, Besant Bahadur, (2004). Multyfarious role of teacher for national development,
University News. 42 (44) 14-16.
4. Som Nardu (2003). E - Learning : A guidebook of Principles, Procedures and Practices,
CEMCA: New Delhi
5. Tapscott, Don. (1998). Growing up Digital: The Rise of the Net Generation, Mcgraw Hill,
New York.
ANTHROPOMETRIC CHARACTERISTICS,
SOMATOTYPING AND BODY COMPOSITION OF
VOLLEYBALL AND BASKETBALL PLAYERS
JADEJA MAHIPALSINH RAJENDERASINH
B.P.E.M.P.ED. M.PHIL
SUBJECT : PHYSICAL EDUCATION
ABSTRACT
The purpose of the study was to compare the anthropometric characteristics and
somatotype of the Gujarat University, Ahmadabad’s male basketball players and volleyball
players. Sixty three sportspersons (volleyball=36 and basketball=27) of age group 18-25
years were selected from different colleges affiliated to Gujarat University, Ahmadabad,
Gujarat, India. All the participants’ were assessed for height, weight, breadths, girths and
skin fold thickness. An independent samples t-test revealed that basketball players had
significantly higher height (p<0.01), weight (p<0.01) and body surface area (p<0.01) as
compared to volleyball players. The basketball players were also found to have significantly
greater biceps (p<0.01) and suprailliac (p<0.01) skin fold thicknesses, calf circumference
(p<0.05), percent body fat (p<0.01), total body fat (p<0.01), fat free mass (p<0.05) and
endomorphic component (p<0.05) as compared to volleyball players. Volleyball players had
significantly greater body density (p<0.01) as compared to basketball players. The
basketball and volleyball players of this study were found to have higher percentage body
fat with lower body height and body weight than their international counterparts. Further
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investigations are needed on the above studied variables along with fitness and
physiological variables to assess relationships among them and with performances in
volleyball and basketball.
INTRODUCTION
Volleyball and basketball are among the world’s popular sports, played practically in every
nation at varying levels of competence. Successful participation in these sports requires
from each player a high level of technical and tactical skills and suitable anthropometric
characteristics. All ball games require comprehensive abilities including physical, technical,
mental, and tactical abilities. Among them, physical abilities of the players are more
important as these have marked effects on the skill of players and the tactics of the teams
because ball games require repeated maximum exertion such as dashing and jumping Such
physical abilities are important for both volleyball and basketball players to achieve higher
levels of performance. To evaluate these physical abilities, the anthropometric
measurements, parameters of the body composition such as the percent body fat (% FAT);
fat-free mass (FFM) and Somatotype components are often used. Studies on the physical
characteristics of the human body to-date indicate that the morphological characteristics of
athletes successful in a specific sport differ in somatic characteristics from the general
population. Basketball and volleyball players are typically taller than the players of other
games. Basketball and volleyball require handling the ball above the head; therefore,
having a greater height is an advantage in these sports. Higher body mass however, is a
hurdle for volleyball players in achieving good jumping height Various researchers
suggested that different body size, shape and proportions are beneficial in different
physical activities
Several studies on the anthropometric characteristics and somatotype of basketball and
volleyball players have been reported in literature however, similar studies in the context of
India are limited. The present study has been conducted on Indian university volleyball and
basketball players to evaluate their selected physical characteristics along with somatotype
thus fills up already existing void of literature in Indian concern
OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
1. To study the anthropometric characteristics and body composition of basketball and
volleyball players.
2. To study the body types of the basketball and volleyball players.
MATERIAL AND METHODS
The present study was conducted on 63 young male subjects (volleyball =36 and basketball
= 27) of age group 18-25 years. The subjects were randomly selected from the different
colleges affiliated to Gujarat University, Ahmadabad, and Gujarat, India irrespective of their
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caste, religion, dietary habits and socioeconomic status. The age of each subject was
calculated from the date of birth as recorded in his institute.
The height of the subjects was measured with anthropometrics rod to the nearest 0.5 cm
(HG-72, Nexgen ergonomics, Canada). The weight of subjects was measured by using
portable weighing machine to the nearest 0.5kg. Body surface area (BSA) and body mass
index (BMI) we recalculated by the following formulae: BSA (m2) = (Body mass in kg) 0.425 ×
(Body Height in cm) 0.725 × 0.007184 (Du Bois and Du Bois, 1916) BMI (Kg/m 2) = (Body mass
in kg)/ (Stature in m2) (Meltzer et al., 1988) Skin fold thickness measurements of the
subjects were measured by slim guide skin fold caliper. Girths were taken with the steel
tape to the nearest 0.5 cm. Widths of body parts were measured by using sliding caliper
with digital readout. Soma to type was determined from the following equations (Heath
and Carter, 1990): (I) Endomorphic = - 0.7182 + 0.1451(X) - 0.00068 (X) 2 + 0.0000014 (X) 3
Where X = sum of supra-spinal, sub scapular and triceps skin fold and corrected for stature
by multiplying the sum of skin folds by170.18/Body Height in cm (ii) Mesomorphy = (0.858 X
ummers width) + (0.601 ´ Femur width) + (0.188 X Corrected arm girth) + (0.161 Corrected
Calf Girth) - (Body Height X 0.131) + 4.5 Where Corrected Arm Girth = Arm girth-Biceps skin
fold, Corrected Calf Girth = Calf Girth-Calf Skin fold. (iii) Ectomorphy = (HWR X 0.732)-28.58
[Where HWR = (Body Height in cm)/ (weight in kg) 0.33] Percentage body fat as estimated
from the sum of skin folds was calculated using equations of Sire (1956) and Durnin
andWomersley (1974). The regression equations for the prediction of body density from
the log of the sum of skin fold thickness at four sites in mm are as follows:
For 17 to 19 years age group:
Body Density (gm/cc) = 1.1620-0.0630 (X) (Durnin and Womersley, 1974)
For 20 to 29 years age group:
Body Density (gm/cc) = 1.1631-0.0632 (X) (Durnin and Womersley, 1974)
Where
X = log (Biceps + Triceps + Sub scapular + Suprailliac). % Body Fat = [4.95/ Body density-4.5]
X 100 (Sire, 1956) Total Body Fat (kg) = (% Body fat/100) ´ Body mass (kg) Lean Body Mass
(kg) = Body mass (kg) – Total body fat (kg).
STATISTICAL ANALYSES
Values are presented as mean values and SD. Independent samples t tests were used to
test if population means estimated by two independent samples differed significantly. Data
was analyzed using SPSS Version 16.0 (Statistical Package for the Social Sciences, version
16.0, SSPS In,).
Table 1.
Physical parameters of the volleyballers and basketballers
Basketballers (N=27)
Volleyballers (N=36) t- Value
Variables
Mean
SD
Mean
SD
Height (cm)
187.44
5.19
183.25
6.15
2.85**
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Weight (kg)
BMI
BSA
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79.40
22.63
2.04
7.70
2.33
0.09
73.02
21.78
1.94
7.58
2.35
0.94
3.28**
1.41
3.95**
** indicates p<0.01.
Table 2.
Different skin folds measurements of the volleyballers and basketballers.
Basketballers (N=27)
Volleyballers (N=36) t- Value
Variables
Mean
SD
Mean
SD
Biceps (mm)
Triceps (mm)
Subscapular
(mm)
Suprailliac (mm)
Calf (mm)
4.88
7.48
12.55
1.25
1.31
3.04
4.00
8.69
11.38
1.17
3.43
3.66
14.77
13.07
2.96
3.57
9.03
11.19
5.45
3.97
2.89**
1.37
1.34
4.49
1.94
** indicates p< 0.01.
Table 3.
Diameters and circumferences of the volleyballers and basketballers
* indicates p< 0.05.
Variables
Bi-hummers diameter
Bi-femur diameter
Upper
arm
circumference
Calf circumference
Basketballers(N=27)
Mean
SD
Volleyballers (N=36)
SD
Mean
tValue
69.77
102.66
27.00
3.45
5.89
1.33
70.45
100.03
26.33
6.49
6.99
1.88
0.49
1.58
1.56
36.66
2.28
35.50
2.10
2.56
Table 4.
Different components of body composition of the volleyballers and basketballers
* indicates p < 0.05. ** indicates p < 0.01.
Variables
Basketballers(N=27)
Mean
SD
Volleyballers
Mean
Body density
% BF (kg)
TF (kg)
FFM (kg)
1.062
15.95
12.67
66.72
1.068
13.30
9.88
63.13
0.004
2.12
2.11
6.59
(N=36)
t- Value
SD
0.009
4.01
3.75
5.39
3.13**
3.10**
3.46**
2.37*
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RESULTS:
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Table 1 shows the descriptive statistics for physical parameters of volleyball and
basketball players. Mean body height of basketball players was significantly higher than
those of volleyball players (p<0.01). Basket ballplayers also had significantly greater
weight (p<0.01) as compared to volleyball players. No statistically significant difference
was observed between the basketball players and the volleyball players in relation to
BMI. BSA was significantly higher in basketball players than those of volleyball players
(p<0.01).
In Table 2 descriptive statistics for skin fold measurement values are depicted. Both
biceps (p<0.01) and suprailliac skin folds (p<0.01) measurements were observed to be
significantly higher for basketball players than volleyball players. The differences
observed between the two groups for triceps, sub scapular and calfskin fold
measurement were not statistically significant. Descriptive statistics of diameters and
circumferences are shown in Table 3. There was no significant difference between
basketball players and volleyball players in bihumerusand bi-femur diameters. Since arm
and calf circumference measurements reflect the bone, muscle and fat mass of the limbs,
these two variables have also been evaluating. No significant difference was observed in
upper arm circumference between the two groups, but calf circumference (p<0.05) was
significantly higher for Basketball players when compared to volleyball players.
Descriptive statistics for different components of body composition are presented in
Table 4. Volleyball players were found to have significantly greater body density (p<0.01)
when compared to basketball players. The basketball players were observed to have
significantly higher percent body fat (p<0.01) and total body fat (p<0.01) when compared
to volleyball players. Fat free mass (FFM) was also significantly greater in basket
ballplayers (p<0.01) than those of volleyball players. Table 5summarizes the descriptive
statistics of the somatotypingcomponents. Endomorphic values of basketball players
were significantly higher (p<0.01) than those of volley ballplayers. In relation to
mesomorphy and ectomorphy, no significant differences were observed between the two
groups.
Table 5.
Somatotyping of the volleyballers and basketballers
Variables
Basketballers(N=27)
Mean
SD
Volleyballers
Mean
Endomorph
Mesomorphy
Ectomorphy
3.21
2.91
3.40
2.68
3.06
3.57
0.56
1.14
1.30
(N=36)
t- Value
SD
1.05
1.11
1.41
2.37
0.51
0.50
* indicates p < 0.05.
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DISCUSS:
In the present study the anthropometric characteristics of the athletes have not been
evaluated in relation to their performance, but were instead compared with each other.
This study indicates the existence of differences among the players of different games.
The overall results Show that basketball players were taller and heavier as
Compared to the volleyball players Similar findings were found in the studies on
Malaysian male athletes (Nadir et.al., 1996) and Turkish male athletes (Pelin et al., 2007)
which reported that the height of basketball players was greater when compared to
other sports groups. The basketball players were also reported to have greater body fat
percentage, skin fold measurements, FFM and endomorphic component as compared to
volley ballplayers. These results show that basketball player’s were taller, heavier and
fatter as compared to their counterparts. On average, the basketball players of the
present study are considerably taller and heavier than the State level players studied by
Sodhi (1976) and top-ranking Indian basketball players (Sodhi, 1980). On the other hand,
they are considerably shorter and lighter when compared to their international
counterparts (Salletet al., 2005; Apostolicism et al., 2003). Because the basketball and
volleyball require handling the ball above the head, having a greater height is an
advantage in basketball and volleyball games (Kansal et al., 1986).Lower height of Indian
basketball players might be the one of the reason for their dismal performances at the
international level.
In volleyball, teams compete by manipulating skills of spiking and blocking high above the
head. Therefore, the presence of tall players is an indispensable factor in the success of a
team. The volleyball players in the present study have greater height and weight than the
volleyball players from West Bengal studied by Bandyopadhyay (2007) whereas they are
shorter and lighter than their international counterparts (Guild and Mascagni,
2001;Morques and Merino, 2009; Gobbet, 2008).The present data regarding the % fat of
the players is approximately accords with the proposal that percentage fat value among
basketball and volleyball players should be within the range of 6-15% (Wilmore and
Costill,1999).The basketball players in the present study have higher percentage body fat
than the elite level Greek basketball players (Sallet et al., 2005) and French professional
basketball players (Apostolicism et al., 2003). The volleyball players have higher body fat
percentage than the volleyball players from West Bengal studied by Bandyopadhyay
(2007). An increased fat weight will be detrimental in volleyball and basketball because in
these sports, the body is moved against the gravity (e.g. volleyball spiking, blocking) or
propelled horizontally (assign basketball) as the additional body fat adds to the eight of
the body without contributing to its force production or energy producing capabilities.
Higher fat free mass was reported among the overseas players than the Indian volleyball
and basketball players who will therefore achieve better performance. Greater fat
content and lower FFM among Indian volleyball and basket ballplayers act as a hindrance
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in their performance. This might be due to lower training levels and thus low level of
physical fitness. Constituents of diet may also be one of the reasons for greater fat
content and lower FFM among the Indian players.
The somatotyping scores of basketball players in the present study are 3.2-2.9-3.4 and
they are reported asendo-ectomorphic. The results in present study are not in line with
those of Hebbelinck and Ross (1974) who reported an ecto-mesomorphic somatotype as
the prototype for basketball players. The basketball players in the present study have
greater endomorphic component and lower geomorphic component than those of the
top-ranking Indian basketball players studied by Sodhi (1980) and Turkish basketball
players studied by Pelin et al. (2009). The somatotyping scores of volleyball players in the
present study are 2.6-3.0-3.5 and they are reported as meso-ectomorphic. The present
results are not in agreement with those of Guild and Mascagni (2001) who reported
volleyball players as balanced mesomorphs. On the other hand, the somatotyping scores
of volley ballplayers in the present study are in conformity with Indonesian volleyball
players showed the mesomorphicecto morphsomatotype, with a somatotype score of
2.4-3.5-3.7 (Rahmawati et al., 2007).
HEALTH FITNESS PLAN FOR WOMEN
DR. VISHNUBHAI D. CHAUDHARI
B.P.E.M.P.ED. PH. D.
SUBJECT : PHYSICAL EDUCATION
INTRODUCTION
Sports keep Women fit and make them self-dependent, confident, mentally and physically
strong. Women are gaining interest in sports and heading towards it to take it up as a career
AIM & OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
1. To provide women opportunities to take part in physical exercise and sports in order to
promote good public health,
2. To support a free and independent sports movement, based on voluntary effort,
3. To give women positive experiences of sports as entertainment.
4. To participate in physical exercise and sports as well as their opportunities to have an
influence and take responsibility for their sporting activities,
5. To make it possible for women to engage in sports and physical exercise,
6. To promote integration and good ethics and
7. To help to arise a lifelong interest in physical exercise, thereby promoting good health for
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every Woman
METHODS & MATERIAL
To find out the new methodology in Women sports for the development of human being,
to remove the fear of Women sports, to update the knowledge & avoid the threats. To give
scope to the inherent qualities & to increase the status of Women sports.
To increase the curiosity & interest among the Women Competitive preparation, physical
fitness, happy human life. Self study physical fitness. Make Women aware of education
sports & increase in the quality. Increase in scientific knowledge.
Majority of the Women would like to exercise but do not know how to go about it- what to
do, how to do it, how often. Most of the exercise programmers call for the use of
equipment and gymnasiums which are not always available. Most exercise programmers
call for a great expenditure of time, which most Women cannot spare. Due to that, this
resolves these problems as required.
MATERIAL OBSERVATION, ANALYSIS & DISCUSSION
These exercise programmers varies from different age groups.
AS SHOWN IN THE TABLE
Sr.
No.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
Exercise
Toe touching
Knee raising
Lateral bending
Arm circling
Rocking sit ups
Chest & leg raising
Side leg raising
Knee push ups
Leg over
Run & stride jump
19
08
08
05
16
07
10
26
06
06
115
Level of age
20
21
08
08
08
08
05
05
16
16
09
12
13
16
28
30
08
10
06
08
115
125
22
10
10
07
18
14
19
32
12
08
125
Minutes for
each exercise
02
02
01
01
02
01
03
CONCLUSION AND DISCUSSION
It has been suggested Extensive research taken into the problems of physical fitness for
Women, the research having been conducted at Dr. Subhash college Junagadh camp in the
Dist-Junagadh (Gujarat) about 100 Women of 19 years 22 years. The first step in the project
was administration of series of physical fitness tests.
The tests included an examination of muscular strength and of fat level. From the result of
these tests the physical fitness needs of Women were analyzed. Finally it leads effective to
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general fitness.
These exercise programmers varied from different age group. Moderate and consistent
levels of physical activity and sport for women are essential to good health and wellbeing. Connections between physical activity and academic achievement show
there is a positive relationship between the two in women. In physical activity, less
access to sport and physical fitness programs, and suffer negative health consequences
as a result.
REFERENCES
[1].
An introduction to Physical Education- Nixon & Cozons Foundation of Physical
Education-Bucher.
[2]. Physical Culture & Sports in the GDR
Websites:
[3]. www. Fitness Wellness-guide.com
[4]. www.Humankinetics.com the Physical Fitness and Wellness.
A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF SPORTS
COMPETITION ANXIETY BETWEEN MALE AND
FEMALE WEIGHT LIFTERS OF GUJARAT
MR. KRUNAL PATEL
SUBJECT : PHYSICAL EDUCATION
INTRODUCTION
Weight Lifting, a feat performed by ‘Iron-men’s generally regarded as the deed of the
world’s strongest human beings. The Herculean effort of the erstwhile Soviet Union’s
Validly Alekseev at the1972 Munich Olympic Games who proved himself the strongest
super-heavyweight lifter, making a total of 640 kg, and thus to create a new Olympic
record. However, by the time of the 1976 Montreal Olympic Games, Alekseev easily won
the gold in heavyweight class with an incredible lead of 35 kg (Raja, 1982). Performance is
byproduct of one’s biological, psycho-social, and physical make-up. In games and sports,
psycho-physiological factors play a significant role in determining the performance level of
a player. However, greater importance is assigned to psychological parameters in
competitive sports (Khan & Ali, 2010; Abrahamsen & Pensgaard, 2005; Bawa & Senath,
2001; Wittig, 1984).
Competition is a situation in which two or more individuals or groups struggle for complete
or larger share of a particular goal in which the successor their performance is related to
each other. Thus, sports competition may be considered--as an open conflict when the
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individual or group makes effort to surpass the other individual or the group in any sporting
activity for which the competition is held. Anxiety has both positive as well as negative
effects on the performance of athletes. Anxiety refers to that emotional state of mind
where a fear of danger or loss of hearing is a prominent feature. It generally arises as a
result of fear of something unknown that creates tension and disturbance in the
homeostasis on the individual (Kocher & Pratap, 1972).It is evident from the review that
numerous investigations have been conducted by the contemporary researchers taking into
account psychological parameters important in competitive sports (Knapen, et al. 2009;
Dominic’s, et al. 2009; Hatzigeorgiadis & Chronic, 2007; Taylor, 2005; Ashford, Karageorghis
& Jackson, 2005; Ryan, 1998;). However, the studies in regard to weight lifters are scanty.
Since, in order to fill the existing gap, present work has been designed.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Subjects
For the purpose of this study 40 weight lifters (male = 20, female =20) who represented
Manipur state in the national championships were considered as subjects
TOOLS
For measuring the anxiety of the subjects a questionnaire developed by Martens (1977) was
used. It is a three point likert type scale having 15 items. It is a popular tool being used by
the psychologists for measuring the anxiety level. Its reliability has been reported as 0.85
according to its norms.
PROCEDURE
The questionnaire was administered on the subjects during coaching camp at Imphal
(Manipur), jointly organized by Sports Authority of India (SAI) and Directorate of Youth
Affairs and Sports, Manipur
DATA ANALYSIS
The data thus collected were given to statistical treatment computing‘t’ ratio to find out the
difference if any, between the experimental groups on competition anxiety. The obtained
results have been presented in the following table:
Table 1:
Indicating the mean difference on competition anxiety between national level male and
female weight lifters of Manipur
Variable: Sports Competition Anxiety
Experimental
Mean
Standard Deviation
‘t’ Value
Groups
Male
20.85
+ 3.18
0.83
Fe Male
20.65
+ 3.88
0.83
HYPOTHESIS:
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It was hypothesized that there may not be significant relationship of selected
anthropometric and biomechanical variables to the performance of players in off spin
bowling in cricket.
DELIMITATION:
The study was delimited to 5 male cricketers of 18 to 23 years of age of inter-varsity level.
The biomechanical variables, selected in the study were angles of wrist, elbow, shoulder,
knee and ankle joint, and the height of centre of gravity of the body at moment release. The
selected anthropometric variables were height, sitting height, arm length, leg length, body
weight and height of release of ball.
MATERIAL AND METHODS
Participants:
Five male cricket players who had participated in the west Zone inter-varsity Cricket
Tournament held at Rajkot in January 2003 were selected as subjects for this study. Since
the player had been trained for a considerable period of time, they were considered skilled
and their technique was treated as stabilized. All the subjects were explained the purpose
of the study and were requested to put in their best during each attempt.
Criterion Measures:
The performance of off spin bowling of each selected subjects was taken as the criterion
measure for the purpose of present study. The performance was recorded on the basis of
twenty point scale. 5 point awarded in run up, 5 point awarded in placement of foot, 10
point awarded in Execution, 10 point awarded in Trajectory and 20 point awarded in line,
length and spin. The performance of the subjects on off spin bowling was collected on the
basis of three judge’s evaluation. The averages of three judges were considered as the final
point obtained by eachbowler.Further, to make the calculation easier it was reduced out of
10 point.
TOOLS AND APPARATUS:
To obtain reliable measurements, standard and calibrated equipments like, camera,
steadiometer, weighing machine, steel tape etc were used in order to establish the
reliability of the tester for anthropometric measurements, which were taken on two
consecutive days, test retest method was used. The coefficient of correlation was
calculated. The results had shown high degree of reliability. The camera used for
biomechanical purpose was a standard Nikon EM (with motor drive).
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COLLECTION OF DATA AND ANALYSIS OF FILM:
Sequential photographic technique was employed for the biomechanical analysis of
bowling. The camera used for this purpose was a standard Nikon EM (with motor drive). For
obtaining individual photographic sequence, the subjects were photographed in controlled
conditions. The distance of the camera from the subject was 11.05 meters, and was fixed
on the tripod at 1.07 meters height. A hurdle was filmed prior to filming of subjects for
reference of height and distance.
STATISTICAL TECHNIQUE:
The relationship of selected anthropometric and biomechanical variables with the
performance of cricket playing ability was calculated by using Pearson’s product moment
correlation. For testing the hypothesis the level of significance was set at 0.05.
RESULTS:
As shown in Table-I that the obtained values of coefficient of correlation is case of height
(r=.93), leg length (r=.88) and height of release (r=.90) were found significant at 0.05 level
of significance. Since these values were higher than the tabulated value of.878 for 3 degree
of freedom at the selected level of significance.
TABLE I
Relationship of Selected Anthropometric Variables with the Performance of
Players In Off Spin Bowling
S.No
Variables
Coefficient of Correlation
1.
HEIGHT(CMS)
0.93*
2.
SITTING HEIGHT (CMS)
0.20
3.
ARM LENGTH (CMS)
0.35
4.
LEG LENGTH
0.88*
5.
BODY WEIGHT(KG)
0.04
6.
HEIGHT OF RELEASE(CMS)
0.90*
*Significant 0.05(3) =0.878
TABLE - II
Relationship of Selected Biomechanical Variables with the Performance of
Player in Off Spin Bowling
S.NO
Variable
Coefficient of
Mean
Correlation
1
Wrist.
.62
157.4
2
Ankle joint Left Leg
.74
109
3
knee joint Left Leg
.53
165
4
Elbow joint
.11
175.4
5
shoulder joint
.02
162
6
Ankle Joint Right Leg
.02
102.4
7
Knee Joint Right Leg
.07
132.4
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Height of Centre of Gravity (mts)
.80
0.92
Table –II indicates that none of the Biomechanical variable namely angles of Left Ankle joint
(frontlet), Right Ankle joint (rear leg), Elbow joint (bowling arm), Shoulder joint (bowling
arm), Left knee joint (front leg), Right Knee Joint (rear leg) and Height of centre of gravity at
moment release have significant relationship with the performance of the subjects in off
spin bowling. Even though the value of coefficient of correlations in case of wrist joint
(bowling arm) and Height of Centre of Gravity has exhibited quite high but were not found
significant at the selected level of 0.05.
DISCUSS:
The obtained value of coefficient of correlation of selected anthropometric variables at the
moment release Only the height and leg length have significant relationship with the
performance of subjects in off spin bowling. In case of biomechanical variables none of the
biomechanical variable has exhibited significant relationship with the performance of
players in off spin bowling. It may be because of small size of the sample. It is a known fact
that greater radius of rotation creates greater momentum but angle at elbow joint bowling
arm did not exhibit significant relationship which may be due to other reasons. As a whole
the variables which have shown high relationship with the performance must have
contributed towards the performance of subject in off spin bowling. Along with these
variables, other motor components also must have contributed to the performance.
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ANTHROPOMETRIC CHARACTERISTICS,
SOMATOTYPING AND BODY COMPOSITION OF
VOLLEYBALL AND BASKETBALL PLAYERS
MR. KRUNAL PATEL
SUBJECT : PHYSICAL EDUCATION
The purpose of the study was to compare the anthropometric characteristics and
somatotype of the Gujarat University, Ahmadabad’s male basketball players and volleyball
players. Sixty three sportspersons (volleyball=36 and basketball=27) of age group 18-25
years were selected from different colleges affiliated to Gujarat University, Ahmadabad,
Gujarat, India. All the participants’ were assessed for height, weight, breadths, girths and
skin fold thickness. An independent samples t-test revealed that basketball players had
significantly higher height (p<0.01), weight (p<0.01) and body surface area (p<0.01) as
compared to volleyball players. The basketball players were also found to have significantly
greater biceps (p<0.01) and suprailliac (p<0.01) skin fold thicknesses, calf circumference
(p<0.05), percent body fat (p<0.01), total body fat (p<0.01), fat free mass (p<0.05) and
endomorphic component (p<0.05) as compared to volleyball players. Volleyball players had
significantly greater body density (p<0.01) as compared to basketball players. The
basketball and volleyball players of this study were found to have higher percentage body
fat with lower body height and body weight than their international counterparts. Further
investigations are needed on the above studied variables along with fitness and
physiological variables to assess relationships among them and with performances in
volleyball and basketball.
INTRODUCTION
Volleyball and basketball are among the world’s popular sports, played practically in every
nation at varying levels of competence. Successful participation in these sports requires
from each player a high level of technical and tactical skills and suitable anthropometric
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characteristics. All ball games require comprehensive abilities including physical, technical,
mental, and tactical abilities. Among them, physical abilities of the players are more
important as these have marked effects on the skill of players and the tactics of the teams
because ball games require repeated maximum exertion such as dashing and jumping Such
physical abilities are important for both volleyball and basketball players to achieve higher
levels of performance.
To evaluate these physical abilities, the anthropometric measurements, parameters of the
body composition such as the percent body fat (% FAT); fat-free mass (FFM) and
Somatotype components are often used. Studies on the physical characteristics of the
human body to-date indicate that the morphological characteristics of athletes successful in
a specific sport differ in somatic characteristics from the general population. Basketball and
volleyball players are typically taller than the players of other games. Basketball and
volleyball require handling the ball above the head; therefore, having a greater height is an
advantage in these sports. Higher body mass however, is a hurdle for volleyball players in
achieving good jumping height Various researchers suggested that different body size,
shape and proportions are beneficial in different physical activities
Several studies on the anthropometric characteristics and somatotype of basketball and
volleyball players have been reported in literature however, similar studies in the context of
India are limited. The present study has been conducted on Indian university volleyball and
basketball players to evaluate their selected physical characteristics along with somatotype
thus fills up already existing void of literature in Indian concern
OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
To study the anthropometric characteristics and body composition of basketball and
volleyball players.
To study the body types of the basketball and volleyball players.
MATERIAL AND METHODS
The present study was conducted on 63 young male subjects (volleyball =36 and basketball
= 27) of age group 18-25 years. The subjects were randomly selected from the different
colleges affiliated to Gujarat University, Ahmadabad, and Gujarat, India irrespective of their
caste, religion, dietary habits and socioeconomic status. The age of each subject was
calculated from the date of birth as recorded in his institute.
The height of the subjects was measured with anthropometrics rod to the nearest 0.5 cm
(HG-72, Nexgen ergonomics, Canada). The weight of subjects was measured by using
portable weighing machine to the nearest 0.5kg. Body surface area (BSA) and body mass
index (BMI) we recalculated by the following formulae:
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BSA (m2) = (Body mass in kg) 0.425 × (Body Height in cm) 0.725 × 0.007184 (Du Bois and Du
Bois, 1916) BMI (Kg/m2) = (Body mass in kg)/ (Stature in m2) (Meltzer et al., 1988) Skin fold
thickness measurements of the subjects were measured by slim guide skin fold caliper.
Girths were taken with the steel tape to the nearest 0.5 cm. Widths of body parts were
measured by using sliding caliper with digital readout. Soma to type was determined from
the following equations (Heath and Carter, 1990): (I) Endomorphic = - 0.7182 + 0.1451(X) 0.00068 (X) 2 + 0.0000014 (X) 3 Where X = sum of supra-spinal, sub scapular and triceps skin
fold and corrected for stature by multiplying the sum of skin folds by170.18/Body Height in
cm (ii) Mesomorphy = (0.858 X Hummers width) + (0.601 ´ Femur width) + (0.188 X
Corrected arm girth) + (0.161 Corrected Calf Girth) - (Body Height X 0.131) + 4.5 Where
Corrected Arm Girth = Arm girth-Biceps skin fold, Corrected Calf Girth = Calf Girth-Calf Skin
fold. (iii) Ectomorphy = (HWR X 0.732)-28.58 [Where HWR = (Body Height in cm)/ (weight
in kg) 0.33] Percentage body fat as estimated from the sum of skin folds was calculated using
equations of Sire (1956) and Durnin andWomersley (1974). The regression equations for
the prediction of body density from the log of the sum of skin fold thickness at four sites in
mm are as follows:
For 17 to 19 years age group:
Body Density (gm/cc) = 1.1620-0.0630 (X) (Durnin and Womersley, 1974)
For 20 to 29 years age group:
Body Density (gm/cc) = 1.1631-0.0632 (X) (Durnin and Womersley, 1974)
Where
X = log (Biceps + Triceps + Sub scapular + Suprailliac). % Body Fat = [4.95/ Body density4.5] X 100 (Sire, 1956) Total Body Fat (kg) = (% Body fat/100) ´ Body mass (kg) Lean Body
Mass (kg) = Body mass (kg) – Total body fat (kg).
STATISTICAL ANALYSES
Values are presented as mean values and SD. Independent samples t tests were used to
test if population means estimated by two independent samples differed significantly. Data
was analyzed using SPSS Version 16.0 (Statistical Package for the Social Sciences, version
16.0, SSPS In,).
Table 1.
Physical parameters of the volleyballers and basketballers
Variables
Basketballers (N=27)
Mean
SD
Height (cm)
Weight (kg)
BMI
BSA
187.44
79.40
22.63
2.04
5.19
7.70
2.33
0.09
Volleyballers
Mean
SD
183.25
73.02
21.78
1.94
(N=36)
6.15
7.58
2.35
0.94
t- Value
2.85**
3.28**
1.41
3.95**
** indicates p<0.01.
Table 2.
Different skin folds measurements of the volleyballers and basketballers.
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Basketballers (N=27)
Volleyballers (N=36)
Mean
SD
Mean
SD
4.88
1.25
4.00
1.17
7.48
1.31
8.69
3.43
12.55
3.04
11.38
3.66
Variables
Biceps (mm)
Triceps (mm)
Subscapular
(mm)
Suprailliac (mm)
Calf (mm)
14.77
13.07
2.96
3.57
9.03
11.19
5.45
3.97
t- Value
2.89**
1.37
1.34
4.49
1.94
** indicates p< 0.01.
Table 3.
Diameters and circumferences of the volleyballers and basketballers
Basketballers(N=
27)
Mean
SD
Variables
Bi-hummers diameter
Bi-femur diameter
Upper arm
circumference
Calf circumference
Volleyballers (N=36)
SD
69.77
102.66
27.00
3.45
5.89
1.33
70.45
100.03
26.33
36.66
2.28
35.50
Mean
tValue
6.49
6.99
1.88
0.49
1.58
1.56
2.10
2.56
* indicates p< 0.05.
Table 4.
Different components of body composition of the volleyballers and basketballers
Variables
Basketballers(N=27)
Mean
SD
Body density
% BF (kg)
TF (kg)
FFM (kg)
1.062
15.95
12.67
66.72
0.004
2.12
2.11
6.59
Volleyballers
Mean
SD
(N=36)
t- Value
1.068
0.009
3.13**
13.30
4.01
3.10**
9.88
3.75
3.46**
63.13
5.39
2.37*
* indicates p < 0.05. ** indicates p < 0.01.
RESULTS:
Table 1 shows the descriptive statistics for physical parameters of volleyball and basketball
players. Mean body height of basketball players was significantly higher than those of
volleyball players (p<0.01). Basket ballplayers also had significantly greater weight (p<0.01)
as compared to volleyball players. No statistically significant difference was observed
between the basketball players and the volleyball players in relation to BMI. BSA was
significantly higher in basketball players than those of volleyball players (p<0.01).
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In Table 2 descriptive statistics for skin fold measurement values are depicted. Both biceps
(p<0.01) and suprailliac skin folds (p<0.01) measurements were observed to be significantly
higher for basketball players than volleyball players. The differences observed between the
two groups for triceps, sub scapular and calfskin fold measurement were not statistically
significant. Descriptive statistics of diameters and circumferences are shown in Table 3.
There was no significant difference between basketball players and volleyball players in
bihumerusand bi-femur diameters. Since arm and calf circumference measurements reflect
the bone, muscle and fat mass of the limbs, these two variables have also been evaluating.
No significant difference was observed in upper arm circumference between the two
groups, but calf circumference (p<0.05) was significantly higher for Basketball players when
compared to volleyball players.
Descriptive statistics for different components of body composition are presented in Table
4. Volleyball players were found to have significantly greater body density (p<0.01) when
compared to basketball players. The basketball players were observed to have significantly
higher percent body fat (p<0.01) and total body fat (p<0.01) when compared to volleyball
players. Fat free mass (FFM) was also significantly greater in basket ballplayers (p<0.01)
than those of volleyball players. Table 5summarizes the descriptive statistics of the
somatotypingcomponents. Endomorphic values of basketball players were significantly
higher (p<0.01) than those of volley ballplayers. In relation to mesomorphy and
ectomorphy, no significant differences were observed between the two groups.
Table 5.
Somatotyping of the volleyballers and basketballers
Variables
Basketballers(N=27)
Mean
SD
Endomorph
Mesomorphy
Ectomorphy
3.21
2.91
3.40
0.56
1.14
1.30
Volleyballers
Mean
SD
2.68
3.06
3.57
1.05
1.11
1.41
(N=36)
t- Value
2.37
0.51
0.50
* indicates p < 0.05.
DISCUSS:
In the present study the anthropometric characteristics of the athletes have not been
evaluated in relation to their performance, but were instead compared with each other.
This study indicates the existence of differences among the players of different games. The
overall results Show that basketball players were taller and heavier as Compared to the
volleyball players Similar findings were found in the studies on Malaysian male athletes
(Nadir et.al., 1996) and Turkish male athletes (Pelin et al., 2007) which reported that the
height of basketball players was greater when compared to other sports groups. The
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basketball players were also reported to have greater body fat percentage, skin fold
measurements, FFM and endomorphic component as compared to volley ballplayers. These
results show that basketball player’s were taller, heavier and fatter as compared to their
counterparts. On average, the basketball players of the present study are considerably
taller and heavier than the State level players studied by Sodhi (1976) and top-ranking
Indian basketball players (Sodhi, 1980). On the other hand, they are considerably shorter
and lighter when compared to their international counterparts (Salletet al., 2005;
Apostolicism et al., 2003). Because the basketball and volleyball require handling the ball
above the head, having a greater height is an advantage in basketball and volleyball games
(Kansal et al., 1986).Lower height of Indian basketball players might be the one of the
reason for their dismal performances at the international level.
In volleyball, teams compete by manipulating skills of spiking and blocking high above the
head. Therefore, the presence of tall players is an indispensable factor in the success of a
team.
The volleyball players in the present study have greater height and weight than the
volleyball players from West Bengal studied by Bandyopadhyay (2007) whereas they are
shorter and lighter than their international counterparts (Guild and Mascagni,
2001;Morques and Merino, 2009; Gobbet, 2008).The present data regarding the % fat of
the players is approximately accords with the proposal that percentage fat value among
basketball and volleyball players should be within the range of 6-15% (Wilmore and
Costill,1999).The basketball players in the present study have higher percentage body fat
than the elite level Greek basketball players (Sallet et al., 2005) and French professional
basketball players (Apostolicism et al., 2003). The volleyball players have higher body fat
percentage than the volleyball players from West Bengal studied by Bandyopadhyay (2007).
An increased fat weight will be detrimental in volleyball and basketball because in these
sports, the body is moved against the gravity (e.g. volleyball spiking, blocking) or propelled
horizontally (assign basketball) as the additional body fat adds to the eight of the body
without contributing to its force production or energy producing capabilities. Higher fat free
mass was reported among the overseas players than the Indian volleyball and basketball
players who will therefore achieve better performance. Greater fat content and lower FFM
among Indian volleyball and basket ballplayers act as a hindrance in their performance. This
might be due to lower training levels and thus low level of physical fitness. Constituents of
diet may also be one of the reasons for greater fat content and lower FFM among the
Indian players.
The somatotyping scores of basketball players in the present study are 3.2-2.9-3.4 and
they are reported asendo-ectomorphic. The results in present study are not in line with
those of Hebbelinck and Ross (1974) who reported an ecto-mesomorphic somatotype as
the prototype for basketball players. The basketball players in the present study have
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ranking Indian basketball players studied by Sodhi (1980) and Turkish basketball players
studied by Pelin et al. (2009). The somatotyping scores of volleyball players in the present
study are 2.6-3.0-3.5 and they are reported as meso-ectomorphic. The present results are
not in agreement with those of Guild and Mascagni (2001) who reported volleyball players
as balanced mesomorphs. On the other hand, the somatotyping scores of volley ballplayers
in the present study are in conformity with Indonesian volleyball players showed the
mesomorphicecto morphsomatotype, with a somatotype score of 2.4-3.5-3.7 (Rahmawati
et al., 2007).
THE RELATIONSHIP OF SELECTED
ANTHROPOMETRIC AND BIOMECHANICAL
VARIABLES WITH THE PERFORMANCE OF
PLAYERS IN OFF SPIN BOWLING
MR. KRUNAL PATEL
SUBJECT : PHYSICAL EDUCATION
The study was concluded in order to determine the relationship of selected
anthropometric and biomechanical variables with the performance of players in off spin
bowling. Five male cricketers’ players who represent lakshmibai National Institute of
physical education, Gwalior, were selected as subjected for the study. The help of digital
photography was used to film the subjects is marital plane of off spin bowling. Joint point
method was used in order to obtain the values of selected angular kinematics variables
from develop stick figures. The performance of off spin bowling of each selected subjects
was recorded on the basis of twenty point scale. 5 point awarded in run up, 5 point
awarded in placement of foot, 10 point awarded in Execution, 10 point awarded in
Trajectory and 20 point awarded in line, length and spin, which was obtained by using
three point scales by the threejudge.To determine the degree of relationship of selected
anthropometric and biomechanical variables with the performance of players in off spin
bowling Pearson’s product Moment Correlation Method was used. The obtained value of
coefficient of correlation of selected anthropometricariables at the moment release. Only
the height and leg length have significant relationship with the performance of subjects in
off spin bowling In case of biomechanical variables none of the biomechanical variable
has exhibited significant relationship with the performance of players in off spin bowling.
It may be because of small size of the sample. It is a known fact that greater radius of
rotation creates greater momentum but angle at elbow joint bowling arm did not exhibit
significant Relationship which may be due to other reasons.
INTRODUCTION
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A sport is as old as the human society and it has achieved a universal following in the
modern times. It now enjoys popularity, which out strips any others form of social activity.
It has become an integral part of the educational process; millions of fans follow different
sport. Many participate in sports actives for fun or for health, fitness and well being.
Sports have become a man movement and social phenomena of great magnitude.
Biomechanics is an applied form of mechanics and consequently the methods used to
investigate, it must be derived from those of mechanics but as boarding science in other
scientific discipline such as anatomy, physiology and technique of sports. The role of
biomechanics in attaining high performance cannot be overlooked, since it is the only
science which helps to identify the faults in performing technique very precisely.
There are basically two methods by which motor skill can be analyses. They are qualitative
and quantitative. High speed movie film for exactness has been used extensively to
examine in great details of the movements which occur too fast for the human eye to
detect. In many of the elite sport training and research institution around the world, force
applied during high caliber sporting event, while the analysis test have done much to
improve understanding of movement and the performance of elite athletes, the analysis
task faced by the coach are predominantly qualitative in nature.
Measurement of body since includes descriptive information such as height, weight and
surface areas, while measure of body proportion describe the relationship between
height, weight and among lengths, widths and circumference of various body segments. It
has been found that top athletes in some sports tend to have those proportions that
biomechanically aid the particular performance. However, the cricket as such as being
played in limited countries irrespective of its vast popularity. As a result of which it could
not be flourished to the maximum potency, though the advancement in techniques and in
nature of the game has been tremendous apart from all these developments no steps
have been taken to make it more scientific by constructing the test and validating them
preparing the norms. Any part of educational discipline without some form of evaluation
procedure is like a ship in the sea without a chart or compass. Cricket is the most popular
and the richest in the history of all ball games. There is no exact record available which
shows when and by whom the game was started in England. It is as old as 13th century.
Cricket has become one of the most popular in the world of all major games in India. It is
only one that has been jealously preserved by all those who play or support it.
PURPOSE:
The purpose of the study was to analyze the relationship of selected anthropometric and
Biomechanical variables with the performance of players in off spin bowling.
HYPOTHESIS:
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It was hypothesized that there may not be significant relationship of selected
anthropometric and biomechanical variables to the performance of players in off spin
bowling in cricket.
DELIMITATION:
The study was delimited to 5 male cricketers of 18 to 23 years of age of inter-varsity
level. The biomechanical variables, selected in the study were angles of wrist, elbow,
shoulder, knee and ankle joint, and the height of centre of gravity of the body at moment
release. The selected anthropometric variables were height, sitting height, arm length, leg
length, body weight and height of release of ball.
MATERIAL AND METHODS
Participants:
Five male cricket players who had participated in the west Zone inter-varsity Cricket
Tournament held at Rajkot in January 2003 were selected as subjects for this study. Since
the player had been trained for a considerable period of time, they were considered skilled
and their technique was treated as stabilized. All the subjects were explained the purpose
of the study and were requested to put in their best during each attempt
CRITERION MEASURES:
The performance of off spin bowling of each selected subjects was taken as the criterion
measure for the purpose of present study. The performance was recorded on the basis of
twenty point scale. 5 point awarded in run up, 5 point awarded in placement of foot, 10
point awarded in Execution, 10 point awarded in Trajectory and 20 point awarded in line,
length and spin. The performance of the subjects on off spin bowling was collected on the
basis of three judge’s evaluation. The averages of three judges were considered as the
final point obtained by eachbowler.Further, to make the calculation easier it was reduced
out of 10 point.
TOOLS AND APPARATUS:
To obtain reliable measurements, standard and calibrated equipments like, camera,
steadiometer, weighing machine, steel tape etc were used in order to establish the
reliability of the tester for anthropometric measurements, which were taken on two
consecutive days, test retest method was used. The coefficient of correlation was
calculated. The results had shown high degree of reliability. The camera used for
biomechanical purpose was a standard Nikon EM (with motor drive).
COLLECTION OF DATA AND ANALYSIS OF FILM:
Sequential photographic technique was employed for the biomechanical analysis of
bowling. The camera used for this purpose was a standard Nikon EM (with motor drive).
For obtaining individual photographic sequence, the subjects were photographed in
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controlled conditions. The distance of the camera from the subject was 11.05 meters, and
was fixed on the tripod at 1.07 meters height. A hurdle was filmed prior to filming of
subjects for reference of height and distance. The camera was operated by an expert
professional photographer on the basis of the sequential photographs obtained the
investigator developed the stick figures from which various biomechanical variables were
taken. The stick figures were developed by using joint point method in which the body
projection at the joints facing the camera were considered. The C.G. of each subject was
located using segmentation method. The Anthropometric variables were represented by
the Anthropometric Measurements such as Height, Sitting Height, Leg Length, Arm Length
and Weight.
STATISTICAL TECHNIQUE:
The relationship of selected anthropometric and biomechanical variables with the
performance of cricket playing ability was calculated by using Pearson’s product moment
correlation. For testing the hypothesis the level of significance was set at 0.05.
RESULTS:
As shown in Table-I that the obtained values of coefficient of correlation is case of height
(r=.93), leg length (r=.88) and height of release (r=.90) were found significant at 0.05 level
of significance. Since these values were higher than the tabulated value of.878 for 3
degree of freedom at the selected level of significance. All other selected anthropometric
variables did not show significant relationship with the performance of cricketer in off spin
bowling because they obtained values were less than the required value to be significant
at selected level of significance.
TABLE I
Relationship of Selected Anthropometric Variables with the Performance of
Players In Off Spin Bowling
S.No
Variables
Coefficient of Correlation
1.
HEIGHT(CMS)
0.93*
2.
SITTING HEIGHT (CMS)
0.20
3.
ARM LENGTH (CMS)
0.35
4.
LEG LENGTH
0.88*
5.
BODY WEIGHT(KG)
0.04
6.
HEIGHT OF RELEASE(CMS)
0.90*
*Significant 0.05(3) =0.878
TABLE - II
Relationship of Selected Biomechanical Variables with the Performance of
Player in Off Spin Bowling
S.NO
Variable
Coefficient of
Mean
Correlation
1
Wrist.
.62
157.4
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3
4
5
6
7
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Ankle joint Left Leg
knee joint Left Leg
Elbow joint
shoulder joint
Ankle Joint Right Leg
Knee Joint Right Leg
Height of Centre of Gravity (mts)
.74
.53
.11
.02
.02
.07
.80
109
165
175.4
162
102.4
132.4
0.92
Table –II indicates that none of the Biomechanical variable namely angles of Left Ankle joint
(frontlet), Right Ankle joint (rear leg), Elbow joint (bowling arm), Shoulder joint (bowling
arm), Left knee joint (front leg), Right Knee Joint (rear leg) and Height of centre of gravity at
moment release have significant relationship with the performance of the subjects in off spin
bowling.
Even though the value of coefficient of correlations in case of wrist joint (bowling arm) and
Height of Centre of Gravity has exhibited quite high but were not found significant at the
selected level of 0.05.
DISCUSS:
The obtained value of coefficient of correlation of selected anthropometric variables at the
moment release Only the height and leg length have significant relationship with the
performance of subjects in off spin bowling. In case of biomechanical variables none of the
biomechanical variable has exhibited significant relationship with the performance of
players in off spin bowling. It may be because of small size of the sample. It is a known fact
that greater radius of rotation creates greater momentum but angle at elbow joint
bowling arm did not exhibit significant relationship which may be due to other reasons. As
a whole the variables which have shown high relationship with the performance must
have contributed towards the performance of subject in off spin bowling. Along with these
variables, other motor components also must have contributed to the performance. This
does not mean that other variables might have not contributed to the performance. They
do contribute to the performance. But the insignificant values of coefficient of correlation
of such variables with the performance might have been due to the small size of the
sample and non availability of sophisticated equipment. Since the results have shown
significant relationship of few selected anthropometric variables to the performance of
players in off spin bowling, the hypothesis is as stated earlier that there may not be
significant relationship of selected anthropometric and biomechanical variables to the
performance of players in off spin bowling in cricket is rejected. However in case of other
variables the hypothesis is accepted.
CONCLUSIONS:
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Based on the analysis and within the limitations of the present study the following
conclusions can bedrawn.In anthropometric variables height and leg length has shown
positive effect on performance of players off spin bowling in cricket. Height of release has
shown positive effect on performance of off spin bowling. None of selected biomechanical
variable has shown the significant relationship with the performance of cricketers in spin
bowling.
THE MODERN TRENDS IN PHYSICAL
EDUCATION
DR.PARESH D. TRIVEDI
P.T.I. SAURASHTRA GYANPITH ARTS AND COMMERCE COLLEGE-BARVALA
SUBJECT : PHYSICAL EDUCATION
As a result of efforts of various revolutionaries, India finally got independence in the year
1947. Now India became a democratic country and Government of India did various efforts
to improve the deteriorated status of physical education, which was the result of policies of
Britishers.
Government of India realized the importance of physical education or physical activities for
the people and took various importance steps to improvise its status. An important step in
that direction was the establishment of a Committee which was named “Tara Chand
Committee”.
This committee came into existence in the year 1948. Various recommendations were
provided by this committee to improve the condition or status of physical education in the
country.
To advise the government in various issues relating to physical education, a board, named
Central Advisory Board was being set up in the year 1950. To provide training to athletes in
various games and sports, some special kinds of schemes were being introduced by
government of India.
The problem which was faced during this period was the lack of professional qualified
physical educators. For this reason, it was not an easy task to encourage people or
individuals to take part in the sport activities.
In our country, it was realised by the government that people of our country did not lack in
natural qualities, but they did not get proper opportunities to show their talents.
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To provide all the individuals equal opportunities to show their talents, Sports Talent Search
Scholarship scheme was introduced by government of India in the year 1970-71. National
and state level scholarships were being provided to the participants of this scheme. To
encourage women to participate in various sport activities, National Sports Championship
for women was launched in the year 1975 by government of India.
To encourage college students to participate in various sports events, University Grants
Commission launched another scheme, the aim of which was to improve the standard of
sports at university level.
With all these efforts, people of India got attracted towards games and sports to such an
extent that in the year 1982 Asian Games were being conducted in this country.The
organisation of such tournament in the country helped in improving the standard of games
and sports in the country to a lot of extent.In 1984, Sports Authority of India came into
existences and with SAI, Society for National Institutes of Physical Education and Sports got
merged. This organisation has two wings, which perform two different kinds of functions.
Central Government took a premium step in the year 1995 by giving the status of Deemed
University to the Institute of Physical Education. Now this institute is known as Laxmibai
National Institute of Physical Education.
The main function of this institution is to prepare or trained the coaches in such a way that
they can provide proper training to the students of physical education at various levels.To
do research on various aspects relating to the physical education, this institution has set up
various research centres in various parts of the country.Now, knowledge of physical
education or participation in physical activities are not concerned important only for the
school going students, but now it is recognized important for people of all ages and both
the sex.Whatever the physical abilities of individuals, all the persons should participate in
different kinds of physical activities.Today, programmes of physical education are prepared
in such a way that needs and requirements of all the people get fulfilled. According to the
age and requirements of people participating in the activities, one should prepare the
programme carefully.
Various kinds of programmes can be prepared, some of which are Service Programme,
Intramural and Extramural Programme and Fitness and Recreational Programme. The
programme in which importance is provided to the instructional aspect is termed as service
programme.
REFERENCES:
Book- Running with the Mind of Meditation: Lessons for Training Body and Mind by Sakyong Mipham
Rinpoche by SportsBookLand
http://www.shareyouressays.com/106016/essay-on-the-modern-trends-in-physical-education
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www.kuk.ac.in/userfiles/file/ph_d.../Physical%20Education.doc
book - Physical Education, Exercise and Sport Science in a Changing Society By Professor of Exercise
Science Retired Campbell University William H Freeman, William H. Freeman
https://www.marxists.org/reference/archive/mao/selected-works/volume-6/mswv6_01.htm
PHYSICAL EDUCATION AND FEMALE
PARTICIPATION: A CASE STUDY OF
TEACHERS' PERSPECTIVES AND STRATEGIES
DR.MILAN B. BHAYANI
P.T.I. SHREE MAHILA B.B.A. COLLEGE, JOSHIPURA-JUNAGADH
SUBJECT : PHYSICAL EDUCATION
ABSTRACT
We argue that gender issues in physical education (PE) remain in some schools, despite
advances in PE research and curricula aimed at engaging females in PE. We interviewed five
Australian PE teachers (1 male and 4 females) at a co-educational, regional high school
about the factors affecting female participation in PE and the strategies they used to
engage female students. The key strategies the teachers reported using, such as modified
scoring in mixed gender activities, single gender classes, school policies and extra-curricular
activities, were (a) shaped by their individual views on the factors affecting female
participation, (b) primarily embedded in (and reproduced) stereotypes of gender and (c)
generally not a reflection of what is being advocated in the literature. Therefore, our study
highlights the need for policies and programs aimed at supporting PE teachers to
implement gender-sensitive strategies in their daily practice.
Introduction
Engaging female students in physical education (PE) has been recognised as a challenge for
high school teachers (Rich, 2004; Slater & Tiggemann, 2010; Wright, 1999). Historically,
female students have been positioned as 'the problem' and often blamed for their lack of
engagement in the physical activity component of PE (Azzarito, Solmon, & Harrison, 2006;
Enright & O'Sullivan, 2010; Flintoff & Scraton 2001; Garrett, 2004; Keay, 2007; Wright
1996). Over time, it has become increasingly recognised by PE researchers that, "'the
problem' is more often located in the curriculum and pedagogical contexts within which
girls are expected to participate and relates to the social construction of gender through
PE" (Enright & O'Sullivan, 2010, p. 204). Rich (2004, p. 215) claimed that there is "a growing
body of research pointing towards the continued prevalence of gender inequality and
exclusion in often complex ways within the PE curriculum, structures and practices". In
particular, female students in rural and regional settings have additional factors affecting
their participation in PE, such as lack of school sporting facilities and equipment (Casey et
al., 2009). Our study examines the perspectives of five teachers in a regional New South
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Wales (NSW) high school regarding factors affecting female participation in PE, as well as
the pedagogical and management strategies that these PE teachers report using to address
female participation. Our research is informed by theories on the gendered nature of PE
and an understanding that gender is socially constructed (Wright, 1995; 1999; 2001). This
framing allows us to show how traditional notions of gender, femininity and masculinity can
be challenged and/or reproduced through PE teachers' perspectives, as reported through
their accounts of their everyday practices.
PE has long been recognised as gendered in its philosophy, content, organisational
structure and through its association with sport (Garrett, 2004; Rich 2004; Wright, 1999).
Research informed by an understanding of gender as socially constructed has shown how
teachers play a role in constructing gender and (re)producing relations of power through
their teaching practices (Wright, 2001). Such an approach asks teachers to reflect on the
consequences of their practice, rather than simply 'blame' the female students as
problematic. This approach aligns with a poststructuralist perspective (among others) in
that it recognises that what it means to be male or female, masculine or feminine, is socially
and historically located and open to change (Azzarito et al., 2006; Rich, 2004; Wright, 1999).
Therefore, knowing what teachers say and do in their PE classes, how they organise their
classes and their choices of activities is important because these social practices have the
potential to construct, reproduce or challenge assumptions based on gender (Wright,
2001).
According to Macdonald and Penney (2009), health and physical education in Australia aims
to play a key role in challenging social constructions, such as gender stereotypes, that limit
student engagement. In particular, the NSW Syllabus for Years 7-10 Personal Development,
Health and Physical Education held "a great deal of potential for a gender-inclusive
approach which challenges narrow constructions of gender differences" because it was
"conceptually based" and allowed teachers choice in terms of activities, content and
assessments (Wright, 1999, p. 192). In recent years, however, gender issues in PE have not
been the major focus in Australian policy or educational agendas. For instance, while the
new Australian Curriculum: Health and Physical Education (Foundation-Year 10) adopts a
strengths-based approach, rather than a deficit-based model of health, its focus on
sexuality and gender diversity is primarily in relation to health, not PE (Australian
Curriculum, n.d.). Prior to the year 2000 the NSW Department of Education and Training
(now DEC; Department of Education and Communities) provided considerable funding and
support for gender equity in schools (Wright, 1999). In the past five-ten years this support
has been significantly downgraded and the DEC's focus has moved away from recognising
and challenging the social construction of gender through PE. The emphasis is now on 'girls
in sport' to address 'the problem' of females' lack of participation in physical activity (see
NSW Premier's Sporting Challenge, 2014). Among this focus on sport has been the
introduction and development of the 'Games Sense' model in PE, which aims to "challenge
the traditional hegemony of the highly directed, formal and 'textbook' skill and drill
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oriented sport teaching" (Pill, 2011, p. 4). In other words, the 'Game Sense' approach is a
method of teaching PE that develops the broader meanings of sport and physical activity
through problem solving in physical education (Pill, 2011, see note 3). However, despite
these changes, we argue that research and support specifically for gender sensitivity and
inclusion in PE need to be put back on the agenda of the NSW DEC because our study
provides preliminary evidence that gender issues, which Wright (1999) identified over a
decade ago, remain in the PE context.
METHODS
This qualitative case study focused on the perspectives and experiences of five PE teachers
from a regional high school (Meadow High) (Note 1.). It uses a single-case study research
design, specifically referred to by Yin (2009) as a 'type one' case study. Although the
findings from this case study cannot be generalised to the entire NSW PE teacher
population, they highlight the particularities of the PE staff at one school, which may have
implications and provide learning opportunities for other PE teachers in regional areas of
Australia (Stake, 1995). Stake defines an intrinsic case study as "the study of the
particularity and complexity of a single case" (1995, p. xi). He further explains that with
such a case study, the intention is not to generalise, but rather to examine in depth the
intrinsic uniqueness of the individual case for its own sake. Consistently, Burns (2002, p.
477) noted that, "the aim [of a case study] has been to understand in depth one case and
not what is generally true for most".
THE CASE
The school settingThe PE teachers who participated in this study were employed at
Meadow High, a Years Seven-Ten catholic co-educational secondary school in a diocese of
regional NSW. The PE department is funded by the Catholic Education Office, which
receives additional funding by the State Government. Meadow High consists of 88 teaching
staff, with ten Key Learning Area (KLA) coordinators. The PE department is managed by a
(male) KLA course coordinator who primarily oversees the Personal Development, Health
and Physical Education (PDHPE) subjects and staff.
The school's PE department consists of nine staff members, with five females and four
males aged between 26 and 42 years. Within the department there is a (male, Dale) sports
coordinator who is generally responsible for all sporting teams and events. Other staff
typically adopted coaching roles for one of the several sporting teams offered by the
school. Within the community where the school is located, physical activity is identified as
being important. The town enjoys more than 82.55 hectares of public open space set aside
for active recreation and it has more than 20 sporting fields that are well maintained (Note
DATA COLLECTION
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A semi-structured interview guide approach (Patton, 2002) was used to collect data on
teacher demographics, teaching experience, perceived factors affecting female
participation in PE and their pedagogical and management strategies. Follow-up interviews
clarified any uncertainties from the first interview. The interviews averaged 30 minutes,
were audio recorded and subsequently transcribed.
Documents which detailed Meadow High school policies, specifically 'No Hat. No Play',
'Uniform Policy' and 'Non-Participation Awards', were collected and reviewed. These
documents were useful in providing a context for the study and verifying any school
procedures and policies that were mentioned by participants. Therefore, these policies
provided additional information or contextual details that accompanied interview data (Yin,
2009), as will be discussed in the findings section.
DATA ANALYSIS
The interview data were analysed through the use of coding and comparison procedures
that resulted in the development of themes (Berg & Latin, 2008; van Manen, 1998). This
type of thematic analysis is appropriate for identifying patterns, similarities and differences
emerging from the data (Burns, 2002). The emphasis is on illuminating and representing the
multiple perspectives of participants and developing common themes across participants
(Patton, 2002; van Manen, 1998).
Initially we used open coding (also known as inter-coding), "in which the researcher decides
on tentative conceptual categories into which the data will be coded" (Berg & Latin, 2008,
p. 253). The initial codes were: school context (SC); factors affecting female participation
(FA); and teaching strategies (TS). Next, the data were tabulated using audit coding which
involved "linking the data identified in open coding with the source and context" (Berg &
Latin, 2008, p. 253).
Finally, axial coding was conducted, which meant "the complete picture, in which events
pertaining to the research topic, related topics, implications from research and description
of a proposed conceptual model are tied together" (Berg & Latin, 2008, p. 253). Participant
responses and themes were linked to existing literature on social constructions of gender,
peer or parent influence, teaching/classroom environment, the dominance of boys in class
and girls' feelings of embarrassment, low perceived ability and concerns over body image.
In doing so, we drew out conceptual relationships across the data, such as the relationship
between the teachers' perceptions on factors affecting female participation and their
chosen pedagogical strategies. We also applied theories on the gendered nature of PE and
the view that gender is socially constructed (e.g., Wright, 1995; 1999; 2001) to show how
traditional notions of gender, femininity and masculinity were being challenged or
reproduced through the teachers' perspectives and accounts of their everyday practices. In
support of this approach to analysis, Burns (2002) noted that there are three stages to
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coding, and that coding often requires reviewing data in light of the literature in order to
identify and interpret emerging themes.
There were a number of themes developed from data analysis. Firstly, four common
perceived factors affecting female participation in PE were: the peer group; body image;
role modelling; and the competitive nature of PE classes. Secondly, four key teaching
strategies aimed to engage females in PE were: modified scoring in mixed gender activities,
single gender classes, school policies and extra-curricular activities. Individual teachers also
described allowing for student choice and taking the focus away from competition, but not
all teachers used these latter approaches.
FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION
The discussion of findings will initially provide a brief overview of the teachers' perspectives
on the key factors affecting female participation in PE. Next we will describe the teaching
strategies they reported using to address female participation in their classes and show
how these teachers' accounts of their practices were shaped by their (primarily gendered)
perspectives on this issue.
TEACHERS' PERCEIVED FACTORS AFFECTING FEMALE STUDENT PARTICIPATION IN PE
The peer groupThree teachers said the peer group was the most influential factor affecting
female participation in PE. Kellie explained that some female students divert other females
away from participation:
I think there is a group of girls in every year group that believe it's too uncool to participate.
They've got other interests outside of school, and they pursue those and encourage others
that it's not good to participate in PE. (11 years teaching experience)
Emma felt that the way females tend to act with their peers contributes to their limited
interest in PE: "the socialising nature of girls, they'll stand in the back of a court or a field or
they'll just stand in a group and talk if you allow them to do that," (5 years teaching
experience). In addition, Natalie explained that many female students feel uncomfortable
participating in front of their peer group or friends:
I think the main factor is being embarrassed to put themselves out there in front of their
friends. I think a lot of girls at school just follow what their friends are doing. If their friends
don't have a go, I think a lot of girls are shy, and don't participate ... (5 years teaching
experience)
Casey et al. (2009) noted that feelings of embarrassment are often heightened for students
in rural and regional areas because they are typically required to participate in new
activities in front of peers they socialise with on a regular basis. More specifically, Dale, the
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only male in the sample, noted the impact of mixed-gender learning environments when he
said, "you have got the male-female ideals... they [female students] don't want to be
shamed in front of males". Dale further explained that sport is often described as a
masculine activity that male students typically want to be involved in, while some female
students may feel that their femininity is challenged when placed in a physically
competitive context. On the other hand, Kimberly (19 years teaching experience)
acknowledged that there are some girls who are "sporty" and "get in and have a go".
However, she explained that there are also many "girls on the sideline who socially are
more chatty... [and who] will just sit there and cheer on the boyfriend rather than be
involved".
Natalie identified body issues that affect a minority of female students, such as being
overweight, "bigger girls would be more self-conscious of their body image, feeling
embarrassed" (5 years teaching experience). Emma highlighted that these feelings of
embarrassment or uncertainty can be heightened in specific curriculum requirements such
as aquatics: "I think for the girls, particularly swimming and those sorts of sports, where
they're self-conscious [it negatively affects female participation]". Here, the teachers are
acknowledging the issues young women face when living in a society and time which
constructs the ideal female body in terms of slimness and fitness (Wright, 1999). Studies
have shown that girls' feelings of embarrassment, low perceived ability and concerns over
body image are associated with cultural expectations of femininity and ultimately affect
their involvement in PE (Flintoff & Scraton, 2006; Wright 1995; Wright & Macdonald, 2010).
In contrast to the findings in the previous theme on body image, if female students have
positive perceptions of themselves, and if this perception is reinforced by their parents,
then they may be more likely to actively participate in PE. Bauer et al. (2008) noted that, to
an extent, participation levels in PE are based on parental encouragement and support. If
parents are creating a positive environment where physical activity is encouraged, then
female students may be more likely to continue those patterns within PE (Coakley, 2006;
Dowda et al., 2007; Hall, 2008; Wright, 1999).
Kimberly explained the importance of the teacher creating an environment for female
students to focus on 'doing your best' rather than competing against others. This strategy of
taking the focus away from competition has been identified in the literature as an effective
strategy for disrupting the gendered nature of PE and encouraging pleasure, cooperation
and participation among females in PE (McCaughtry, 2006; Smyth et al., 1998; Tinning,
1997).
Emma added, "I think the boys limit [female participation] Ð that would be my number one
factor, the boys are very overbearing... [the boys] overtake because they're very skilled and
they tend to hog [the games/balls/play]". Both Emma and Natalie believed that the boys
were naturally more skilful, stronger and more competent than females.
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Like the teachers in research by Larsson et al., the teachers of Meadow High were clearly
aware of the dominance of some boys in mixed-gender PE classes, but they regarded this
dominance "as something normal or natural, and ... something to be managed rather than
challenged" (2009, p. 14). The two most prominent strategies that Meadow High teachers
said they used to 'manage' issues of male dominance and females' lack of engagement in PE
were modified scoring in mixed gender activities and single gender classes, as described
below. Other common strategies included the use of school policies to gain parental
support and extra-curricular activities to address the peer group factor identified above.
TEACHING STRATEGIES TO ADDRESS FEMALE PARTICIPATION IN PE
Modified scoring in mixed gender activitiesAll of the teachers claimed that they modified
the scoring values and participation rules for female students when playing games with
male students. This usually involved increasing the value of the goal/try for female students
and requiring them to either score or be involved in the pre-scoring play. Dale explained
how this approach worked in a game of touch football: ...boys score first, girls have to
score next, or for girls it's worth five points per try, for boys one point. So the idea is they're
[the girls are] to participate, all girls have to touch the ball in the lead up to scoring. So it
gets them involved that way. The boys have to involve them. (11 years teaching experience)
This particular strategy aimed to ensure that the assumed skilfulness and competitiveness
of male students was (somewhat) controlled (Casey et al., 2009). At the same time, this
strategy reinforces the notion that females are 'naturally' inferior to males on the sporting
field and does little to challenge gender stereotypes (Wright, 1999). However, Emma, the
youngest teacher in the sample, with the least amount of experience, showed some
resistance to this dominant practice:... it's a touchy subject because I don't necessarily
agree with making rules like two points for a girl's try. A lot of people use that to encourage
but I think that's very demeaning and I think if we're going to make females and males
equal on the sporting field I don't think ... it sort of defeats the purpose, saying, "Okay we're
going to make girls worth double". So I don't tend to use that strategy very much. (5 years
teaching experience)
Emma felt that having different activities within the PE lesson, specifically having skill-based
activities for female students, allowed them a choice in different types of non-competitive
activities. Research has shown that female students may be more willing to participate in PE
if they are involved in co-creating the curriculum because they will select activities that they
enjoy (Azzarito et al., 2006; Enright & O'Sullivan, 2010; Fisette, 2008; Flintoff & Scraton,
2001; Hills, 2007; McMahon, 2007; Oliver et al., 2009; Prusak et al., 2004).
Most of the time I have only got females so there's no pressure I guess with the guys.
They're not feeling as though the guys are watching them, so they want to be involved. (19
years teaching experience)
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This strategy seems to address the body image factor identified by the teachers in this
study. This finding has heightened significance in a regional context given that Casey et al.
(2009) found that students in regional towns feel embarrassed performing in front of
people they see in the community on a daily basis. Van Daalen (2005) and Wright (1999)
explained that single gender classrooms often counteract the identified factors of females'
embarrassment and unwillingness to participate, because they no longer feel self-conscious
in front of their male peers.
On the other hand, Kimberly highlighted that single gender classes are not always possible:
"... but there are times when we try to cross it so that they get used to mixing with the
other gender as well" (19 years teaching experience). Kimberly also discussed the influence
of peers on female participation and the benefits of allowing positive interactions to
develop between students in co-educational PE classes. She believed, "If you allow them to
be in friendship groups for most things, they'll have a go" (19 years teaching experience).
Wright (1999), and more recently, Hills and Croston (2012), examined opportunities for
facilitating positive interactions between male and female students in mixed gender PE
settings. Specifically, if students feel comfortable with and supported by their male and
female peers then they may be more likely to participate in PE activities and have an
enjoyable experience (Casey et al., 2009; Dudley et al., 2006; Hills & Croston, 2012; Wright,
1999).
This strategy is essentially a form of punishment, which has been introduced by the NSW
Board of Studies (2003), in an effort to ensure students are actively participating in required
school activities. This strategy is attempting to get the parents on board, which can play a
large role in addressing female participation in both PE and physical activity (Bauer et al.,
2004; Dowda et al., 2007; Wallhead & Buckworth, 2004). Such policies also present issues,
as described below.
The other two policies enacted at Meadow High have to do with uniform, including 'No Hat.
No Play' and the 'Uniform Policy'. These policies require students to have correct footwear,
sports uniform and hat (during summer) before they can participate in PE. While teachers
noted the importance of these policies, teachers raised a number of specific issues in
relation to their effectiveness, particularly Emma:
Although attempting to address students' non-participation in PE, these types of school
policies do not tackle the underlying factors affecting female participation (Wright, 1999).
Also, the uniform policies can potentially reinforce non-participation because students who
do not want to participate simply do not wear a hat or correct uniform. Furthermore, when
teachers were asked if they were aware of any Department of Education and
Training/Communities or NSW Institute of Teaching documents that were available to assist
them in identifying possible strategies to enhance female participation all of them said that
they did not use these or were not aware of such policies.
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CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
The discussion of findings showed how the strategies teachers reported using were
primarily embedded in (and reproduced) stereotypes of gender; however potential areas
for challenging these stereotypes were identified by a couple of the teachers. Overall,
teachers did not discuss involving girls in curriculum design, the use of alternative practices,
such as adventure PE, nor involvement in any professional development activities asking
them to reflect on their practices, despite these strategies being identified in the literature
as effective in engaging females in PE and breaking down gender stereotypes (Azzarito et
al., 2006; Brown & Rich, 2002; Enright & O'Sullivan, 2010; Gehris et al., 2010; Keay, 2007;
McCaughtry, 2006; Rich, 2004; Wright, 1999; 2001). Therefore, the findings of our study
support the view that gender issues in PE remain in some schools, despite advances in PE
research and curriculum design. Our findings highlight the need for policies and programs
aimed at supporting PE teachers to implement gender-sensitive strategies in their daily
practice.
Finally, keeping the above challenges in mind, teachers require professional support and
changes in policy and school practices if they are to achieve gender reform in PE. The kinds
of support, practices and policies we believe might be useful in this regard include the
implementation of a community development approach on gender inclusivity for all PE
teachers to help cultural change at the individual school level. The NSW Syllabus for Years
7-10 Personal Development, Health and Physical Education held "a great deal of potential
for a gender-inclusive approach which challenges narrow constructions of gender
differences" (Wright, 1999, p. 192) and the development of an Australian Health and PE
curriculum offers new opportunities for revisions regarding gender diversity, social justice
and inclusivity in sport and PE, as well as health. Therefore, we argue that funding for
critical sociological research and professional development activities aimed at gender
sensitivity in PE need to be put back on the agenda of the NSW DEC to support teachers,
particularly in regional areas.
REFERENCES
Australian Curriculum. (n.d.). Health and Physical Education. [viewed 29 Nov 2014]
http://www.australiancurriculum.edu.au/health-and-physical-education/rationale
Azzarito, L., Solmon, M. A., & Harrison, L. (2006). "...If I had a choice, I would....": A feminist
poststructuralist perspective on girls in physical education. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport,
77(2), 222-239. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02701367.2006.10599356
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1090198103255372
Berg, K. E., & Latin, R. W. (2008). Essentials of research methods in health, physical education, exercise
science and recreation. Philadelphia: Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins.
Brown, D., & Rich, E. (2002). Gender positioning as pedagogical practice in teaching physical
education. In D. Penney (Ed.), Gender and physical education, (pp. 80-100). London: Routledge.
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Burns, R. (2002). Introduction to research. Melbourne: Pearson Education Australia.
THE BENEFITS OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITY IN
SCHOOLS
DR.ALKESH R. VACHHANI
SHRI P.K.M. COLLEGE OF TECH. AND B.ED.-JUNAGADH
SUBJECT : PHYSICAL EDUCATION
Most classrooms have at least one impulsive child and in my experience some classes have
more than one. These impulsive children are frequently in trouble and display sincere
regret for their actions… repeatedly. When teaching, I wondered, “Will they ever learn?”
A new study suggests that a simple solution for the impulsive child is physical activity.
Published in the Obesity Reviews, researchers identified that the brain controls inhibitory
control which regulates impulsive behavior. The research also found a link between
neurocognitive functions relating to eating behaviors and exercise. In other words, physical
activity in school has a positive influence on impulsive eating and actions.
In light of these findings, physical activity has two benefits schools should be interested in:
childhood obesity intervention, as well as, a calming effect on impulsive children.
PHYSICAL ACTIVITY IS LIKE MEDICINE
According to SPARK author, John Ratey, MD we should “think of exercise as medication.”
We know that exercise helps with executive functions like sequencing, memory, and
prioritizing which contribute to necessary skills for success in school and life. Put simply,
physical activity in school primes the brain for learning.
Another familiar refrain from some students is “why try? I already know I can’t do it.” The
defeatist attitude or inability to push past previous failures is prevalent in far too many
students.Physical activity in school is a remedy for that too. Physical activity produces
endorphins (chemicals in the brain) that regulate mood, pleasure and pain. An elevated
mood can contribute to an “I can do it” attitude which goes a long way as students
approach new tasks as challenges not obstacles.
ACADEMICS AND PHYSICAL ACTIVITY IN SCHOOLS
Physical activity has academic benefits as well. The California Department of Education
looked at students’ health fitness scores on the FITNESSGRAM and compared them to the
student scores on standardized testing in math and language arts. They found that fit kids
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“scored twice as well on academic tests as those that were unfit.” The second year the CDE
controlled for upper and lower income brackets and while upper income fit students scored
higher than lower income students overall, the premise still held true. Students who where
more fit performed better academically.
HEALTHY CHILD DEVELOPMENT AND PHYSICAL ACTIVITY IN SCHOOLS
A new force of advocates has emerged in defense of plain old “play” supported by a
growing body of evidence that play (ie. physical activity) has a positive effect on children’s
overall health. The American Academy of Pediatrics published a Clinical Report in 2006 on
the topic of play.
Importance of Play & Healthy Child Development & Parent Child Bonds The report offers
guidelines on how pediatricians can advocate for play to ensure that play is a part of the
optimal development for young children. The report points out that our hurried lifestyles,
emphasis on academics, and changes in family structure have resulted in a reduction in
child centered play and recess. The report reminds us that “play” plays an essential role in
physical, social, academic and emotional development in young children.
According to the National Association of Sport and Physical Education (NASPE) who looks at
school-age sport and physical education reminds us “Opportunities to accumulate physical
activity during the school day include time spent in physical education class, classroombased movement, recess, walking or biking to school, and recreational sport and play that
occurs before, during, and after school.”
PHYSICAL EDUCATION & PHYSICAL ACTIVITY IN SCHOOLS
School physical education programs offer students the opportunity to not only be physically
active today but the opportunity to teach skills and behaviors conducive to maintaining
physical activity for a lifetime.
Students spend over half of their day in school. Physical education should teach them how
to integrate physical activity into their day both now and later in life. If not now, when?
What kind of message are we sending as a society when we can’t find the time for physical
education class or offer it as an elective?
RECESS AND PHYSICAL ACTIVITY IN SCHOOLS
Recess and physical education are sometimes confused. When schools recently eliminated
recess, parents were told that students didn’t need recess because they were receiving
physical education; however, many parents fought back.
Eliminating recess is facing opposition from parents, play advocates and, not surprising,
children. It appears that the tide is turning and both PE and recess are viewed as essential
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experiences in a well-rounded education.
Recess unlike physical education represents one of the few unstructured experiences of
schooling. It affords children the opportunity to “play”, use their outside voices, run and
chase.
Some children even garner enough courage to approach a new friend, rebuff a rival or
irritate an enemy in an animated game of tag. Notice that each is a physically active
experience.
Research indicates that children are more active at recess than outside at home or even in
physical education. In addition to the mental pause, recess appears to be the most effective
way to keep kids active. A study by the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation found that 42%
of the nation’s school children “get most of their total daily exercise at recess – more than
do so in P.E. or after-school programs.”
SPORTS AS PHYSICAL ACTIVITY
Elementary students who play sports are more likely to become active teens who, in turn,
are more likely to be active adults. And being active, according to the World Health
Organization, is one of the most important ways to prevent heart disease, stroke, diabetes
and a range of other debilitating ailments.
Not only do healthy people enjoy a higher quality of life, but the economy benefits from
costs savings and productivity gains associated with workplace wellness. School sports and
intramurals also have an important role in keeping children active at school.
SCHOOLS PLAY A UNIQUE ROLE IN PHYSICAL ACTIVITY OPPORTUNITIES
Schools represent an advantageous opportunity to promote physical activity in children.
Literally they have a “captured audience.” The ability to carve out time for physical activity
whether it be recess, physical education or sports is unique to schools alone. Since nearly
50 million students attend school is there a better place to begin to engage children in daily
physical activity?One of the best reasons for adding physical activity to children’s daily
routine was documented by the America Heart Association…
“Effective efforts made now will help children avoid a lifetime of chronic disease and
disability.” Play, physical activity, physical education, recess and sports are cherished parts
of childhood. The benefits of each are in the forefront of scientific literature over the last
decade. No longer can an informed parent, educator or doctor ignore the importance of
each in contributing to healthy child development.
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REFERENCES
U.S. Dept. of Health and Human Services. 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans.
2008.
2. Wang G, Pratt M, Macera CA, Zheng ZJ, Heath G. Physical activity, cardiovascular disease,
and medical expenditures in U.S. adults. Ann Behav Med. 2004; 28:88-94.
3. Pratt M, Macera CA, Wang GJ. Higher direct medical costs associated with physical
inactivity. Physician and Sportsmedicine. 2000; 28:63-70.
4. Owen N, Healy GN, Matthews CE, Dunstan DW. Too much sitting: the population health
science of sedentary behavior. Exerc Sport Sci Rev. 2010; 38:105-13.
5. Hu FB, Li TY, Colditz GA, Willett WC, Manson JE. Television watching and other sedentary
behaviors in relation to risk of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus in women. JAMA. 2003;
289:1785-91.
6. Dunstan DW, Barr EL, Healy GN, et al. Television viewing time and mortality: the
Australian Diabetes, Obesity and Lifestyle Study (AusDiab). Circulation. 2010; 121:384-91.
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ICT IN EDUCATION
DR.VIRAM J. VALA
SUBJECT :
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CHARACTERISTICS OF GOOD
ENGLISH TEXT BOOK
PATHAN ASHFAQMOHAMMADKHAN J.
SUBJECT : LANGUAGE
ABSTRACT
If English is to be taught effectively, we need a text book, which works as a useful tool both
for the teacher and the students. It is the text book, which shows the average teacher of
English how to present and drill each new point orally. A text book in English is a guide for
the teacher, as memory aid for the pupil, a permanent record of what has been learnt.
There are many qualities of good text book which should be kept in mind by the teacher
while using it i.e. good vocabulary, subject matter, illustration, examples, exercise etc.
(1) INTRODUCTION
Textbook is an integral part of any educational system. The educationists in India and
abroad reveal that textbook plays a most prominent role in English teaching. We can not
think of modern educational system without a textbook.
The report of a textbook committee of a central advisory board of education remarks, “A
modern educational system without a textbook is difficult to imagine as a Hamlet without a
prince of Denmark”. Thus the textbook is an integral part of any educational system.
(2) DEFINITION OFAN ENGLISH TEXT BOOK
Bacon says, “A book designed from classroom use, carefully prepared by experts in the field
and equipped with the usual teacher devices.”
(3) CHARACTERISTICS OF A GOOD TEXT BOOK
To make the textbook useful for the students and the teachers the following characteristics
should be taken into consideration. No text book will be perfect, unless it had the following
characteristics.
A. Fixing the Objectives.
Obviously, the text book should aim at teaching the materials that have to be taught to the
class. If our aim is to teach our pupils to read and write English, then a book which has been
written for an aural approach will not be suitable. We shall be very lucky if we find a book
whose objectives are exactly the same as our own, but some materials will be better than
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others. This means that the amount of adaptation and extra material to be provided by the
teachers will be less too.
B. Vocabulary.
The vocabulary and constructions are what we often call the linguistics content of the book.
There is also the selection of thematic content to be examined. Some themes are almost
always right for a child; the home, the school, games, the wonders of science. Others are
suitable only for particular groups. If the thematic content is poor, the children will have to
make extra effort, the effort to re main interested when the materials do not provide the
stimulus.
C. Grading the Structures.
A good English text book should give emphasis on gradation of the structures to be taught
in a class, the new vocabulary and structural items must be introduced at an even rate as
far as difficulty is concerned.
D. Subject Matter to be Presented.
The presentation of subject matter is the most important step in textbook writing.
Presentation refers to the communication of knowledge. In the most cases, it will be the
teacher who communicates the new information to the pupil, either directly or indirectly. A
good teacher can do this whatever book the class is using. It is however, much easier to
make a good presentation if the material in the book helps it. The examples must also have
some meanings to the pupils. It is the meaning, which allows the pupil to understand the
linguistic feature, not vice versa.
E. Repetition of New Structures and Vocabulary Items.
It has been suggested by some enlightened teacher and methodologist that a new
linguistics item should be repeated at least in the lesson in which it has been introduced for
the first time and ten times in subsequent lessons.
F. Achievements of Targets.
The English textbook should clearly state the target to be achieved by the end of the year
and from lesson in terms of phonetic grammatical and lexical items.
G. Illustration.
A good English textbook should be fully illustrated. The illustrations should be drawn
correctly, relevant to the situation presented in the reading material. A few coloured plates
should also be there in the book.
H. Exercise at the End of the Lesson.
The content and language material in the each lesson should be further practiced and
tested through a variety of interesting and graded exercise at the end of each lesson. There
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should be sufficient and suitable teaching and testing exercise on each lesson. The
instruction for each exercise should be simple enough for the students to understand.
4. ADVANTAGE OF GOOD TEXT BOOK.
a. Giving Definite Intonation.
As a storehouse of basic information text book contains narrative details. It guides the pupil
in knowing the essentials and how much he should remember.
b. Establishing Common Background.
A good textbook helps the students to sum up the key ideas of the unit. The text book can
acquaint them with the vocabulary and helps them to learn enough to proceed intelligently.
c. Setting Exercise.
A good text book contains exercise for setting logic and imagination.
d. Learning Composition.
Composition helps the child to think of events as actually happened.
e. Summarizing Learning.
A good text book summarizes the learning of the unit activities.
RFERENCES:
B.B.Dash, Teaching of English; Daminant Publishers and Distributors, New Delhi.
Dr. Y.K. Singh, Teaching of English ; Aph Publishing corporation, New Delhi.
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OBJECTIVES OF NATIONAL
ENVIRONMENT POLICY
DR. PARAG D. DEVANI
ASSISTANT PROFESSOR, DEPARTMENT OF SOCIOLOGY, SAURASHTRA UNIVERSITY, RAJKOT.
SUBJECT : SOCIOLOGY
A BSTRACT
The proximate drivers of environmental
degradation are population
growth,
inappropriate technology and consumption choices, and poverty, leading to changes
in relations between people and ecosystems, and development activities such as
intensive agriculture, polluting industry, and unplanned urbanisation. However, these
factors give rise to environmental degradation only through deeper causal linkages, in
particular, institutional failures, resulting in lack of clarity or enforcement of rights of
access and use of environmental resources, policies which provide disincentives for
environmental conservation (and which may have origins in the fiscal regime), market
failures (which may be linked to shortcomings in the regulatory regimes), and governance
constraints. Environmental degradation is a major causal factor in enhancing and
perpetuating
poverty, particularly among
the rural poor, when such
degradation impacts soil fertility, quantity and quality of water, air quality, forests,
wildlife and fisheries. The dependence of the rural poor, in particular, tribal societies,
on their natural resources, especially biodiversity, is self-evident. Women in particular
face greater adverse impacts of degradation of natural resources, being directly
responsible for their collection and use, but rarely for their management.
KEY ENVIRONMENTAL CHALLENGES: CAUSES AND IMPACTS
The key environmental challenges that the country faces relate to the nexus of
environmental degradation with poverty in its many dimensions, and economic growth.
These challenges are intrinsically connected with the state of environmental resources,
such as land, water, air, and their flora and fauna. The proximate drivers of environmental
degradation are population growth, inappropriate technology and consumption
choices, and poverty, leading to changes in relations between people and
ecosystems,
and
development activities such as intensive agriculture, polluting
industry, and unplanned urbanisation. However,
these factors give rise to
environmental
degradation only through deeper causal linkages, in particular,
institutional failures, resulting in lack of clarity or enforcement of rights of access and use
of environmental resources, policies which provide disincentives for environmental
conservation (and which may have origins in the fiscal regime), market failures (which may
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be linked to shortcomings in the regulatory regimes), and governance constraints.
Environmental degradation is a major causal factor in enhancing and perpetuating
poverty, particularly among the rural poor, when such degradation impacts soil
fertility, quantity and quality of water, air quality, forests, wildlife and fisheries. The
dependence of the rural poor, in particular, tribal societies, on their natural resources,
especially biodiversity, is self-evident. Women in particular face greater adverse impacts
of degradation of natural resources, being directly responsible for their collection and
use, but rarely for their management. The commitment of time and effort in collection
of these resources has a direct impact on the capacity of rural women to devote time to
raising and educating children, enhancing their earning skills, or participating in gainful
livelihoods.
OBJECTIVES OF THE NATIONAL ENVIRONMENT POLICY
The principal Objectives of this policy are enumerated below. These Objectives relate to
current perceptions of key environmental challenges. They may, accordingly, evolve
over time:
i. Conservation of Critical Environmental Resources:
To protect and conserve critical ecological systems and resources, and invaluable
natural and man-made heritage, which are essential for life- support, livelihoods,
economic growth, and a broad conception of human well-being.
ii. Intra-generational Equity: Livelihood Security for the Poor:
To ensure equitable access to environmental resources and quality for all sections of
society, and in particular, to ensure that poor communities, which are most
dependent on environmental resources for their livelihoods, are assured secure
access to these resources.
iii. Inter-generational Equity:
To ensure judicious use of environmental resources to meet the needs and aspirations of
the present and future generations.
iv. Integration of Environmental Concerns in Economic and Social
Development:
To integrate environmental concerns into policies, plans, programmes, and projects
for economic and social development.
v. Efficiency in Environmental Resource Use:
To ensure efficient use of environmental resources in the sense of reduction in their use
per unit of economic output, to minimize adverse environmental impacts.
vi. Environmental Governance:
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To apply the principles of good governance (transparency, rationality, accountability,
reduction in time and costs, participation, and regulatory independence) to the
management and regulation of use of environmental resources.
vii. Enhancement of Resources for Environmental Conservation:
To ensure higher resource flows, comprising finance, technology, management skills,
traditional knowledge, and social capital, for environmental conservation through
mutually beneficial multistakeholder partnerships between local communities, public
agencies, the academic and research community, investors, and multilateral and bilateral
development partners.
PRINCIPLES
This policy has evolved from the recognition that only such development is
sustainable, which respects ecological constraints, and the imperatives of justice.
The Objectives stated above are to be realized through various strategic interventions by
different public authorities at Central, State, and Local Government levels. They would
also be the basis of diverse partnerships. These strategic interventions, besides
legislation and the evolution of legal doctrines for realization of the Objectives, may be
premised on a set of unambiguously stated Principles depending upon their relevance,
feasibility in relation to costs, and technical and administrative aspects of their
application. The following Principles, may accordingly, guide the activities of different
actors in relation to this policy. Each of these Principles has an established genealogy
in policy pronouncements, jurisprudence, international environmental law, or
international State practice:
i. Human Beings are at the Centre of Sustainable Development Concerns:
Human beings are at the centre of concerns for sustainable development. They are
entitled to a healthy and productive life in harmony with nature.
i. The Right to Development:
The right to development must be fulfilled so as to equitably meet
developmental and environmental needs of present and future generations.
iii. Environmental Protection is an Integral part of the Development
Process:
In order to achieve sustainable development, environmental protection shall
constitute an integral part of the development process and cannot be considered in
isolation from it.
iv. The Precautionary Approach:
Where there are credible threats of serious or irreversible damage to key environmental
resources, lack of full scientific certainty shall not be used as a reason for postponing costVIEWOF SPACE : INTERNATIONAL MULTIDISCIPLINARY JOURNAL OF APPLIED RESEARCH
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effective measures to prevent environmental degradation.
v. Economic Efficiency:
In various public actions for environmental conservation, economic efficiency would be
6
sought to be realized .
This Principle requires that the services of environmental resources be given
economic value, and such value to count equally with the economic values of other
goods and services, in analysis of alternative courses of action.
Further implications of this Principle are as follows:
a) Polluter Pays:
Impacts of acts of production and consumption of one party may be visited on
third parties who do not have a direct economic nexus with the original act. Such
impacts are termed “externalities”. If the costs (or benefits) of the externalities are
not re-visited on the party responsible for the original act, the resulting level of the
entire sequ ence of productio n or consumption, and externality, is inefficient. In
such a situation, economic efficiency may be restored by making the perpetrator of
the externality bear the cost (or benefit) of the same.
The policy will, accordingly, promote the internalization of environmental costs,
including through the use of incentives based policy instruments, taking into
account the approach that the polluter should, in principle, bear the cost of pollution,
with due regard to the public interest, and without distorting international trade and
investment.
b) Cost Minimization:
Where the environmental benefits of a course of action cannot, for methodological
or conceptual reasons, be imputed economic value (as in the case of “Incomparable
Entities” [see below]), in any event the economic costs of realizing the benefits should be
minimized.
Efficiency of resource use may also be accomplished by the use of policy instruments
that create incentives to minimize wasteful use and consumption of natural resources.
The principle of efficiency also applies to issues of environmental governance by
streamlining processes and procedures in order to minimize costs and delays.
PROCESS OF FORMULATION OF THIS POLICY:
The preparation of this Policy has involved inputs and consultations with diverse experts,
and stakeholders.
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A draft of the National Environment Policy was prepared through an intensive process
of consultation within the Government and inputs from experts. The draft, in English
and Hindi was posted on the website of the Ministry of Environment and Forests
and responses
were invited from individuals and organizations, through
advertisements in national and regional newspapers.. The draft was open for public
st
st
consultation from 21
August, 2004 to 31 December, 2004. Consultations were
held with concerned Ministries of the Central Government, and all State/UT
governments at meetings of the State Environment Ministers and senior officials. The
latter were encouraged to undertake local level public consultations. The draft was
also provided to the Members of Parliament and their views and suggestions were
invited. The Ministry of Environment and Forests also held consultations with
representatives of major academic and research institutions, and key Industry
Associations, Voluntary Organisations, and individuals who are well known in the field.
Detailed summaries of responses were prepared and the various concerns
expressed by the respondents were addressed. Many of the suggestions
received have been incorporated in the Policy.
Reference
1. The Five Year Plan 2002-2007, Volume II, Chapter 1. Planning Commission, Government
of India.
2. For example, in institutions such as Botanical Survey of India (BSI), the Zoological Survey
of India (ZSI), the Bombay Natural History Society (BNHS), and others.
3 India's initial National Communication to the UN Framework Convention on Climate
Change (UNFCCC), 2004.
4. Global harmonization of EMS however relates to achievement of national, not externally
imposed emission standards.
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PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF SOME
SELECTED COMPANIES IN INDIA: PRE &
POST MERGERS & ACQUISITIONS
SITUATION
MR. KARAN SAGAR (MBA, NET, MPHIL)
ASSISTANT PROFESSOR,SHRI SUNSHINE GROUP OF INSTITUTIONS, RAJKOT
SUBJECT :
Keywords: Merger and Acquisition, Stock Return.
ABSTRACT
As per current scenario corporate restructuring is one of the most widely used strategic
tools. In daily news we come across frequently with the headlines of merger, acquisitions,
takeover, joint venture, demerger and so on. Since last two decades as especially after, the
liberalization and consequent globalization and privatization have resulted into tough
competition not only in Indian business but globally as well. The present study is mainly
based on secondary data. In order to evaluate stock return and‘t’ test have been used as
tools of analysis.
INTRODUCTION
The main objective of any company is profitable growth of enterprise to maximize the
wealth of its shareholders. Further, to achieve profitable growth of business it is necessary
for any company to limit competition, to gain economies of large scale and increase in
income with proportionally less investment, to access foreign market, to achieve
diversification and utilize underutilized market opportunities. In order to achieve goals,
business needs to remain competitive and work towards its long term sustainability.
Corporate restructuring has facilitated thousand of companies to re-establish their
competitive advantage and respond more quickly and effectively to new opportunities and
unexpected challenges. Under different dynamic situations as laid above, a profitable
growth of business can achieved successfully if as a strategic tool merger is adopted. The
most remarkable examples of growth and often the largest increases in stock prices are a
result of mergers and acquisitions.
CONCEPT OF MERGER
Merger is defined as combination of two or more companies into a single company where
one survives and the other loss their corporate existence. The survivor acquires the assets
as well as liabilities of the merged company or companies. Merger or amalgamation means
“Combining of two commercial companies into one” and “Merging of two or more business
concerns into one”. Merger is just one type of acquisition. One company can acquire
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another in several other ways including purchasing some or all of the company’s assets or
buying up its outstanding share of stock.
CONCEPT OF ACQUISITION
Acquisition in general sense is acquiring the ownership in the property. Acquisition is the
purchase by one company of controlling interest in the share capital of another existing
company. This means that even after the takeover although there is change in the
management of both the firms retain their separate legal identity.
REVIEW OF LITERATURE
Merger and acquisition for long have been an important phenomenon in the US and UK
economics. In India also, they have now become a matter of everyday occurrence. They are
the subject of counting interest to different persons such as the business executives who
are looking for potential merger partners, investment bankers who manage the mergers,
lawyers who advice the parties, regulatory authorities concern with the operations of
security market and growing corporate concentration in the economy and academic
researchers who want to understand these phenomenon better.
Neha Verma|& Dr. Rahul Sharma (February 2014),”Impact of Mergers & Acquisitions on
Firms’ Long Term Performance: A Pre & Post Analysis of the Indian Telecom Industry” He
studied the impact of mergers and acquisitions on the performance of Indian Telecom
industry, by examining some pre and post-merger financial and operating variables. For the
purpose of the study, companies which have been merged or acquired during the period
2001-02 to 2007-08 have been selected.
Anup Agraval Jeffrey F. Jaffe (1999), “The Post-merger Performance Puzzle” they examines
the literature on long-run abnormal returns following mergers. The paper also examines
explanations for any findings of underperformance following mergers. We conclude that
the evidence does not support the conjecture that underperformance is specifically due to
a slow adjustment to merger news. We convincingly reject the EPS myopia hypothesis, i.e.
the hypothesis that the market initially overvalues acquirers if the acquisition increases EPS,
ultimately leading to long-run under-performance.
Saple V. (2000), “Diversification, Mergers and their Effect on Firm Performance: A Study of
the Indian Corporate Sector” he finds that the target firms were better than industry
averages while the acquiring firm shad lower than industry average profitability. Overall,
acquirers were high growth firms which had improved the performance over the years prior
to the merger and had a higher liquidity.
Manoj Kumara.N.&, Satyanarayana(2013),”Comparative Study of Pre and Post Corporate
Integration through Mergers and acquisition “ He tried to explore the potentialities and
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capabilities of the firm by looking pre and post merger and acquisition performance. The
present study is examines the comparative difference between pre and post merger and
acquisition in terms of financial analysis all the sample of ten major companies were taken
from a list of merger and acquisition in india-2010.The results indicated a significant
positive value creation to the acquired firms. The implication of the results will provide new
evidences for the future and leads to greater value creation.
OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
1. Measure the impact of mergers and acquisitions on stock return of Indian Corporate
Sectors.
2. To examine and evaluate the impact of merger and acquisitions on Return of company’s
stock on their respective stock price.
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
Data Collection
The study is based on the secondary data taken from the www.bseindia.com of selected
units. And all the data relating to history, growth and development of Industries have been
collected mainly from the books and magazine relating to the industry and published paper,
report, article and from the various news papers, bulletins and other various research
reports published by industry and various websites.
Selection of Samples
The researcher has used convenient sampling method to justify the title of the research.
The availability of data is one of the main reason for the consideration of data and
researcher has covered Arvind Products Limited with Arvind Limited, Ras Extrusions With
Essel Propack Ltd. (EPL), Zuari Finance Limited With Phoenix Township Limited, Grabal Alok
Impex Ltd with Alok Industries Ltd and Tonira Pharma with Ipca Labs companies into
sample
Period of the Study
The present study is mainly intended to examine the stock return of merged companies
1year before and 3 year after the merger from February 2011 to April 2015
HYPOTHESIS OF THE STUDY
On the basis of data collection, the researcher identified the following broader hypothesis
for the study:
NULL HYPOTHESIS
There is no significant difference in the average return of selected companies before and
after Merger & Acquisition.
Alternate Hypothesis
There is a significant difference in the average return of selected companies before and
after Merger & Acquisition.
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TOOLS OF ANALYSIS
Data Analysis
Pre-merger and post-merger performance stock return were selected companies during
1year before and 3year after the merger. Average pre-merger and post-merger stock
return were compared to see if there was any statistically significant change in stock return
due to mergers, using paired “t” distribution test.
Stock Performance (Table)
Month
Arvind
Ltd.
Essel
Propack
Phoenix
Township
Limited
Grabal
Alok
Impex
Ipca
Bell orient
Laboratories
ceramic ltd
Ltd.
Feb-11
-14.69
-5.24
25.00
-20.73
-9.38
-9.42
Mar-11
25.77
10.95
-11.48
7.26
-3.16
10.46
Apr-11
6.52
-5.77
11.11
20.54
6.43
0.76
May-11
10.88
-4.77
-7.00
-1.87
-6.47
9.69
Jun-11
-4.35
-0.44
-3.23
-3.82
-2.18
2.56
Jul-11
12.31
-6.56
8.33
-0.40
2.70
-4.02
Aug-11
-10.56
-14.99
-11.11
-29.48
-16.21
-4.33
Sep-11
25.46
-0.83
74.04
3.39
9.08
-18.08
Oct-11
11.55
2.78
-13.59
15.30
-0.10
-1.28
Nov-11
-24.30
-26.89
2.30
-11.85
-9.72
1.56
Dec-11
-19.64
-6.47
-20.25
-3.49
-0.66
6.53
Jan-12
44.75
30.83
2.82
11.70
17.26
8.66
Feb-12
-10.67
0.00
-1.83
2.99
10.75
15.14
Mar-12
-4.41
-15.71
12.42
-5.08
-7.16
-2.53
Apr-12
5.46
20.25
-6.08
-0.51
3.85
7.37
May-12
-10.98
3.58
-18.53
-4.10
-10.95
-5.21
Jun-12
-4.72
-1.15
1.62
-5.61
3.67
5.35
Jul-12
-2.78
2.77
-3.73
-10.76
6.89
11.44
Aug-12
-12.06
-11.61
13.28
-24.44
42.35
8.86
Sep-12
26.65
4.17
-2.28
6.05
-7.80
10.57
Oct-12
2.07
17.69
-0.83
-9.35
-2.73
-4.67
Nov-12
10.00
6.80
10.76
-1.31
12.69
-0.58
Dec-12
11.60
1.47
-11.38
-1.59
23.46
13.68
Jan-13
-5.55
-12.18
-10.45
-2.97
-18.95
-5.06
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Feb-13
-20.69
-4.67
-9.94
-20.59
-14.61
0.92
Mar-13
3.27
-11.24
-10.83
-4.21
2.69
5.87
Apr-13
1.61
15.26
-3.33
16.46
-2.98
-3.41
May-13
4.07
17.18
8.37
-18.01
-7.60
16.87
Jun-13
-4.64
-3.85
-17.95
-11.24
-24.84
10.61
Jul-13
1.09
-2.88
13.02
-5.61
-5.58
0.97
Aug-13
-0.32
-6.05
-9.80
-3.20
-11.59
-6.64
Sep-13
-0.95
0.27
8.42
25.51
-0.88
15.07
Oct-13
36.33
17.21
-4.51
0.63
19.47
-4.30
Nov-13
20.24
13.75
32.55
-3.37
2.24
-3.41
Dec-13
7.05
11.27
0.99
9.03
1.67
9.36
Jan-14
8.60
-6.17
-10.78
-17.16
-7.79
14.91
Feb-14
5.12
5.40
3.74
-8.43
-6.67
7.10
Mar-14
11.25
7.64
9.32
1.40
23.93
-4.79
Apr-14
5.53
16.00
3.68
8.31
-1.06
-0.72
May-14
0.14
28.56
13.83
38.92
29.13
-6.10
Jun-14
27.34
25.75
61.74
45.60
25.41
11.16
Jul-14
-1.13
-4.15
-18.98
-13.55
-11.27
-18.60
Aug-14
23.73
-5.29
-0.63
3.33
4.19
4.76
Sep-14
3.94
16.77
22.45
-7.08
5.06
6.10
Oct-14
0.42
-0.35
-7.00
5.67
33.15
-7.22
Nov-14
-6.12
10.35
-10.30
-15.85
-1.95
-6.87
Dec-14
1.05
3.80
-1.98
-4.09
-6.90
6.88
Jan-15
2.62
-8.08
-5.04
-0.30
5.33
-12.73
Feb-15
5.56
-3.28
-4.38
-11.54
1.74
2.89
Mar-15
-14.52
6.95
-5.96
-16.76
38.39
-2.78
Apr-15
6.39
-1.44
-1.33
10.81
1.37
0.24
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Interpretation:Arvind Products Limited with Arvind Limited
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Arvind Ltd has informed BSE that in pursuance of the Composite Scheme of Arrangement in
the nature of amalgamation of Arvind Products Limited with Arvind Limited and Demerger
and transfer of investment division of Asman Investments Limited. It is announced on 20 th
March 2012.
Figure of Arvind Products shows fluctuation in stock return. From jan2011 to Sep there is
minor fluctuation found and in September 2011 its goes up then again its down up to
March2012 and after the March or say that after amalgamation return goes up and then in
May 2012 its goes down then in September 2013 its goes up again.
Ras Extrusions With Essel Propack Ltd. (EPL)
Essel Propack Ltd has informed BSE that the Board for Industrial and Financial
Reconstruction (BIFR), New Delhi, in its hearing held on May 10, 2012, had approved
Modified Draft Rehabilitation Scheme including the Scheme of Merger of RAS Extrusions
Ltd.(REL),with Essel Propack Ltd.(EPL) and its amalgamation announced on 12 th May 2012.
Figure of Essel Propack Ltd. (EPL) shows fluctuation in stock return. Here it is found that in
January 2012 its goes up. Its result of before merger and at the time of merger means in
May 2012 return on moderate level and after that its found fluctuated up to April 2015.
Zuari Finance Limited With Phoenix Township Limited
The Company Zuari Finance Limited entered into a Scheme of Amalgamation and
Arrangement between Zuari Forex Limited (“ZFL”) and Phoenix Township Limited (“the
Company” or “PTL”) and their respective shareholders ("the Scheme") which became
effective on 23rd January, 2012.
Figure of Essel Propack Ltd. (EPL) shows fluctuation in stock return. Here it is found that in
September 2011 its goes up it is situation before merger and at the time of merger means
on January 2012 its on moderate leveland after it up to 2015 it’s fluctuated.
Grabal Alok Impex Ltd with Alok Industries Ltd.
Grabal Alok Impex Ltd has informed BSE that the Board of Directors of Grabal Alok Impex
Ltd has decided to fix the record date as March 14, 2012 in consultation with the Board of
Directors of the Alok Industries Ltd and the stock exchanges to determine Shareholders of
the Grabal Alok Impex Ltd who shall be entitled to receive the shares in the Alok Industries
Ltd pursuant to the Scheme of Amalgamation of the Grabal Alok Impex Ltd with the Alok
Industries Ltd.
Figure of Alok Industries Ltd. shows fluctuation in stock return. Here it is found that in
September 2011 return is negative and after the merger gradually its increase and in May
2014 its shows high stock return.
Bell Ceramics Limited with Orient Ceramic Limited
Orient Bell Limited (Formerly Orient Ceramics and Industries Ltd) has completed the merger
of Bell Ceramics Limited with Orient Ceramic Limited on March 30, 2012. The company's
name was changed post acquisition of the company from Orient Ceramics and Industries
Ltd to Orient Bell Limited.
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Figure of Orient Bell Ceramic Ltd shows fluctuation in return. Here its found that in march
2012 its get high return up to May 2012 and after merger its fluctuated up to April 2015.
Tonira Pharma with Ipca Labs
Tonira Pharma has merged with Ipca Laboratories Ltd, a Company listed on Bombay Stock
Exchange Ltd and National Stock Exchange Ltd. Amalgamation announced on 16 th May
2012.
Figure of Ipca Labs shows fluctuation in stock return as in September 2011 its get negative
return then at the time of merger its gradually increase and after it has fluctuated result up
to April 2015.
Test of Hypothesis
Ho:- There is no significant difference in the average return of selected companies before
and after Merger & Acquisition.
H1:- There is a significant difference in the average return of selected companies before
and after Merger & Acquisition.
Paired t-Test
Before
After
Mean
1.57
-0.14
Variance
5.77
12.45
Observations
6.00
6.00
Pearson Correlation
Hypothesized Mean
Difference
0.01
df
5.00
t Stat
0.99
0.00
P(T<=t) one-tail
0.18
t Critical one-tail
2.02
P(T<=t) two-tail
0.37
t Critical two-tail
2.57
CONCLUSION
From the above calculation of paired t- test between and after merger stock returns with
5% significance level with Degree of Freedom 5. The critical value for one tail is 2.02 and for
two tail is 2.57, while calculated value is 0.99 which is lower than both the critical value
there for researcher has failed to reject null hypothesis. So researcher can say that there is
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no significance difference in the average return of selected companies before and after
Merger & Acquisition.
LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
Every live and non-live factor has its own limitations which restrict the usability of that
factor. The same rule applies to this research work. The major limitations of this study are
as under:
 This study is mainly based on secondary data. The reliability and the finding are
contingent upon the data given on www.bseindia website
 The study is limited to 1year before merger and 3years after merger only.
 This study is related with six units. Any generalization for universal application
Cannot be applied here.
REFERENCES
 www.bseindia.com
 Anup Agrawal Jeffrey F. Jaffe (1999), “The Post-merger Performance Puzzle”, Journal of
Corporate Finance, USA Saple (2000), “Diversification, Mergers and their Effect on Firm
Performance: A Study of the Indian Corporate Sector”, Unpublished Ph.D. thesis submitted
to IGIDR, Mumbai.
 Saple V. (2000) “Diversification, Mergers and their Effect on Firm Performance: A Study of
the Indian Corporate Sector”, Review of Quantitative Finance and Accounting. Page No.67.
 Vardhana Pawaskar, 2001. “Effect of Mergers on Corporate Performance in India”.
Vikalpa, 26 (1):Page No19-32
 Manoj Kumara.N.&, Satyanarayana(2013),”Comparative Study of Pre and Post Corporate
Integration through Mergers and acquisition “ published in International Journal of Business
and Management Invention ISSN (Online): 2319 – 8028, ISSN (Print): 2319 – 801X
www.ijbmi.org Volume 2 Issue 3 March. 2013 PP.31-38
 Neha Verma|& Dr. Rahul Sharma (February 2014),”Impact of Mergers & Acquisitions on
Firms’ Long Term Performance published in volume 5 Issue 6 December 2012.
 Kumar, R., (2009). "Post-Merger Corporate Performance: an Indian Perspective",
Management Research News 32 (2), Page No. 145-157.
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UNIFORM INTERNATIONAL
ACCOUNTING STANDARD : A
DILEMMA
PROF. DR. RASHMI R. PATEL
SHAH N H COMMERCE COLLEGE VALSAD.
SUBJECT : COMMERCE
INTRODUCTION
Accounting standards are logical statements connoting best accounting practices
issued by well known and scholarly accounting bodies. They are always concerned with the
measurement, accounting treatment and fair display of financial transaction and events.
These standards enable the business enterprise to convey the required information to
different users such as shareholders, investors, management creditors, management,
business rivals, government tax authorities and society a large. The primary objective of
setting standards is to bring uniformity in preparation of financial statements and reporting
thereof and to maintain consistency and facilitate comparison of the accounting
information published by the business organizations.
Accounting standards codify acceptable accounting practice. They are the
primary source of the Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP).
The leading Accounting body of India, the Institute of Chartered Accountant of
India (ICAI) is the primary Accounting Standards setting body for all entities except
government. Objective of Accounting Standards is to standardize the diverse accounting
policies and practices with a view to eliminate to the extent possible the non-comparability
of financial statements and the reliability to the financial statements. The Institute of
Chartered Accountants of India, recognizing the need to harmonize the diverse accounting
policies and practices, constituted at Accounting Standard Board on 21 st April 1977
Accounting Standards are set at national and international levels. Thus different
countries have different Accounting Standards.
The role of accounting has been changing with the economic and social
development over the past few centuries. Over period of time new dimensions have been
added to the accounting discipline. Accounting is now regarded as a service activity, a
descriptive analytical discipline and an information system.
NEED OF UNIFORM INTENATIONAL STANDARDS.

A financial reporting system supported by strong governance, high quality
standards is key to economic development.
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
In the present scenario of globalization and liberalization the world has become
an economic village. The globalization of business world and development of e-commerce
make a requirement to have a single globally accepted financial reporting system.

The forces of globalization prompt more and more countries to open their doors
to foreign investment and there the need arises to have commonly accepted and
understood financial reporting standards.

A number of multinational companies are establishing their business in various
countries.

More and more Indian companies are also being listed on overseas stock
exchanges thus a sound financial reporting structure is necessary for effective functioning
of capital marketing.

Increasing complexity of business transaction and globalization of capital
markets need single set of high quality accounting standards.
EMERGENCE OF INTENATIONAL ACCOUTING STANDARD BOARD.
The International Accounting Standard Board (IASB) formerly known as the
International Accounting Standards Committee (IASC)came into existence on June 29 th ,
1973 by the recognized professional accounting bodies in Canada, Australia, France, Japan,
Germany, Mexico, Netherlands ,UK and US with its and headquarters in London.
The move towards adopting unified and higher quality accounting standards
across the globe started fully in 80s and was catalyzed by stakeholders in advanced
economies, in the year 2001 with the establishment of the International Accounting
Standards Board (IASB). In its first sitting, the new board unanimously agreed to consolidate
all the Standards issued under IASC (IASs) with the ones issued under the new board (IFRSs)
as IFRS-framework. The board also stipulated clear procedures to be followed by every
entity adopting the consolidated framework.
Today companies are faced with a plethora of accounting standards. A situation
may exist where a company following German GAAPs making huge profits may end with
loss if it has to recast its accounts using US GAAPs to raise capital in US markets. Thus
different Accounting Standards generates different financial results of the same company.
CONVERGENCE OF AS TO IFRS
As per Prof. Siva Nathan of Georgia State University, ‘Convergence is when the
laws and regulations in various fields are converging to one common set all over the world.
It is impossible to conduct trans-border business without a common set of regulation.
Similar convergence is taking place in other areas also such as environmental regulations,
safety regulations in aviation, shipping and automobiles, labor laws, commercial laws etc.”1
A Survey of 143 accounting industry leaders from 91 countries around the world
was conducted by the International Federation Of Accountants revealed that 89% of
leaders indicated that convergence to IFRS was ‘very important’ or ‘important’ for
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economic growth in their countries. 9% said it was some what important while only 1% said
it was not important.2
The inception of the proposal of convergence of Indian GAAP with IFRS was
made by the then Prime Minister Dr. Manmohan Singh in G20 summit to align Indian
Accounting Standards with IFRS. Keeping in view the complex nature of IFRS and the extent
of differences between the existing AS and the corresponding IFRS the ICAI was of the view
that IFRS should be adopted for the public interest entities such as listed entities, banks and
insurance entities and large sized entities from the accounting periods beginning on or after
1st April, 2011.
This was to be done by revising existing accounting standards to make them
compatible with IFRS. National Advisory Committee on Accounting Standards, RBI, SEBI and
IRDA, CBDT and International Accounting Standard Board are supporting the ICAI towards
convergence actions. However, industry sought a delay in implementation and these
standards are not finally notified.
India’s new finance minister, Mr. Arun Jaitley has also acknowledged an urgent
need to converge Indian Accounting Standards with IFRS and thereby the implementation is
now proposed in 2015-16.
OPPORTUNITIES AND CHALLENGES:
The new global standards bring both opportunities and challenges.
OPPORTUNITIES:

The opportunities that the corporate get by using the single global standards
case the access to global capital markets enable peer group comparisons, cross- border
transactions etc.

Companies that are traded in various global markets will have to prepare only
one set of financial statements, using one set of standards.

Analysts will have to know only one set of accounting standards to analyze any
company in the world.

It will become easier for a company to conduct business and raise capital from
anywhere in the world, investors too will think of investing in any company in the world
because they will now understand the financial statement across the globe. Thus it will
benefit the economy by increasing growth of its international business and thereby lead to
more foreign capital flows to the country.

Investors want the information that is more relevant, reliable, timely and
comparable across the jurisdictions .Convergence to IFRS will contribute to invertors
understanding.

The major advantage of convergence is in the interest of the industry. The
burden of financial reporting is lessened with convergence of accounting standards and
thereby reduces the cost of preparing the financial statements using different sets of
accounting standards.
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
It also helps accounting professionals because now they are able to sell their
services as experts in different parts of the world.
CHALLENGES:

The challenges are in implementation of these new principle-based standards
in training current professionals for adequate usage and compatibility with the tax-regime.

IFRS has brought greater amount of complexities in financial accounts annual
reports are becoming unmanageable and needs highly trained users to understand them.
However transactions of today’s business world have also become complex.

IFRS also brings many definitional changes. e.g. pref. equity becomes loan and
dividend becomes interest.

All acts that speak about accounting and related presentation, measurement
and disclosure will need to be amended i.e. Acts like Companies Act 1956, Banking
regulation act etc.

The convergence will work if regulatory authorities will have a common set of
enforcement standards. The drafts that were published in 2011 for implementation from
2011-12 have become outdated since the corresponding IFRS standards have undergone a
change. Thus alteration process including accounts, systems and business arrangements is
to be done.

Other big challenge for India is implementation timing coinciding with various
new requirements of the Companies Act, 2013.

Convergence even cost. Countries accountants, auditors, regulators, university
faculty, students will have to learn IFRS. And all this has to be done in a short period of
time.

Very few companies will be able to adopt the IFRS from 2015-16 as the
intervening period may not be sufficient for all firms to converge with the global norms.

Every country has its unique culture, especially business culture, also
economic conditions are unique in such situations having a common set of international
accounting standards may hinder the conveying of information of certain company specific
information unique to a country.
In spite of various doubts the IFRS was genuinely accepted first by European
Union countries on January 1, 2005 followed by more than hundred other countries. If
some countries adopt IFRS without modifications as compared to those that apply modified
versions of the standards, the IASB goal to achieve comparability of financial statements
across borders in order to achieve uniformity will be fulfilled?
If single global accounting standard is genuinely adopted, comparability of
financial statements will be achieved, leading to a reduction in information processing costs
associated with different national accounting standards, and thereby resulting in a
reduction in the overall cost of capital. The success of the IASB and FASB convergence
projects will depend on successful implementation of IFRS. Furthermore, reporting
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standards are merely one component of accounting infrastructure. The other components
include the regulatory agencies and auditing firms that are required to ensure consistent
interpretation and application of reporting standards. For the Financial Accounting
Standard Board (FASB) and the IASB convergence project to succeed and become a perfect
union, regulatory agencies and auditing firms throughout the world will need to both
cooperate and fully embrace the converged standards.
References:
1. Siva Nathan 2008 Article published in the Business Line January 3, 2008
2. Survey www.webcpa.com
3. www.asc.gov.sg ASC-IFRS conference 2014
4. Economic Times Feb 24 2014, March 9 1014, July 12 2014
5. Kamal Garg, Bharat IFRS concepts and application Printsasia.in 1 St edition
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INFERENCES: EFFECTIVE SKILL
FOR READING
MISS MANISHA MUKESHBHAI GODHANI
M.Com.,M.Ed., DEVGC,SET (comm.)
Assistant Teacher, Sheth H. C. P. Navsari High School, Navsari
SUBJECT : COMMERCE
KEY WORDS : Inferences, Skill, Reading,
ABSTRACT
Inference is a mental process by which we reach a conclusion based on specific
evidence. We infer motives, purpose, and intentions. Inference is essential to, and part of,
being human. We engage in inference every day. We interpret actions to be examples of
behavior characteristics, intents, or expressions of particular feelings. We infer that
evidence in a text is authoritative when it is attributed to a scholar in the field. Making an
inference in reading is the process of combining the current text information with one’s
own experience in order to create meaning that is not directly stated in the text. In this
paper author discuss about meaning, function and types of inference. Also discuss ideas
and activities teachers can use to reinforce inferring information from text. They are helpful
for students to effectively and automatically mix the text and their background knowledge
to make good inferences and predictions.
INTRODUCTION
We engage in inference every day. We interpret actions to be examples of
behavior characteristics, intents, or expressions of particular feelings. We make inferences
about motives when we listen to politicians. We predict a book’s appeal by the picture on
the cover. Making an inference in reading is the process of combining the current text
information with one’s own experience in order to create meaning that is not directly
stated in the text. If the inference is correct, then we have learned something new and will
have that learning better anchored in our brains. If it is wrong, then we still learn something
new—to make a different inference in a similar situation in future texts.
An inference about future information in a text is a prediction. We use the text
clues and our background knowledge to predict what will happen next in a story or what we
will learn later in a text. We then go through the text to confirm, discard, change, or make
new predictions, based on new evidence that comes up.
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INFERENCE DEFINITION
Inference is a literary device used commonly in literature and in daily life where
logical deductions are made based on premises assumed to be true. Another definition of
inference suggests that it is rational but non-logical, which means that through the
observation of facts presented in a particular pattern, one ultimately sees different or new
interpretations and perspectives.
Symbols and anomalies are very important during its use. In this case inferences
are not so much used for coming to conclusions but to open up new ways of inquiry. When
inference is studied from this aspect, it is further divided into two types: inductive and
deductive inference.
EXAMPLES

A woman walks into a store soaking wet and it is raining. It can be inferred that
she does not have an umbrella.

Nitesh bought six lottery tickets the previous day and quit work the next day.
Her co-workers can infer that she won the lottery.

When the phone rang and Lina picked it up, she was all smiles. It can be inferred
that she was pleased to receive the phone call.

A child tries a new fruit and makes a disgusted face. His mother can infer that he
does not like the taste of the fruit.

At 5 o'clock Garima saw her assistant's office light out and did not hear the
sound of typing. Garima can infer that her assistant went home.

Watching the woman at the airport run toward the arriving flight area, one could
infer that she was excited for someone to arrive.

Guests at your dinner party asked for seconds so you can infer they liked it.
FUNCTION OF INFERENCE
The function of inference is important not only in literature but in daily life to
make sense of things people say and do. The skills inference teaches us are not only
required to make out the underlying meanings of phrases and arguments but also to
perceive the implicit concealed meanings that enhance the overall quality of a text.
It is also used to draw your own conclusions from a script. Inference plays a
central role in understanding texts by translating in your mind the effects of the usage of
particular words. It also makes us see the literary value of a text by highlighting its
strengths. Moreover, inference has a great deal of significance in enhancing the learning
abilities of students academically and otherwise. The ability to make inferences helps
students develop an understanding of the author’s perspective by grasping the subtle
underlying meanings in a text. Without inference people usually end up translating a text
word by word, missing out on the associations a writer is trying to make. Such a lacking
approach keeps us from comprehending the “whole picture” of a piece of writing.
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The delight a reader feels while going through a text is because of the inferences
he makes along the way. People who are better at inferring generally have much more fun
while reading than those who do not. The reason is that they understand the script better
because they are able to see things that are not too obvious, which is why they follow a
story or text better and enjoy it all the more. Besides, understanding the text better helps
them draw information from their existing knowledge and thus relate to the characters
more deeply.
In learning the processes of inference, people generally come to find that in
places reading a text independently makes it incomplete. There are certain concepts and
feelings that we understand better when we associate them with our own experiences. It
also aids in learning concepts like themes, characters and figurative language. When this
process is repeated consciously and systematically, it becomes a skill that helps us fill the
gaps in understanding a script.
TYPES OF INFERENCES
1.Text-to-Text Inferences
These inferences allow us to connect one part of a text to another. For a
particular section of text, comprehension depends, in large part, on text information that
preceded it. Proficient readers remember what was read earlier in a text and then connect
it to what they are currently reading (Keene & Zimmermann, 2007). For example, readers
need to remember characters, their traits, and their relationships; the order of events; the
setting; causes and effects; foreshadowing; and key vocabulary terms within a text as they
read. Authors usually expect the reader to make these text-to-text inferences within the
specific text being read. They also may assume that the reader has read certain other texts,
but authors have much less control over these text-to-other-texts connections.
2. Text-to-Self and Text-to-World Inferences
When we make inferences, we connect the text information to our own
experience and knowledge of the world. For example, I may think of the tree as a symbol of
growth in a story, or the dry lake as a metaphor for death. As I read on, these inferences
might be confirmed, perhaps in a class discussion, or we may conclude that they were
nothing more than a tree and a dry lake. I may infer that, because I know ice floats, all other
solid versions of a liquid will float, and I would be wrong. Many authors expect readers to
make text-to-self and text-to world inferences -they want us to apply what we read and
learn to past or present situations, problems, and settings in the world.
Teachers must create environments in which students feel safe about making
many and varied inferences. Students should be encouraged to discuss, interpret, define,
argue, and write down their inferences about the text and how it relates to their lives and
the world around them. Inference, because it extends past the known, is one of the main
ingredients of creative thought and expanded learning.
Teachers have used this type of “during-reading” prompting for both instruction
and assessment. It is an effective way to get students to (a) stop and think while they are
reading, and (b) show us what they are thinking as they read. If their predictions
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(inferences, questions, summaries, and so forth) seem to distract or hinder comprehension,
then we can take steps to build such habits in our lessons and activities.
Figure 15
ACTIVITIES
We must teach students to effectively and automatically mix the text and their
background knowledge to make good inferences and predictions. If students rely too
heavily on the text, they will miss a large amount of deeper meaning; if they rely too heavily
on background knowledge, they will lose the direction of the text.
The following are ideas and activities teachers can use to reinforce inferring
information from text:
Show and Infer. Rather than show and tell, have students bring in a few items that tell
about themselves. The items should be in a paper bag or trash bag, something the other
children can't see through. The teacher takes one bag at a time, bringing out the items and
the class uses them as "clues" to figure out who brought in the items. This teaches children
to use what they know about their classmates to guess.
Fill in the Blanks. Use a short excerpt or passage appropriate for the grade level and take
out words, inserting blanks in their place. Students must use clues in the passage to
determine an appropriate word to fill the blank space.
Use Pictures from Magazines. Have students bring in a picture from a magazine showing
different facial expressions. Discuss each picture, talking about how the person might be
feeling. Have students give supporting reasons for their opinion, such as, "I think he is angry
because his face is tense."
Shared Reading. Have students read in pairs, one student reads a short paragraph and
must summarize the paragraph to their partner. The partner asks questions that have not
been specifically answered in the summary to have the reader make inferences about the
passage.
Graphic Thought Organizers. Use worksheets to help students organize their thoughts to
help come up with inferences. Worksheets can be creative, such as a picture of a ladder
going up a tree to a tree house. Students write their inference in the tree house and the
clues to back up the inference on each rung of the ladder. Worksheets can also be as simple
as folding a paper in half, writing the inference on one side of the paper and the supporting
statements on the other.
REFERENCES
1.Beishuizen, J., Le Grand, J. and van der Schalk, J. (1999). 'No correlations between inferencing causal
relations and text comprehension?', Learning and Instruction, 9, 1, 37-56.
2.Cain, K. and Oakhill, J. (2004). ‘Reading comprehension difficulties.’ In: Nunes, T. and Bryant, P. (Eds)
Handbook of Children’s Literacy. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers.
3.Graesser, A.C., Singer, M. and Trabasso, T. (1994). 'Constructing inferences during narrative text
comprehension', Psychological Review, 101, 3, 371-395.
4.McKoon, G. and Ratcliffe, R. (1992). 'Inference during reading', Psychological Review, 99, 3, 440-466.
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