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Chapter 2
Keeping Food Safe
© Copyright 2011 by the National Restaurant Association Educational Foundation (NRAEF)
and published by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
What Is a
Foodborne Illness?
All restaurant and foodservice operations must keep food safe. Every
person in the operation must work toward this goal.
 A foodborne illness is a disease transmitted to people by food.
 A foodborne-illness outbreak is when two or more people get the
same illness after eating the same food.
 The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)
estimates that there will be 76 million cases of foodborne illness in
the United States each year.
 High-risk populations have a higher risk of getting a foodborne
illness than others.
 The immune system is the body’s defense against illness. Older
people’s immune system weakens with age
2.1
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2
Forms of Contamination
To prevent foodborne illness, it is important to recognize the hazards
that can make food unsafe.
 A hazard is something with the potential to cause harm.
 In the preparation of food, hazards are divided into three categories:
biological, chemical, and physical.
 Contamination means that harmful things are present in food,
making it unsafe to eat.
 Food can become unsafe through:
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
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2.1
Poor personal hygiene (transfers pathogens)
Time-temperature abuse
Cross-contamination
Poor cleaning and sanitizing
Purchasing from unapproved suppliers
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3
Biological Contamination
Microorganisms are small, living organisms that can be seen only
through a microscope.
 The four types of pathogens that can contaminate food
and cause foodborne illness are:
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
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
Viruses
Bacteria
Parasites
Fungi
 Biological toxins: are made by pathogens, or they come
from a plant or an animal (poisonous mushroom)
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Biological Contamination (cont.)
 Pathogens need six conditions to grow. FAT TOM, for
Food, Acidity, Temperature (FAT), Time, Oxygen, and
Moisture (TOM).
 Food that is most vulnerable for pathogen growth is food
that needs time and temperature control for safety, or
TCS food for short.
 Keep TCS food out of the temperature danger zone.
 Ready-to-eat food, or food that can be eaten without
further preparation, washing, or cooking, also needs
careful handling to prevent contamination.
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5
FAT TOM
 Food: high in protein or carbohydrates (baked potato,
beef)
 Acidity: grows in food with little or no acid (see p. 79)
 Temperature: grows between 41 and 135 degrees
(temperature danger zone)
 Time: don’t leave TCS food at room temperatures longer
than 4 hours
 Oxygen: most pathogens need oxygen to grow
 Moisture: pathogens need moisture to grow
Biological Contamination (cont.)
 Viruses are the leading cause of foodborne illness.
 Can’t grow in food, but once eaten, can multiply in intestines
 Bacteria also cause many foodborne illnesses.
 Grows rapidly, doubling their number every 20 minutes
 Parasites cannot grow in food. They must live in a host
 Host: a person, animal, or plant on which another organism lives and
feeds.
 Fungi can cause illness, but usually they cause food to spoil. Fungi
are found in air, soil, plants, water, and some food.
 Mold that is visible to the human eye is actually a tangled mass of
thousands of tiny mold plants.
 Yeast can spoil food quickly. The signs of spoilage include the smell or
taste of alcohol and bubbles
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Chemical Contamination
 Chemicals contaminants come from everyday items that
are found in restaurants (cleaners and sanitizers)
 Store chemicals in a separate area away from food,
utensils, and equipment used for food.
 To prevent toxic-metal poisoning don’t store acidic
foods in metal containers
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Physical Contamination
 Physical contamination happens when objects get into food
 Common physical contaminants include:
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

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
2.1
Metal shavings from cans
Glass from broken lightbulbs
Fingernails, hair, and bandages
Jewelry
Fruit pits
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Allergens
A food allergy is the body’s negative reaction to a food protein.

most common allergens:




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milk and dairy products
eggs and egg products
fish and shellfish
wheat
soy, peanuts, and tree nuts
 Employees should be aware of major allergens and the
menu items that contain them.
 Cross-contact occurs when allergens are transferred from
food containing an allergen to the food served to the
customer.
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U.S. Regulation
of Food Safety
 The Food and Drug Administration recommends specific
food safety regulations for restaurants
 An inspection is a formal review or examination conducted
to see if an operation is following food safety laws.
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11
How Foodhandlers Can
Contaminate Food
Good personal hygiene is a key factor in the prevention of foodborne
illnesses. Successful managers make personal hygiene a priority.
 Foodhandlers can contaminate food in a variety of
situations.
 Foodhandlers are food preparers, servers, dishwashers
 To prevent foodhandlers from contaminating food,
managers must create personal hygiene policies.
These policies must address personal cleanliness,
clothing, hand care, and health.
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Personal Cleanliness
and Work Attire
 Dirty clothing carry pathogens that can cause foodborne illnesses.
 To avoid spreading foodborne illnesses, foodhandlers should:
 cover hair
 Remove aprons when leaving prep areas
 Remove jewelry
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13
Handwashing
Handwashing is the most important part of personal hygiene (the entire
process should take at least 20 seconds)
 Foodhandlers must also wash their hands after:
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2.2
Using the restroom
Handling raw meat, poultry, or seafood
Touching the hair, face, or body
Sneezing, coughing, or using a tissue
Eating, drinking, smoking, or chewing gum or tobacco
Handling chemicals that might affect food safety
Taking out garbage
Clearing tables or busing dirty dishes
Touching clothing or aprons
Handling money
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Proper handwashing

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
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1. wet hands with water as hot as you can stand it
2. apply soap
3. scrub hands and arms for 15 seconds
4. rinse
5. dry with single use paper towel
6. use antiseptic
Bare-Hand Contact/
Illness Work Requirements
 Don’t use bare hands to handle ready-to-eat food.
 Foodhandlers who are sick can spread pathogens to
food. Depending on the illness, they might not be able to
work with food until they recover
Sore throat, fever……………. Can’t work with food
Vomitting, diarrhea………….. Shouldn’t be in operation
Foodborne illness…………….. Shouldn’t be in operation
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Cross-Contamination
The spread of pathogens from one surface or food to another is called
cross-contamination.
 The steps that an operation takes to buy, store, prepare,
cook, and serve food is known as the flow of food.
 See page 105 (figure 2.19 for order)
 All steps in the flow of food pose risks to food safety.
 prevent cross-contamination by separating raw food and
ready-to-eat food.
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Time-Temperature Abuse
Most foodborne illnesses happen because TCS food has been timetemperature abused.
 Food is time-temperature abused when
 it is cooked to the wrong internal temperature
 held at the wrong temperature
 or cooled or reheated incorrectly.
 Pathogens grow on food left out at 41˚F to 135˚F
(temperature danger zone)
 If food is held in this range for four or more hours, throw it
out.
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Thermometers
Three types of thermometers: (must be calibrated) p. 107

bimetallic stemmed thermometer: checking both hot and
cold food.
 Thermocouples measure temperatures through a metal
probe and display them digitally.
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Immersion probe for liquids
Surface probe for flat equipment (griddle)
Penetration probe for internal temp. of food
Air probe for temperature inside ref. or ovens
 Infrared thermometers: do not need to touch a surface to
check its temperature, so there is less chance for crosscontamination and damage to food.
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Purchasing
All the food used in a restaurant or foodservice operation
should come from approved, reputable suppliers.
 Restaurants must make sure that their suppliers
use good food safety practices along the supply
chain (from growers to market)
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Receiving
 Use thermometers to check food temperatures
 Reject any items with packaging problems or expired
use-by dates.
 Shell eggs must be received at 45 degrees or lower
 Milk and dairy products must be received at 45˚F or
lower
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Storage
Store all TCS food at 41°F or lower, or at 135°F or higher.
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Store food prepped in house no longer than 7 days
use the first-in, first-out (FIFO) method.
Store raw meat separately from ready-to-eat food.
Meat cooked to higher temperatures is always stored
beneath meat cooked to lower temperatures
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2.3
seafood – top
whole beef and pork
ground meat
whole and ground poultry - bottom
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22
Preparation
Remove from the refrigerator only as much food as can be prepared in
a short period of time.
 Prepare food in small batches to avoid temperature
abuse
 freezing doesn’t kill pathogens; when frozen food is
thawed any pathogens in the food will begin to grow
 To reduce pathogen growth, never thaw food at room
temperature.
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Cooking
Cooking food to the correct temperature is critical for keeping it safe.
 Every TCS food has a minimum internal temperature
that it must reach
 Once food reaches its minimum internal temperature,
make sure that it stays at that temperature for a specific
amount of time
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2.3
165 degrees… poultry, stuffed meats
155 degrees… ground meat, eggs
145 degrees… seafood, all types of roasts
135 degrees… rice, beans
Microwave all foods to 165 degrees
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Holding, Cooling,
and Reheating
If cooked food isn’t served immediately, it must be kept out of the temperature
danger zone by cooling it quickly, reheating it correctly, and/or holding it correctly.
 To hold TCS food safely, hold hot food at 135°F or higher and hold
cold food at 41°F or lower.
 Check temperatures every 4 hours

Reheat all leftovers to 165°F

The food needs to go from storage temperature to 165°F within
two hours and then stay at that temperature for 15 seconds.
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Serving
The biggest threat to food that is ready to be served is contamination.
 The service staff needs to be just as careful as the kitchen
staff.
 Food that will be served off-site has to be packed in
insulated food containers that can keep food out of the
danger zone
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The HACCP Plan
A food safety management system is a group of procedures and
practices that work together to prevent foodborne illness.
 A Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point, or HACCP, system
identifies major hazards at specific points within a food’s flow
through the operation.
1.
2.
3.
4.
2.4
Conduct a hazard analysis.
Determine critical control
points (CCPs).
Establish critical limits.
Establish monitoring
procedures.
Chapter 2 | Keeping Food Safe
5.
6.
7.
Identify corrective actions.
Verify that the system
works.
Establish procedures for
record keeping and
documentation.
27
HACCP Principles (cont.)
 Principle 1: Conduct a Hazard Analysis:
 These hazards might be physical, chemical, or biological.
 Principle 2: Determine Critical Control Points (CCPs):
 CCP’s: points where hazard(s) can be prevented, eliminated, or
reduced to safe levels.
Principle 3: Establish Critical Limits:
 Critical limit is a temperature requirement for food
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28
HACCP Principles (cont.)
 Principle 4: Establish Monitoring Procedures:
monitor with thermometer
 Principle 5: Identify Corrective Actions:

Corrective action—a step to fix the problem (reheat, throw out)
 Principle 6: Verify that the System Works:

Evaluate it on a regular basis
 Principle 7: Establish Procedures for Record Keeping
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2.4
Keep all documentations of procedures.
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29
Cleaning and Sanitizing
 Cleaning removes food and dirt from surface
 Sanitizing reduces pathogens on surface
 Cleaning and sanitizing a surface or dishes:
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Clean
Rinse
Sanitize
Air-dry
Cleaning and sanitizing cont.
 All food contact surfaces need to be cleaned and
sanitized at the following times:
 After use
 Before foodhandlers start working w/ a different kind of food
 Interruption of task and item being used may have been
contaminated
 After 4 hrs. of continuous use
31
sanitizing
 Heat sanitizing: soak in 171 degree water for 30 seconds
 Chemical sanitizing: chlorine, iodine, or quats mixed with
water; concentration must be correct
32
Cleaning and sanitizing in 3
compartment sink
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1. rinse, scrape, soak items]
2. detergent solution in 1st sink
3. rinse in 2nd sink
4. sanitize in 3rd sink
5. air dry
33
Developing a cleaning program
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1. What should be cleaned
2. Who should clean it
3. when it should be cleaned
4. how it should be cleaned
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