Evolutionism Societies develop according to one universal order of cultural evolution Unilinear appraoch of a universal order (Savagery, barbarism and civilization) Human minds share similar characteristics all over the world Stimuli of change from within the culture Western societies are superior to other societies in the world Diffusionism and Acculturation Borrowing of cultural traits through many sources Change agents from outside a specific culture Concept of bigtradition Historical Particularism Every culture is a particular/unique entity Cultures cannot be compared – different historical entities Relativism not ethnocentricism: Context is important Functionalism Main objective of cultural institutions is to satisfy needs of the society Culture functions as an interrelated whole, not a collection of isolated traits Every aspect of culture has some specific function Nothing is irrelevant or illogical Structuralism Human mind shares common properties, with different ways of thinking and processing Culture is composed of surface and deep structures Culture and Personality Correlation between culture and individual personality Culture determines the personality or personalities shape the cultures Why are people so unique from society to society? Importance of cognition and childrearing practices More focused on psychoanalysis of individuals Socio-biological Theory Explanation of human social behavior from biological perspectives, especially genes Nature vs. nurture Inherited characteristics and learned behavior Attribution of cultural or ethnic variations to genetics Genes are a primary source for shaping our universal social behaviors. Causes of Social Change As many causes as possible; no blueprint Materialistic or Marxist perspective: Changes in means of production Role of technology: increase in alternatives, new opportunities, changes in interaction patterns and social structures, creation and solution of new problems Idealistic perspective: Changes in idealistic factors, norms & values, aesthetics, beliefs, super structure of the society Invention Production of new objects, ideas, and social patterns Discovery Taking note of certain elements of a culture Diffusion The spread of products, people, and information from one culture to another (Cont’d) © 2005 Pearson Education Canada Inc. Conflict and social change: Tensions and stressors between individuals and groups as they gain or lose power can bring about change, e.g., capitalists and workers Ideas and change: Ideas can fuel social movements which bring about social change, e.g., human rights (Cont’d) © 2005 Pearson Education Canada Inc. Natural environment is under great stress because of our development. The current patterns of pollution are not sustainable. Demographic change: Increases and decreases in numbers can lead to social change as society may need to expand and/or contract housing, education, and health. © 2005 Pearson Education Canada Inc.