In-text citations

• Direct Quote
Cite it!
• Paraphrased from a
direct source
Cite it!
• Paraphrased from general
information (class notes or
discussion, something
your parent/friend, etc
Look it up . . .
Then cite it!
 They are someone else’s intellectual property . . .
 The direct quote – clearly belongs to the person who
said it
 The paraphrased information – while in your own words,
you didn’t complete the initial research which found the
information. It still belongs to the person who wrote it.
 General information – this is the hardest one! The
information someone told you (in class, in the hall, at
dinner) still came from somewhere.
 How do you cite this? You can either cite the person: Burke,
Angel. Advanced Placement Notes. “Shakespeare’s Life and
Times”. November 2008.
 A better idea . . . Look up the information. Again, your source got
the information somewhere. Then cite the original source.
 If not, you are guilty of plagiarism!
“Your research paper is a collaboration between you and
your sources. To be fair and ethical, you must
acknowledge your debt to the writers of those sources. If
you don’t, you are guilty of plagiarism, a serious
academic offense. Three different acts are considered
plagiarism: (1) failing to cite quotations and borrowed
ideas, (2) failure to enclose borrowed language in
quotation marks, and (3) failing to put summaries and
paraphrases in your own words” (Hacker 115).
 Seriously? OK – In-text citations are placed directly
after the researched information (directly quoted or
paraphrased) and include a small piece of information.
This citation lets the reader know to check for a works
cited page.
 Works Cited Page – where you place the full
information (look in your agenda if you’re not sure
about the format) for the source used.
 Works Consulted – if you read background
information, but did not cite directly (including
paraphrased information) from the source. You still
have to give credit where credit is due!
 This seems like more work, why not just write about
what I know/have observed?!?!
 Outside research substantiates what you have observed.
 Outside research will help you prove your thesis and
show thought, effort and depth in your essay.
Works Cited
Hacker, Diana. A Pocket Style Manual. 4th ed. Boston:
Bedford/St. Martin’s, 2004.