Directions: Please find the significance of the following terms

Directions: Please find the significance of the following terms
1. Renaissance-Starts in Italy (Florence); 1400-1600; Means “rebirth” in French language;
it’s a rebirth of Ancient Greek and Roman styles
2. Niccolo Machiavelli-Wrote “The Prince”; gave advice to rulers; “its better to be feared
than loved”
3. Humanism-Placed an emphasis on the individual; they ARE NOT anti-religion
4. Thomas More-Wrote “Utopia”; which is an ideal or perfect society
5. William Shakespeare-English playwright; Romeo and Juliet, Othello and Merchant of
6. Medici Family-From Florence; bankers; dynasty that spanned centuries; Popes, French
and English royalty, Cardinals; Lorenzo was wounded and Giuliano was killed in Medici
7. Gregorian Calendar-This is the calendar we use today; replaced old calendars like the
Julian and Florentine calendar; British adopt this in the 1750’s
8. City-states-Cities that have their own governments and behave like a state /country
9. Donatello-Sculptor; sculpted “St George”, “St Mark” and “David” (which was the first
nude of the Renaissance) the contrapposto stance was prominent in Renaissance statues
10. Leonardo-Nomadic Period was when he wandered around for 20 years; a lot of work is
not finished; #1 goal was flight; Wrote from right to left; made blueprints for weapons;
“Mona Lisa” “The Last Supper” “The Adoration of the Magi”; Renaissance Man; a lot of
his work is in France today
11. Raphael-A painter and an architect (St. Peters Basilica); painted “The School of Athens”;
portrait of Julius II; used perspective in School of Athens
12. Michelangelo-Used the technique of fresco (paint on wet/fresh plaster); painted the
ceiling of the Sistine Chapel; believed he did not bathe that entire time; tomb of Julius II;
Sculpted a more muscular version of David; “Pieta”; spent time with Lorenzo the
Magnificent; Painted “The Last Judgment” was controversial because it had nudes in a
13. Nepotism-Appointing family members to important positions
14. Papacy-the office and position of the Pope
15. Pope Nicholas V-First Renaissance Pope; planned Vatican palace and St. Peter’s
Basilica; approved of slavery
16. Pope Sixtus IV-Was involved in Medici assassination; patron; Sistine Chapel is named
after him; made 6 “nephews” Cardinals
17. Pope Alexander VI-Borgia Pope; made 1 of his 18 year old sons a Cardinal; practiced
simony (paying for church positions); fathered 7 kids with 4 women
18. Girolamo Savonarola-He was excommunicated, arrested, tortured and burned by
Alexander VI; anti-Alexander VI and he is anti-Renaissance
19. Excommunicate-Ban someone from the church and basically sending them to hell
20. Patron-Anyone that supports the arts (money, place to stay , supplies)
21. Johann Gutenberg-Invented the printing press
22. Adriatic Sea-East of Italy; Mediterranean Sea to the south and west of Italy
Pick one individual from the Renaissance and provide three examples of how they
impacted European history.