Perspectives Lesson 2 Tutor: Elspeth Cordell Last week • Last lesson got a little heavy • We learnt about functionalism- a structural theory • Durkheim • Parsons • The nuclear family This week • • • • Recap on Structural theories Recap on Functionalism Introduce Marxism Compare and contrast both theories using examples • Education • Healthcare • Begin criticising them! Recap • Structural theories- handout1 • Theory can be said to be like looking at society through different lenses – each give it a different perspective or appearance. • The society and its structure is more important than the individual • There is no individual- just roles! • Society makes us who we are • Society is structured either through Consensus or conflict Recap questions 1. Structural theories is like looking through a …….? 2. Is there any individual in this perspective? 3. What are the two theories in this perspective? 4. Which one is which? Recap • lets break it down again • Functionalists believe that society FUNCTIONS as a whole and works by social consensus, in which members of the society agree upon, and work together to achieve, what is best for society as a whole- harmony and social order. • Social consensus- agreement on core values, norms and roles. • Thus happens neatly and with order This agreement (Consensus)Happens.. • This agreement happens through the process of socialisation • Parents, school, work, religion, media • Teach people the ways of the culture- norms, values, roles. • Remember a baby learns the way of life from the parents! Summing up • People are positive about the organisations. Every part of society functions in equilibruim and there is a general agreement that everything is good and works well• Task –Human body. • Gapped hand-out • However, is this true? • Are there conflicts? Weaknesses of functionalism • ‘Catch all’ • Do people work in agreement? • Terrorists- step out of the norms of society … why> • Task : Pay rise for government = strikes Teachers pay shows conflict • http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-england24268852 • http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-politics25287108 Marxism: Karl Marx Marxism • Marxism – society is structured so that some groups do better than others • Marxism is a belief that capitalism allows the owners of capital (the ruling-class or bosses) to exploit the workers (employees) and this causes conflict between the two classes • Thus society is structured through disagreement and conflict • If everyone got power= less wealth, control! The social Class • Focus on social class • Difference between the classes is what causes conflict • Society is structured around this • So that the powerful classes get to keep this power • Middle class is just another ploy to give the perception that society is fair Education from both perspectives • • • • • Functionalism: People have the opportunity to be anything if you work hard enough Socialises children and prepares them for society- norms, values, beliefs etc. Education serves social control or the regulation of deviant behaviour as it keeps people off streets, by keeping them busy and getting them achieving. teaches confidence, knowledge and self esteem, thus raising the whole society. • Marxism: Louis Althusser (a Marxist) (1971) the reproduction of an efficient and obedient work force. 1. transmitting the ideology that capitalism is just and reasonable (school teaches you to compete with your fellow pupils by trying to do better than them) 2. 3. train future workers to become submissive to authority (schools teachers you to accept as normal to do as you’re told, this way when your boss orders you what to do, it seems perfectly normal) if not born into wealth then chances of getting power is not real, just painted like this to make lower classes have hope. Healthcare what would these perspectives say?? • Functionalism • Marxism Summing up • Gapped handout • But has this theory got any weaknesses? • Are you happy that the structural theories discount YOUR contribution to society?