Configuring Network Devices Working at a Small-to-Medium Business or ISP – Chapter 5 Version 4.1 Objectives • Configure a router with an initial configuration. • Use Cisco SDM to configure a Cisco ISR with LAN connectivity, Internet connectivity and NAT. • Configure a Cisco router for LAN connectivity, Internet connectivity and NAT using the Cisco IOS CLI. • Configure a WAN connection from customer premises to an ISP. • Describe, setup and configure a standalone LAN switch. Initial ISR Router Configuration • ISR (Integrated Services Router combines routing, LAN switching, security, voice, & WAN connectivity features. • Ideal for small to medium-sized businesses & ISP managed customers. Initial ISR Router Configuration • Cisco IOS – offered in modules called images • IP Base image: entry-level Cisco IOS • Images are specific to models of devices Cisco 1841 Modular router Table 1 Memory Requirements for Cisco 1841 Modular Router Flash RAM Platform Feature Set Image Memory1 Memory Cisco 1841 IP Base c1841-ipbase-mz 64 MB 128 MB IP Voice c1841-ipvoice-mz 64 MB 192 MB Enterprise Base c1841-entbase-mz 32 MB 128 MB Advanced Security c1841-advsecurityk9mz 64 MB 192 MB SP Services c1841-spservicesk9-mz 64 MB 192 MB Enterprise Services c1841-entservicesk9mz 64 MB 192 MB Advanced IP Services c1841-advipservicesk9- 64 MB mz 192 MB Advanced Enterprise Services c1841-adventerprisek9mz 192 MB 64 MB CISCO IOS Image: Types of Images • Two main types of image your router may use: 1. System image - complete Cisco IOS software. This image is loaded when your router boots and is used most of the time. – On most platforms, the image is located in Flash memory. 2. Boot image - A subset of the Cisco IOS software. This image is used to perform network booting or to load Cisco IOS images onto the router. This image is also used if the router cannot find a valid system image. Depending on your platform, this image may be called xboot image, rxboot image, bootstrap image, or boot loader/helper image. • On some platforms, the boot image is contained in ROM. In others, the boot image can be stored in Flash memory. On these platforms, you can specify which image should be used as the boot image using the boot bootldr global configuration command. Refer to your hardware documentation for information about the boot image used on your router. Image Naming Convention • You can identify the platform, features and image location by the image name. • Naming convention is: platform – features – type • Example: c2600-js-l_121-3.bin • • • • c2600 js l 121-3 - hardware platform features set (enterprise) file format (relocatable, not compressed) version & release # (version 12.1 release 3) Image Naming Convention - continued • Platform – variable platform that can use image – For example c1700, c2600, c7000 • Features –feature sets supported by image. • Type – can contain following characters • f—The image runs from Flash memory. • • m—The image runs from RAM. • • r—The image runs from ROM. • • l—The image is relocatable. • • z—The image is zip compressed. • • x—The image is mzip compressed. Initial ISR Router Configuration • Tools and equipment required for setup: Initial ISR Router Configuration Three-stage bootup process: • Power-on self test (POST) • Locate and load Cisco IOS • Locate startup configuration file or enter setup mode Bootup Process - contd • POST (Power On Self Test) – test hardware • After POST, the bootstrap program is loaded • Bootstrap locates IOS and loads it into RAM – IOS can be located – flash memory, TFTP server, or another location – By default, IOS loads from flash • After IOS is loaded, bootstrap locates startup configuration file in NVRAM (non-volatile random access memory) • Startup configuration – when loaded into RAM (working memory), it become the “running” configuration. Loading Cisco IOS Get default IOS from FLASH Flash empty Get IOS from TFTP Server TFTP Server empty Get limited Cisco IOS from ROM Show version command output • Router>show version • IOS version • Bootstrap program stored in ROM • Complete filename of IOS • Type of CPU; amount of RAM • Number & type of interfaces • Amount of NVRAM (used to store startup config) • Amount of Flash (used to store IOS • Configuration register in hex Configuration register • Default setting – 0x2102 (remember this?) – Loads IOS from flash – Loads startup-config from NVRAM • Most common settings • 0x2142 –ignores contents of NVRAM/configuration • 0x2120 – The router into ROMmon mode • http://www.cisco.com/en/US/products/hw/routers/ps13 3/products_tech_note09186a008022493f.shtml – **Go to Configuration Register Values & Their Meaning. Initial ISR Router Configuration Verifying and troubleshooting bootup process: • View output from the show version command • Use dir flash: and boot flash: in ROMmon mode • View boot system commands [see miage below on next slide] Initial ISR Router Configuration (continued) Initial ISR Router Configuration (continued) • Out-of-band management for initial configuration • In-band management over a network connection In-Band Out-of-Band Terminal emulation HTTP or Telnet Initial ISR Router Configuration (continued) • Command Line Interface (CLI): textbased program • Can be used in both in-band or out-ofband • Extensive help system [see image below on next slide] Initial ISR Router Configuration (continued) SDM • Security Device Manager (SDM): web-based GUI • In-Band only • SDM Express (Basic) or Full package (Advanced configuration) • Comes preinstalled in flash CLI vs. SDM CLI User Interface Term Emulation software SDM Web-based browser Telnet Configuration Method Text-based Cisco commands GUI buttons & text boxes Expertise in Cisco Device Config. Depends on the config task Do not need knowledge of CLI commands Help Features Command-prompt based GUI based online help & tutorials Flash Requirements Covered by IOS requirements 6MB of free memory Availability ALL Cisco devices Cisco 830 series thru Cisco 7301 What It’s Used When device does not support SDM Initial config of SDM equipped device Using Cisco SDM Express and SDM • Follow best practices for installing a new device to ensure correct functions Using Cisco SDM Express and SDM Eight SDM Express configuration screens: • • • • • • • • Overview Basic configuration LAN IP address DHCP Internet (WAN) Firewall Security settings Summary Using Cisco SDM Express and SDM • Use Basic NAT Wizard to configure dynamic NAT with PAT Configuring a Router Using IOS CLI • CLI command modes: two levels of access Configuring a Router Using IOS CLI • Configuration modes can alter the operation of the device Configuring a Router Using IOS CLI Help features: • Command completion • Error indicators • Command history – – – – Enabled by default Records 10 command Max 256 commands history size command • Arrow and function keys Configuring a Router Using IOS CLI • Show commands display configuration and operation information • R#show run • R#show interfaces • R#show ip route • R#show protocols Configuring a Router Using IOS CLI • Use Cisco IOS CLI to perform an initial router configuration Configuring a Router Using IOS CLI • Configure serial and Ethernet interfaces on a router (DTE) Data Terminal Equipment endpoint of user’s device on the WAN link; Cisco routers (DCE) Data Communications Equipment; provides clock rate; modem; converts data from router to acceptable format to cross the WAN If back-to-back router scenario, one of the routers will be DCE and one DTE. Configuring a Router Using IOS CLI • Configure a default route for the Cisco router • Default route used when router does not know where to send a packet. IP address of next-hop router Or port number Configuring a Router Using IOS CLI • Configure a Cisco router to function as a DHCP server Configuring a Router Using IOS CLI • Configure static NAT on a Cisco router to enable Internet access for an internal server Configuring a Router Using IOS CLI • Back up and restore configuration files using a TFTP server Configuring a Router Using IOS CLI • Capture and save configuration file output from a terminal session Connecting the CPE to the ISP • Customer Premise Equipment (CPE) – network devices installed at customer location. • Configuration checklists ensure that all configuration requirements are met Connecting the CPE to the ISP • Use inventory and configuration checklists and an installation plan to ensure successful installation Connecting the CPE to the ISP • Documentation includes diagrams, checklists, and activity logs Connecting the CPE to the ISP Types of customer connections over a WAN: • Point-to-point: often called leased lines; typically most expensive; price based on bandwidth & distance between 2 points • Circuit-switched – similar to a phone call made over a phone network; example is ISDN or dialup connection; physical circuit reserved from source to destination • Packet-switched – each customer has a virtual circuit; example is Frame Relay Customer Connections over WAN • Bandwidth and cost influence WAN choices Connecting the CPE to the ISP • • Clock rate and serial encapsulation are needed when configuring serial WAN connections – Clock rate is set by DCE – DTE accepts clock rate Leased WAN connections use serial connection & require Channel Service Unit/Data Service Unit (CSU/DSU DCE DTE Initial Cisco 2960 Switch Configuration • • • Fixed-configuration, standalone devices – does not use modules or flash card slots. Physical configuration can’t be changed. Layer 2 device that directs stream of message coming in from one port, our of another based on destination MAC address. Configured using GUI or CLI Cisco 2960 switch • Comes preconfigured • Needs to be assigned basic security info • Basic commands (ex: hostname, passwords) sames as ISR switch. • Configure management IP address • One virtual local area network, VLAN 1 is preconfigured to provide access to management functions. Initial Cisco 2960 Switch Configuration • Switch settings can be configured using the Cisco IOS CLI • Assign an IP address to the default management virtual local area network, VLAN1 Initial Cisco 2960 Switch Configuration • Check switch components • Connect cables to the switch • Power up the switch and observe POST Initial Cisco 2960 Switch Configuration • Connect the stand-alone LAN switch to the router and verify connectivity • Configure port security to prevent unauthorized use • Shut down unused ports Switch port security • Port security limits the # of MAC addresses allowed per port. • Set port to access mode using switchport mode access command • 3 ways to configure port security: • Static – MAC addresses are manually assigned using switchport port-security mac-address [mac-address] interface config command. – – – – – S1# configure terminal S1(config-if)#interface fastethernet 0/20 S1(config-if)#switchport mode access S1(config-if)#switchport port-security mac-address 1000.2000.3000 S1(config-if)#end – • Switch port - contd • Dynamic MAC addresses are dynamically learned & stored in address table • # of addresses stored can be controlled; default is one address. • If port is shut down or switch is restarted, address learned are cleared from the table S1# configure terminal – – – – S1(config-if)#interface fastethernet 0/20 S1(config-if)#switchport mode access S1(config-if)#switchport port-security S1(config-if)#end Switch port - contd • Sticky – similar to dynamic • Addresses learned are saved to the running-config – – – – – – – S1# configure terminal S1(config-if)#interface fastethernet 0/20 S1(config-if)#switchport mode access S1(config-if)#switchport port-security S1(config-if)#switchport port-security maximum 50 S1(config-if)#switchport port-security mac-address sticky S1(config-if)#end Initial Cisco 2960 Switch Configuration • Cisco Discovery Protocol (CDP) gathers information about directly-connected Cisco network devices • Two Cisco devices directly connected on the same local network are called neighbors Summary • The Integrated Services Router (ISR) is a good choice for small to medium businesses and ISP-managed customers. • ISRs can be initially configured using SDM or the router IOS CLI. • When using the CLI, “show” commands verify configuration elements. • An installation plan can minimize disruption to a network when new devices are being added.