By Noelia Villafañe I must study harder if I want to pass the test She must eat salad to lose some weight I must help my mum with the housework Do you have to get your hair cut to join the army? Students have to wear uniforms in this school He has to put his seatbelt MODAL VERBS EXPRESSING PROHIBITION People mustn’t drink alcohol if they are going to drive You mustn’t jump a red light You mustn’t park here MODAL VERBS EXPRESSING LACK OF OBLIGATION He doesn’t have to make his bed. His mum does it for him YOU needn’t do the washing up. Those plates are clean. You don’t need o water the plants everyday. It is enough to do it every four days 1. You ……………………… (mustn’t / don’t have to) drive a car if you don’t have a driving license. 2. They ………………….. (don’t have to/must) be quiet in class 3. In France, you ………………… (have to /mustn’t ) drive on the right 4. He …....… (doesn’t have to/must) pay for the tickets. They are free 5. John……………………..(has to /mustn’t) wear a tie at work. 6. People ………………….. (must /mustn’t ) their teeth after every meal if they want to prevent tooth decay 7. You …………………..(mustn’t / don’t have to) wash the car. Mum did it early in the morning 8. Students ……………(mustn’t / don’t have to) run along the corridor 9. When you enter a new country, you …………………….(have to / don’t have to) show your passport MODAL VERBS EXPRESSING PROBABILITY We could win the next match She likes studying Law. She may / might become a lawyer some day MODAL VERBS EXPRESSING POSSIBILITY AND ABILITY I CAN see the beach from this window They CAN’t get on the bus. It’s full He CAN play the guitar. She CAN’t draw very well. CAN birds fly? Yes, they can He COULD run very fast when he was young When I went to nursery , I COULDN’T count up to 40. I COULDN’T watch TV yesterday COULD you speak when you were one? Yes, I could No, I couldn’t Future - WILL BE ABLE TO ABLE TO I will BE ABLE TO reach the shelf when I grow up He will BE ABLE TO improve his English Present Perfect - HAVE/ HAS BEEN She HAS BEEN ABLE TO pass all her exams I HAVEN’T BEEN ABLE TO write the letter 1. In the future we ____________ use robots to do the housework a. could b. can c. will be able to 2. She ………………… come tomorrow (-) a. can’t b. won’t be able to c. couldn’t 3. A hundred years ago, we _________ send spaceships to other planets. a. could b. couldn’t a. can 4. For three days, I haven’t ______________ speak to him on the phone a. been able to b. could c. can 4. In the Bronze Age, families ______ go to the cinema or to a restaurant. a. could b. couldn’t a. can 1. When my grandmother was young, she ……………. surf the Internet, but she ……….. make beautiful pottery jars and vases 2. After treatment he ………………. to return to work 3. The fire spread quickly but everyone …………… escape 4. Lora …………..play the violin very well now, but with practice and effort, she ………. improve a lot. 5. She ……………………… lose weight with a new diet 6. He used to ……………………. climb mountains when he was young. 7. I haven’t …………………………. sleep well recently MODAL VERBS EXPRESSING PERMISSION CAN I….? COULD I…? MAY I….? Can I borrow your pencil? Could I open the window? May I make a suggestion? You left your mobile phone at home. You want to call your mother. Your friend borrowed some money and he didn’t give it back. You have a terrible headache. And your brother is listening to music loudly You’re a tourist in Rome. Ask somebody to take a photo of you. You’re feeling ill. You want to take a day off from work It’s cold and the fan is on When we want to say that some things are permitted or not (laws or rules), we use can(’t) or be (not) allowed to. You can/are allowed to drive a car in America if you are 16. (That’s the law.) I can’t/am not allowed to go to bed after 10,30 I was allowed to play football last week She won’t be allowed to go out next weekend. She’s punished. I haven’t been allowed to go to the party •watch late-night movies? •get a tattoo? •keep a pet at home? • spend hours on Internet? •go on holidays with friends? •wear what you want? •stay out until after twelve on Saturday night? MODAL VERBS EXPRESSING LOGICAL DEDUCTION/ CERTAINTY He must be French I’ve had no sleep for 22 hours – “You must be exhausted”. “ It must be my mother “ Peter can’t be from Rome. He doesn’t speak Italian A: There’s someone at the door. I think it’s Bill. B. It can’t be Bill. He’s on holidays Pam is only in her forties. She can’t be retired 1. Nobody’s answering and there are no lights. They ______ (can’t/must) be out 2. Don’t be long. The bus ____________ (can’t/may) be here any minute 3. He’s been working 12 hours a day. He ____ (must/could) be exhausted 4. Take jacket! It ________________ ( must / might) be cold later. 5. Dad is late for lunch. He _________ (could / can’t) be caught in traffic. 6. She _________ (can’t/could) owe you money. She’s very rich 7. The teacher ________ (could / can’t) punish you if you use your mobile 8. I _________ (can’t/might) go to Lisbon next August but I’m not sure yet. 9. Tomorrow’s test _______ (can’t/might) be quite easy. You never know 10.He _______ (could/can’t) be Spanish, judging by his accent 11.We ____________( might / can’t) get married in August but we are not sure yet 12.My parents _______ (may/must) be away for the weekend but I’m not sure 13.Marta is really beautiful. She ________(might /can’t ) become a model. 14.Dad ______( must/might) lend you the car if you ask him. 15.A heavy smoker ______( could / can’t) stop smoking if he has enough determination MODAL VERBS EXPRESSING ADVICE She SHOULDN’T / OUGHT NOT TO eat too much chocolate You SHOULD / OUGHT TO take an umbrella. It might rain SHOULD he visit the doctor? I’d better go to bed. I have a meeting first thing in the morning You’d better hurry up or you’ll miss the bus. He doesn’t look well. He’d better not go to work tomorrow Thank you for your attention!