PSYC 1040: Developmental Psychology Week 3: September 26, 2011 Introduction to Developmental Psychology: Theories of Development Chapter 2 Photovoice The PhotoVoice Film (http://www.photovoice.org) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ICTVdcvCUoU What photovoice is: Community Based Allows people to document their lives Empowers people Photovoice Photovoice – Kaiser Permanente Community Health Initiatives http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=b5VDu8MWegg&feature=related To document the barriers to healthy eating and active living in their communities. By creating a visual record of environmental conditions, residents identify opportunities for community change, help set priorities and act as advocates for change. Photovoice PhotoVoice Project from Maywood, IL http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gNLDRRz84o4&feature=related Project by students (11 – 14 years old) from PAEC Elementary School commenting on their community and their lives. What do you see here? What is really happening? How does this relate to our lives? Why does this problem or strength exist? What can we do about it? Photovoice Photovoice, The Voice of the Unheard http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_RaIW_PSlUk&feature=related The Voice of the Unheard is a documentary project where the act of documentation is given to homeless teenagers. Using photographs and audio material this film depicts their lives. The Voice of the Unheard encourages the use of documentary photography by enabling those that have traditionally been the subject of such work to become its creator - to have control over how they are perceived by the world. This film captures the essence of their collective work. Review of Chapter 1 What is developmental psychology? The scientific study of age-related changes in our bodies, behaviour, thinking, emotions, social relationships and personalities. Critical thinking and how it relates to the philosophical roots of psychology: original sin, blank slate, innate goodness. Psychology as a science: concept of developmental stages & norms Review of Chapter 1 Contemporary Developmental Psychology: Lifespan Perspective: changes happen throughout the human lifespan and are interpreted in terms of the culture and context in which they occur Domains of Development: Physical: changes in size, shape, and characteristics of the body Cognitive: changes in thinking, memory, problem-solving, and other intellectual skills Social: changes in variables that are associated with the relationship between the individual and others Review of Chapter 1 Contemporary Developmental Psychology: Lifespan Perspective & Domains of Development Thinking back to our class activity last week. How does our physical, cognitive and social development impact our experience with recreation and leisure through our lifespan? Review of Chapter 1 Contemporary Developmental Psychology: Interactionist Model of Development Response to the nature vs. nurture debate Development results from complex reciprocal interactions between multiple personal and environmental factors Review of Chapter 1 Contemporary Developmental Psychology: Continuity and Discontinuity in Development Is age related change a matter of amount or degree (continuity - quantitative) or the type or kind (discontinuity - qualitative) Looking at stages or distinct periods of development is qualitative Universal Changes Group Specific Changes Linked to specific ages Social clock – linked to age norms and sequence of life experiences Shared by individuals growing up together in a particular group Cultural specific Cohort Individual Differences Changes resulting from unique, unshared events Critical period Review of Chapter 1 Research Design and Methods: Scientific Method used to: Describe, Explain, Predict & Influence Research Design: Cross-sectional, longitudinal, sequential Methods: Descriptive (case study, naturalistic, survey), Experiment, Ethnography Ethics: guidelines to protect rights of research participants Chapter 2: Theories of Development What is theory? Derives from Ancient Greek philosophy (theoria) to mean looking at, viewing or beholding. The concept of speculating or contemplating as opposed to action, practice (praxis). Chapter 2: Theories of Development What is theory? In arts and philosophy theories address ideas and are not easily measurable In science a theories are sets of statements that propose general principles. They help us look at the facts from different perspectives. Theories produce predictions or hypothesis that researchers can test. The terms verify and falsify are often used when testing hypothesis. Chapter 2: Theories of Development Five major families of theories influential in human development: 1. Psychoanalytic Developmental change happens because of the interplay of internal drives and emotions with our early life experiences. 2. Learning Human behaviour is seen as shaped by processes such as classical conditioning and operant conditioning. 3. Cognitive Focus is on the mental aspects of development such as logic and memory. 4. Biological Human development is rooted in biological processes that have evolved to promote adaptation and survival. 5. Systems Development is the result of the interaction of the individual and environmental contexts. Chapter 2: Theories of Development Psychoanalytic Theories: Developmental change happens because of the interplay of internal drives and emotions with our early life experiences. Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3q9IRY_VXPs Behaviour governed by both conscious and unconscious Libido motivating force behind most behaviour Instinctual drive for physical pleasure Personality has three parts Id: Contains the libido and operates at unconscious level motivating a person to seek pleasure and avoid pain (sexual & aggressive impulses) Ego: Conscious, thinking part of our personalities. Keeps needs of the id satisfied and personality in balance Superego: Acts as the moral judge, the rule maker. Develops near the end of childhood. Chapter 2: Theories of Development Psychoanalytic Theories Continued: Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) Five Psychosexual Stages: Oral Stage - Newborn: focus is on the mouth Anal Stage Phallic Stage - Age 3 – 4: Oedipus Complex boys desire their mothers and jealous of their father, therefore adopting a defensive strategy and identifying with the father. Electra Complex results in girls identifying with their mothers Latency Stage Genital Stage - Focus on genitals and results in mature sexual intimacy Chapter 2: Theories of Development Psychoanalytic Theories Continued: Erik Erikson (1902 – 1994) Social forces are more important than unconscious drives as motives for development. Eight Stages of Personality Development: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Trust vs. mistrust (Birth – 1 yr) Autonomy vs. shame and doubt (1 – 3 yr) Initiative vs. guilt (3 – 6 yr) Industry vs. inferiority (6 – 12 yr) Identity vs. role confusion (12 – 18 yr) Intimacy vs. isolation (18 – 30 yr) Generativity vs. stagnation (30 – old age) Integrity vs. despair (old age) Chapter 2: Theories of Development Psychoanalytic Theories Continued: Humanistic Alternatives: Jean-Jacques Rousseau premise of innate goodness Abraham Maslow concept of self-actualization to describe ultimate goal of human life Motives: internal factors that initiate, direct or sustain behaviour Deficiency motives: physical and emotional Being motives: understand or give to others Carl Rogers concept of personal growth Chapter 2: Theories of Development Learning Theory Human behaviour is seen as shaped by processes such as classical conditioning and operant conditioning, or by our environment and accumulated experiences. Behaviourism: Development is defined in terms of behavioural changes caused by environmental influences Chapter 2: Theories of Development Learning Theory Ivan Pavlov (1849 – 1936) Concept of Classical Conditioning Learning results from association of stimuli Stimulus response connection or reflex Conditioned (learned) response http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hhqumfpxuzI&feature=related B.F. Skinner (1904 – 1990) Concept of Operant Conditioning Learning to repeat or stop behaviours due to consequences Reinforcement vs. Punishment Shaping is changing behaviour through the reinforcement of intermediate steps http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=I_ctJqjlrHA&feature=related Learning Theory Thomas’ Snowsuit by Robert Munsch http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=W28r0SGc2gg&feature=related Using the principles of learning theory describe what happened, what went wrong and how it could have been handled. Chapter 2: Theories of Development Cognitive Theory: Focus is on the mental aspects of development such as logic and memory. Jean Piaget (1896 – 1980) Cognitive – Developmental Theory “How does thinking develop?” Set of Schemes & Stages developed to explain age differences and sequence of discoveries Chapter 2: Theories of Development Cognitive Theory: Jean Piaget (1896 – 1980) Cognitive – Developmental Theory Scheme – a procedure to follow in a specific circumstance Assimilation: process of applying schemes to make sense of events or experiences Accommodation: changing a scheme as a result of new information acquired Equilibration: balancing assimilation and accommodation to create a new scheme Chapter 2: Theories of Development Cognitive Theory: Jean Piaget (1896 – 1980) Cognitive – Developmental Theory Stages – evolution of logical thinking Sensorimotor (birth – 18 months) – infants use sensory and motor schemes to act on the world around them Preoperational (18 months to 6 yrs) – children acquire symbolic schemes such as language and fantasy, that they use for thinking and communicating Concrete operational (6 – 12 yrs) – children begin to think logically and become capable of solving problems logically Formal operational (12 +) – adolescents learn to think logically about abstract ideas and hypothetical situations http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TRF27F2bn-A&feature=related Chapter 2: Theories of Development Cognitive Theory: Information-Processing Theory: How the mind manages information using the computer as a model for human thinking. Input – how information enters Throughput – how information is transformed Output – information used to perform actions Chapter 2: Theories of Development Cognitive Theory: Sociocultural Theory Complex forms of thinking have their origins in social interactions rather than in an individuals private explorations. Lev Vygotsky believed that a child’s learning experience is guided by what he called scaffolding. Need to gain and keep attention Model best strategy Adapt process to child’s development level Chapter 2: Theories of Development Cognitive Theory: How can scaffolding be applied to various educational settings? Parents helping with homework? Teachers in a classroom? In a recreation setting? Chapter 2: Theories of Development Cognitive Theory: How can scaffolding be applied to various educational settings? Provide opportunities for active exploration Assisted discovery (zone of proximal development) Questions, demonstrations, explanations Chapter 2: Theories of Development Cognitive Theory: Social-Cognitive Theory – Albert Bandura The importance of psychological modelling in shaping our thoughts, emotions, and behaviour. That we exert influence over the events in our lives. Learning by Observation We learn by watching others Influenced by attention, memory, maturation, our own goals, expectations & judgments Reciprocal Determinism Interaction of personal, behavioural and environmental factors Affected by circumstances but also able to exert influence over our situation. Chapter 2: Theories of Development Cognitive Theory: Social-Cognitive Theory – Albert Bandura The importance of psychological modelling in shaping our thoughts, emotions, and behaviour. That we exert influence over the events in our lives. Bandura’s 1961 Bobo Doll Experiment http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eqNaLerMNOE&feature=related What are some examples of observational learning from your own experience? Test #1 Reminder that our first test is next Monday, October 3rd. Please confirm with me if you need special testing arrangements. The test will be open book and will focus on the material from Chapter 1 & 2 in your text book. The format will be multiple choice and short-answer questions. You will have one hour to take the test. Chapter 1: Basic Concepts and Methods In groups discuss how the adoption of the lifespan perspective can influence recreational and leisure activities for one of the following: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Healthy heterosexual couple in their early 60’s recently retired from professional careers. Recently divorced single mom employed as a nurse with 2 schoolaged children living in the suburbs. Self-employed gay couple in their late thirties living in a gentrifying urban neighbourhood in a large city. Single male university student living in residence. Female high-school student, working at the mall part-time. Married couple in early 30’s with 2 kids and a dog living in a small town working in the service sector Recent college grad laid-off from first job unemployed for last two years.