presentation ( format)

Presented by the
Spirituality, Religion and Student Health
2011 ACHA Annual Meeting, Phoenix, AZ
 Paul Myers, Ph.D., University of Portland
 Michelle Harcrow, Ph.D., The University of Alabama
 Rev. Elizabeth Ritzman, L.C.P.C., Dominican University
 Rebecca Davis Mathias, Ph.D., Dominican University
 Kathleen Malara, MSN, FNP-BC, CTTS, Fordham
 Alice Kimble, RN, BSN, MS, Bellarmine University
 Jo McGuffin, Ph.D., FACHE, Central Oklahoma University
 Sarah Faith Evans, MS, LPC, NCC, Stevenson University
2011 ACHA Annual Meeting, Phoenix, AZ
Spirituality Religion and Student
Health Coalition
 Coalition Goals, Charges, Activities
 From our ethics and ACHA Values Statement
 Invitation to get involved
Today’s program:
 We are going to hear some data to inform the
conversation and maybe challenge some assumptions
 We are going to hear 5 case studies
 Questions and Answers
2011 ACHA Annual Meeting, Phoenix, AZ
Michelle S. Harcrow, Ph.D.
2011 ACHA Annual Meeting, Phoenix, AZ
Religiosity & Spirituality among
College Students
 95% of adolescents believe in God
 85 - 95 % report that religion is important in their
life (Cotton, Zebracki, Rosenthal, Tsevat, & Drotar, 2006)
 2008 HERI study of spirituality in higher education:
 79 % of college students believe in God
 66 % pray
 40 % think that it is very important to follow
religion every day (Astin, Astin, Lindhom, Bryant, Calderone, & Szelenyi,
2007; Myers & Kyle, 2008)
2011 ACHA Annual Meeting, Phoenix, AZ
 Religion/Religiosity is an organized system of beliefs,
practices, rituals, and symbols designed (a) to facilitate
closeness to the sacred or transcendent (God, higher power, or
ultimate truth/reality) and (b) to foster an understanding of
one’s relationship and responsibility to others in living
together in a community.
 Spirituality is the personal quest for understanding answers to
ultimate questions about life, about meaning, and about
relationship to the sacred or transcendent, which may (or may
not) lead to or arise from the development of religious rituals
and the formation of community.
Handbook of Religion & Health (Koenig, McCullough, & Larson, 2001)
2011 ACHA Annual Meeting, Phoenix, AZ
Definition of Terms
Community focused
Individualistic (not always)
Observable, measurable, objective
Less visible & measurable,
Formal, orthodox, organized
Less formal, less orthodox, less
Behavior oriented, outward
Emotionally oriented, inward
Authoritarian in terms of behaviors
Not authoritarian, little
Doctrine separating good from evil
Unifying, not doctrine oriented
From Koenig, McCullough, & Larson (2001)
2011 ACHA Annual Meeting, Phoenix, AZ
 Positive relationships found between religion/spirituality
and health
 investigation of chronic disease prevention
 Mental health & general well-being
 host of other health issues
 lower mortality rates (McCullough et al., 2000; Koenig et al., 1999).
 8 years longer life expectancy compared to those who
never attended church (Hummer et al., 1999; Idler et al., 2003).
 Religion has been shown to be a significantly positive
contribution to end-of-life events (Koenig et al., 2001).
2011 ACHA Annual Meeting, Phoenix, AZ
 Nontheistic sanctification
 Ascribing divine significance and character to objects
such as the human body
 Holy, blessed, or sacred
 College students
 show high degree of spiritual interest & involvement
 8 in 10 students believe in God and attend religious
 Great deal of comfort & security from their
spiritual/religious beliefs
2011 ACHA Annual Meeting, Phoenix, AZ
Religiosity & Spirituality Research
 Complex, Multidimensional constructs
 Characterized by individual attitudes, beliefs, values,
experiences, and behaviors (Ellison & Levin, 1998).
 Specify each dimension being measured : multiple
measures are stronger than using single indicators
 More descriptive approach creating subscales of
measurement & Theoretical distinction:
 Categories: Behavioral, Subjective, and Functional
2011 ACHA Annual Meeting, Phoenix, AZ
Personal Research
 Relationships between physical activity levels, dietary fat
intake, and how factors of religiosity and spirituality
influence these behaviors among college students. Social
support was also be included in the study as a control
 Social Support was significantly related to Moderate &
Vigorous physical activity
 Behavioral Religiosity & Functional Religiosity had weak
significant relationships with Dietary Fat Intake.
2011 ACHA Annual Meeting, Phoenix, AZ
Future Research
 Investigation of religiosity and spirituality constructs
 Exploration of more comprehensive dietary measures
 Application of theoretical framework
 Mixed methods – quantitative and qualitative
2011 ACHA Annual Meeting, Phoenix, AZ
Dominican University: Staff Bioethics Consult o
Student Sexual Health
 Founded by Sinsinawa Dominicans (Roman Catholic)
 4,000 Students, Undergraduate, Graduate,
Professional; Private Liberal Arts
 Suburban Chicago
 Incoming Students Religious Preference: 62%
Catholic, 13% “None”, 10% other Christian
 Faculty Trends: Younger, More Diverse, More Liberal
Rev. Elizabeth Ritzman, Director, Wellness Center
Rebecca Davis Mathias, Ph.D., Director, Center for Global Peace
through Commerce; Consulting Ethicist, Alexian Brothers Health
2011 ACHA Annual Meeting, Phoenix, AZ
ERD Anxiety, NOS: Expectations
for Practice Improvement
 Although we expect to practice
within them, the Ethical and
Religious Directives were
anxiety provoking and only
marginally familiar to staff.
 Religiously diverse multidisciplinary team of 10 (APN,
RN, Psy.D, LCSW, interns)
differed on understanding and
 Conflict Avoidance: Chilling
effect on the provider-patient
collaboration when clinical
issues overlapped the
directives .
 Open forum discussion
exacerbated ERD anxiety and
staff differences.
 Expected to gain familiarity
and competence with using
the ERDs
 To develop a common
understanding about how
each discipline uses ERDs
 To fully support the student
in engaging in ethical
 To relieve avoidance of
ethical and moral issues
with patients
 To eliminate the coded
language about sexual
health in and around our
Wellness Center and clarify
on campus what we do for
sexual health.
2011 ACHA Annual Meeting, Phoenix, AZ
Structure and Timeline for
 Sept-November: Director Conducted Research –
Literature Review and Sourcing; Interviewing
November: Planning Meeting with Consultant
January: 2 hour Director-Consultant Training
February-2 hour Consultant-Nursing Staff Workshop
March-2 hour Consultant Counseling Staff Workshop
3 hour Whole Staff Cases Consultation
April- Surveyed Staff for Outcomes
May – 1 hour Meeting to Review Outcomes
2011 ACHA Annual Meeting, Phoenix, AZ
 Familiarity : 16.7% were familiar with the ERDs, 37%
were partially familiar
 Comfort level: improved from 33% to 77% over the
 Competence: moved from 22% to 77%
 44% rated consult design effective 22% partially
I have at times remained silent or avoided ERD related questions or issues and now I am
much more comfortable speaking to them with clients and colleagues.
…Knowing the purpose of the ERDs will help me feel more assured about my
responding to ethical issues by giving the client space to explore, process, and
consider options
I do not believe the consultation will significantly change my practice. It seemed
that a lot of what she was telling us we already do as a matter of good social work
or psychologist ethics.
Being able to engage an ethics consultant would be good.
2011 ACHA Annual Meeting, Phoenix, AZ
U2 and Fordham University
2011 ACHA Annual Meeting, Phoenix, AZ
Fordham University
2011 ACHA Annual Meeting, Phoenix, AZ
2011 ACHA Annual Meeting, Phoenix, AZ
 Providing holistic health care related to the health and
wellness of the University community and to assist
each member in being a productive member of society.
 Assisting students with the identification and
management of their own health care needs.
 Provide educational and prevention programs related
to health and wellness to the University community
throughout the academic year.
 Interact with the University community and help each
individual student grow and mature while at Fordham
2011 ACHA Annual Meeting, Phoenix, AZ
Impact of Tenets and Mission in a
Secular World
 Religious Diversity
 Women’s Empowerment Groups
 Health Care Reform
 Political Groups
2011 ACHA Annual Meeting, Phoenix, AZ
Student Health Services Mission
Our mission also involves supporting the academic
community’s goal of excellence through education,
personal and community integrity and self-respect.
We also aim towards assisting our students in
developing moral and ethical values and characters
that reflect the Jesuit tradition in regards to health
promotion and illness prevention. These learned
ideologies will enable each student to incorporate
these skills achieved into their lives, their families and
to the service of others now and in the future.
2011 ACHA Annual Meeting, Phoenix, AZ
Bellarmine University
2011 ACHA Annual Meeting, Phoenix, AZ
Bellarmine University
 Established 1950
 Approximately 3,000 undergrad students; 2,000 graduate
 Student population diversity:
 46% Catholic
 23% Baptist, Independent Christian, Non-Denominational
Christian, Pentecostal
7% Mainline Protestant (Episcopal, Methodist, Lutheran,
Presbyterian, Disciples)
.25% Orthodox Christian
.6% Jewish
.4% Muslim
.27% Unitarian
.23% Buddhist
22% No preference, Unknown, or Other
2011 ACHA Annual Meeting, Phoenix, AZ
Healthcare Issues in Faith-Based
 When staff, faculty and students are employed with or attend a
faith-based institution but do not identify themselves with that
faith, there will always be issues.
Balance being part of the education mainstream and holding to
the policies of their religion.
Even within the Catholic religion there is a lot of diversity
because in understanding and interpretation differences.
What should these institutions allow that is contradictory to
their policies?
Should faith based institutions receive federal funds if they do
not offer contraceptive services for employees?
How ‘welcoming’ are faith based institutions obligated to be with
students/staff/faculty that do not practice their faith?
2011 ACHA Annual Meeting, Phoenix, AZ
Recent History of Bellarmine
 A ‘private university based on Catholic values’.
 Bellarmine’s Mission: “Bellarmine encourages and
celebrates people of all faiths.”
 “Contraception is not healthcare, but a lifestyle
 Lifestyle choices
2011 ACHA Annual Meeting, Phoenix, AZ
Student Quotes:
 Student quotes: “You all go out of your way to accommodate ‘lifestyles’
– vegetarian food options, services to celebrate other religions holidays,
a gay lesbian organization -- but refuse to offer condoms, which I and
many others see as a basic health necessity. Why is your lifestyle choice
the ‘right’ one? You shouldn’t pick and choose what you will welcome
and what you will not. You should either welcome all of us or just let
Catholics in.”
 “Bellarmine is Catholic and all policies should reflect that. If you don’t
like it, you do not have to attend here.”
 “I am not Catholic, but I would think it very narrow minded to judge
Catholicism based only on their recent history of pedophiles and
protecting them; I know there is also a lot positive in the Catholic
religion. Yet I feel this is what Catholics do when they completely
denounce Planned Parenthood, when that organization does so much
2011 ACHA Annual Meeting, Phoenix, AZ
What can we do?
 Efforts to expand knowledge and understanding
 Encourage administration to be clear on policies
 Know your own comfort level
2011 ACHA Annual Meeting, Phoenix, AZ
What can we do?
 Efforts to expand knowledge and understanding
 Encourage administration to be clear on policies
 Know your own comfort level
2011 ACHA Annual Meeting, Phoenix, AZ
Chair Steering
Data Analysis
Work Group
James Allen
measures; processes,
analyzes, and
disseminates data
Work Group
Rachelle Franz
Identifies, plans,
implements, &
evaluates programs
and events
collaboratively with
various groups.
Policy Work
Sunshine Cowan
Identifies, proposes,
and processes
approved policy
changes related to
health promotion
Liaison for UCOSA,
Athletic Advisory
Council & Faculty
Sports &
& Public Relations
Christy Vincent
Johnny Watley
Guides overall
communications and public
relations efforts. Assists
others to tailor type and
scope of messaging and
disseminates information.
voluntary population
specific healthy
campus initiatives –
integrating assistance
of healthy campus
process functions for
employee wellness
health programs.
2011 ACHA Annual Meeting, Phoenix, AZ
Spiritual Wellness Network
Emily Blaess
Serves as a s resource & referral
network to be accessed in
promoting health and wellness.
Serves to assist organizations
wanting to provide services and
programs, related to spiritual
wellness, to navigate through the
University systems.
• Spirituality
• Spiritual Quest
• Equanimity
• Religious Commitment
• Religious Engagement
• Religious Struggle / Skepticism
• Charitable Involvement
• Compassionate Self- Concept
•Ethic of Caring
•Ecumenical Worldview
2011 ACHA Annual Meeting, Phoenix, AZ
• Wellness Center Mission - to assist in the development of life
skills necessary to enhance personal levels of wellness and increase
the ability to be successful in various areas of life.
•UCO Healthy Campus utilizes the Dimensions of Wellness
(physical, mental, intellectual, social, spiritual, and
environmental) conceptual framework which promotes wellness as
largely determined by the decisions one makes to be able to live life
fully – with vitality and meaning.
•Transformative Learning is a holistic process that places
students at the center of their own active and reflective learning
experiences. All students at UCO will have transformative learning
experiences in five core areas: leadership; research, creative and
scholarly activities; service learning and civic engagement; global
and cultural competencies; and health and wellness.
2011 ACHA Annual Meeting, Phoenix, AZ
Spiritual Wellness Network
Serves as a resource and referral network to be
accessed in promoting health and wellness to those
who desire their lives to be consonant with their
deeper values and perceptions of the meaning of life
Serves to assist organizations wanting to provide
services and programs, related to spiritual wellness,
navigate through the university systems.
2011 ACHA Annual Meeting, Phoenix, AZ
2011 ACHA Annual Meeting, Phoenix, AZ
Questions and Answers
 Say where you are from and what person you would
like to answer your question.
2011 ACHA Annual Meeting, Phoenix, AZ
Dominican University References
 United States Conference of Catholic Bishops, Ethical
and Religious Directives for Catholic Health Care
Services, Fifth Edition,
 Catholic Health Alliance of Canada, Health Ethics
 Catholic Health Association:
 Health Care Ethics USA, a quarterly newsletter jointly
published by the Center for Health Care Ethics at Saint Louis
University and CHA available online.
2011 ACHA Annual Meeting, Phoenix, AZ
Bellarmine Bibliography
 Cardinal Newman Society: A public conscience for Catholic
higher education
Catholics for Choice: Serves as a voice for Catholics who believe
that the Catholic tradition supports a woman’s moral and legal
right to follow her conscience in matters of sexuality and
Ruling: College wrong to not cover birth control. Valerie Schmalz
Our Sunday Visitor, August 30, 2009
Labeling birth control ‘preventative medicine’ could make
contraception free for US women. Ricardo Alonso-Zaldivar
Chicago Tribune October 31, 2010
Conservative Catholic College rejects Birth Control. David
Neipert , November 11, 2009 Huffington Post Living
2011 ACHA Annual Meeting, Phoenix, AZ