Unit 1, The Earliest Human Societies

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The Earliest Human Societies

M R . P A G L I A R O

S E Y M O U R H I G H S C H O O L

Unit Objective

Explain the origins, development, and achievements of early human beings.

Archaeology & Anthropology

P A R T 1

Part 1 Goals

Develop timeline skills

Define artifact, remain, archaeology, & anthropology

Identify prehistory and its ages.

Time (and reading a timeline)

OLDER

y e a r

0

Simple Version

NEWER

BC AD

Traditional Western Version

BCE

CE

Contemporary Version

Traditional Dates – Used w/ Julian & Gregorian

Calendars; began usage in 525. There is NO year 0.

B.C.

A.D.

Literally, in English,

“ Before Christ ”

Marks year 1 as the birth of the historical figure,

Jesus, that Christianity is based around.

All things BC come before this event.

The larger the number, the older it is (like NEGATIVE numbers).

Literally, in Latin, “

anno domini ”

Translates to ‘ The Year of

Our Lord ”

Marks year 1 as the birth of the historical figure,

Jesus, that Christianity is based around.

All things AD start with this event, or come later.

The larger the number, the newer it is.

Contemporary Dates – Used to be sensitive of non-

Christian peoples. Also has no year 0. Introduced in 1800s by Jewish scholars in Europe.

B.C.E.

C.E.

Before the Common Era

Alternatively, Before the

Christian Era

Still uses the birth of the figure Jesus to mark year

1.

All things BCE come before this event.

Same as B.C.

The larger the number, the older it is (like NEGATIVE numbers)

Common Era

Alternatively, Christian Era

Still uses the birth of the figure Jesus to mark year

1.

All things CE start with this event, or come later.

Same as A.D.

The larger the number, the newer it is.

Studying Prehistory – Turn & Talk

What is prehistory ?

What clues exist to help understand prehistory?

Who studies prehistory?

The period before written records.

artifacts & remains

 archaeologists, anthropologists, & paleontologists

Artifacts & Remains???

Artifact:

Anything made by humans

Remains:

Preserved (fossilized or decomposed) dead, human body parts

Archaeologists vs. Anthropologists

Archaeologists

Scientists

Study human society and

culture

Use artifacts and human remains.

Anthropologists

Scientists

Study a group of

people’s unique way of life

Use artifacts and remains.

Paleontologist?

Hypothesize:

What challenges may archaeological teams face in the field?

Three Ages of Prehistory

1.

2.

3.

Ages based on technology

Stone Age

Paleolithic Era – Old Stone Age

Neolithic Era – New Stone Age

Bronze Age

Iron Age

Hunters & Gatherers

P A R T 2

Part 2 – Hunters & Gatherers

Main Ideas

Geography-Early humans adapted their natural environment.

Culture-Humans created tools, language, religion, and art to improve life.

Why it matters now

Early humans created the first tools. Today, technology continues to improve our lives and helps us survive.

The roots of modern culture began in the

Paleolithic era.

Terms

 nomad (nomadic) hunter-gatherer technology

Key Vocabulary

Names

Part 2 Goals

Identify human achievements of the Paleolithic Era

Understand early human culture

Key Questions

How did early humans interact with the environment?

What were some tools developed by early humans?

What type of culture did early humans create?

Early Humans’ Way of Life

Early humans = hunter-gatherers

Nomadic; migration

Equal gender roles

Lived in small bands; approx. 30 people

Human Migration

By 15,000 BC – humans migrated to all parts of the word

The Development of Tools

Hominids controlled fire 500,000 years ago

Turn & Talk: What are the benefits of fire?

Technology-knowledge, tools, inventions to meet needs

Early stone axes

Complex tools

Build shelter

ALL IMPROVE LIFE

Early Human Culture

Language

Aided cooperation

Religion

Explain the unexplainable

Natural spirits

Art

Make people happy

Illustrate life/religion

Part 2 – Summary

Hunters-gatherers were nomads

Fire and tools improved lives.

Early humans created language, religion, and art.

Agriculture Emerges

P A R T 3

Terms

 slash-and-burn farming domestication

Key Vocabulary

Names

Neolithic Revolution

(Agricultural

Revolution)

Part 3 – Agriculture Emerges

Main Ideas

Economics-The development of agriculture caused an increase in population and the growth of a settled way of life.

Why it matters now

New methods for obtaining food and the development of technology laid the foundations for modern civilizations.

Part 3 Goals

Describe the Neolithic Revolution

Explore the impact of agriculture on human life

Explain the growth of villages

Key Questions

How did new technologies support the emergence of agriculture?

What impact did agriculture have on the lives of people?

How did farming develop independently in various parts of the world?

The Beginning of Agriculture

Climate Changes

Longer growing season

Slash-and-Burn Farming

Use of digging sticks, hoes, sickles

Villages developed

Quick Review

What effect did new technologies have on early humans?

How did farming change the way people lived?

Farming Developed in Many Places

River Valleys

Africa (Nile)

Asia (Tigris & Euphrates, Huang He, Indus)

Irrigation

Americas

Higher elevations first

3-Sister’s farming

Agriculture Emerges: 5000-500 BC

Part 3 Summary

Post-Ice Age, the Neolithic Revolution brought planting crops & domestication of animals

Populations grew in permanent farming villages

Farming developed independently in many areas of the world.

Cities & Civilization Develop

P A R T 4

Terms

 civilization specialization artisan institutions

Key Vocabulary

Names

Jarmo

Çatal Hüyük

Ur

Part 3 – Agriculture Emerges

Main Ideas

Economics-The development of agriculture caused an increase in population and the growth of a settled way of life.

Culture-patterns of government, specialized workers, and social classes developed in complex cultures.

Why it matters now

New methods for obtaining food and the development of technology laid the foundations for modern civilizations.

Part 3 Goals

Explain how villages grew into cities

List and clarify the characteristics of civilizations

(book) and the elements of civilization (teacher).

Describe how the city of Ur exemplifies these traits.

Key Questions

How can an increased population complicate social relationships?

What roles do complex institutions play in the lives of people?

How might complex institutions help organize society?

Villages Around the World

Surpluses Boosted Development

Food & material surpluses

Helped in bad seasons

Populations grew

Specialization developed

Villages Grew More Complex

Surpluses led to:

Trade

Artisans

Social classes

Government

Earliest complex villages:

Jarmo

Çatal Hüyük

Jericho

Characteristics of Civilization

Mr.

Pagliaro’s 6 Elements

Cities

Government

Written

Records

Artistic

Activity

Religious

Activity

Social

Classes

Lesson Summary

Improved farming techniques enabled village farmers to grow surplus food

Simple villages sometimes grew into complex villages

Complex villages grew into cities, and developed civilization.

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