Foreign Policy and National Security Chapter 10 Guided Reading

Foreign Policy and National Security
Chapter 10 Guided Reading
1. List and explain the 5 goals of U.S. foreign policy discussed in the text.
Maintaining national security: protect rights, freedoms, and property of the U.S. and its people
Supporting democracy: aid other democratic nations as well as those nations moving toward democracy
Promoting world peace: the more nations are at peace—the less likely the U.S. will be drawn into existing conflicts—U.S.
works actively toward resolving disputes between other
Providing aid to people in need: providing humanitarian and other relief to foreign countries ($, food, military assistance)
Establishing/maintaining free and open trade with other nations: exchange of goods/services across national borders
without restrictions; secure access to important
resources/markets; increase the size of the global market;
economic warfare (e.g. trade embargoes).
2. What 2 basic questions must be answered when making foreign policy?
3. List and explain the four basic approaches the U.S. has followed at various points in its history. Which of these approaches
do Republicans generally adhere to? Democrats?
Isolationaism: view that a nation should tend to its domestic affairs rather than to international affairs; focus should
exclusively be on domestic problems/concerns/issues (don’t concern ourselves with the interests of other countries); U.S.
is situated in a militarily defensible location and doesn’t need to become actively involved in the affairs of other nations.
Avoid entangling alliances/commitments and we will not be drawn into war. U.S. foreign policy should be evaluated by
how well it promotes U.S. national interests. War is costly and horrific. Approach used during the 1800s and interwar
years—became less practical as an approach after WWII.
Realism (realpolitik): AKA: internationalist/interventionist approach; U.S. should take an active role in international affairs,
including military intervention if/when necessary. Foreign policy should be evaluated by how well it promotes U.S.
national interests (e.g. national security and international trade relations). This approach recognizes the reality of world
affairs; that is, that many countries are dangerous and ruled by aggressive/expansionist leaders. Given that no world
government exists that can resolve international disputes satisfactorily, a nation’s only tool for stopping an aggressive
country: unilateral/bilateral/multilateral action. If/when U.S. avoids participation in world affairs, it will become a victim of
aggressive nation(s). U.S. could pay a heavy price if/when it lets others dominate the world. This approach requires
military preparedness (policy of deterrence). U.S. must demonstrate both its ability/willingness to use force so as not to
appear as a “paper tiger”. Nonetheless, U.S. should not use force unless vital national interests are at stake. Alliances
should be based on the military/strategic interests of the U.S. (not whether or not our allies share similar belief systems);
i.e. U.S. should not hesitate to ally itself with other nations whose values may differ from U.S. values—nor should the U.S.
always support those countries whose values it shares. It’s foolish not to support a strategically located foreign
government even if its values aren’t the same as Americans’ values, especially if this wouls stop a worse aggressor from
taking over other nations. Most dominant U.S. Foreign policy approach/doctrine since WWII.
Neoisolationism: U.S. should keep its foreign involvement to a minimum, not only for the good of the U.S., but also b/c
such involvement is likely to be bad for other nations in whose affairs the U.S. would intervene. U.S. should not interfere in
other countries’ internal affairs (non-interference). Believe it is ethically necessary to avoid war—to engage in involvement
in another nation’s affairs would violate the rights of that nation’s people and may also lead to war. War is costly and
Idealism: internationalist approach based on what is good for both the vital interests of the U.S. and what is good for other
countries in whose affairs the U.S. would intervene. Decision-makers should take into account the interests and rights of
people both inside and outside the U.S. and they oppose injustice and tyranny abroad—the U.S. should support democratic
values everywhere. Support international cooperation and economic/humanitarian assistance to less-fortunate foreign
countries and they support efforts to promote friendship and cooperation across borders (esp. among nations that share
democratic values). Believe that supporting tyrannical governments is wrong even if/when doing so might protect the
nation’s vital interests. U.S. foreign policy should protect American ideals. Prefer nonmilitary interventions (e.g. economic
boycotts/withholding economic aid from nations with tyrannical governments). Still, they are willing to use force to stop
injustices (moral cause), not just to protect vital national interests. Focus on ethics in U.S. foreign policy. U.S. could pay a
heavy price if/when it lets others dominate the world.
Republicans: generally realists/isolationists
Democrats: generally neoisolationists/idealists.
4. Discuss the role of the following in the making of foreign policy:
a. The President
Considered nation’s most influential foreign policy decision maker.
Both citizens and Congress generally have accepted the President should assume the leading role in matters of foreign
policy and have thus allowed the President to assume this authority since dealing with foreign governments and
international crises often requires decisiveness and speed and a President can respond more quickly than can a large
deliberative body such as Congress.
The President serves as the country’s top nationally-elected official—thus the President is regarded as the nation’s most
appropriate national spokesperson in foreign affairs.
Former Presidents have asserted their foreign policy leadership by issuing foreign policy statements (doctrines) that are
intended to set the direction of foreign policy—even though such statements don’t have the force of law (specific steps
must be taken through legislative/budgetary processes), they do set a strong guideline for future decisions.
Presidents may hold summit conferences (meetings between heads of state of two or more nations) and reach
understandings/release statements that, despite not having the force of law, do strongly influence public debate.
As C-in-C, the President can make important foreign policy decisions and can undertake military action in times of crisis
w/o seeking congressional approval (short military strikes, undeclared wars: longer military actions undertaken w/o formal
declaration of war)
Negotiate executive agreements (formal though usually minor understandings with foreign governments that do not
require Senate ratification)
Notable exceptions (major executive agreements):
1940: Destroyers-for-bases (FDR and WWII)
1947: GATT (General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade)
Constitutional authority to:
Make treaties
Appoint diplomatic officials
Receive foreign delgates
b. The Department of State
Mission: promote good relations between U.S. and other countries
Separate bureaus deal with U.S. relations with specific regions of the World:
Generally opposes use of force to solve serious conflicts (prefers diplomacy)
Responsible for maintaining diplomatic relations with other countries.
Responsible for establishing and maintaining embassies (diplomatic centers)
U.S. ambassadors act as a personal representative of the U.S. president.
Duties embassy staffs include: keeping U.S. informed of events in, and explaining U.S. laws and policies to host
countries; transmitting official communications; negotiating diplomatic agreements between two countries.
Responsible for establishing and maintaining consulates in world’s major commercial centers (deal with commercial
Protect U.S. commercial interests in foreign countries
Primary goals of consul: promote U.S. trade and commerce and assist Americans with travel-related
Issue immigration and tourist visas to travelers to the U.S.
Issues passports and visas
c. The Department of Defense
Supervises U.S. military activities
Constitutional principle of civilian control over the military (President; Secretary of Defense; Deputy Secretary of Defense;
most of their staff are civilians)
Individual secretaries within the DOD head each of the branches of the armed forces (they too are civilians)
National Security Act amendments of 1949 placed all branches of the armed forces under one government office (discuss
the concept of joint warfare)
d. The Central Intelligence Agency
Covert/dark ops; unconventional methods; counterintelligence; espionage; counter-insurgency; etc.
e. The National Security Council
Improves coordination among those departments that deal with national security issues (State/Defense Departments; CIA)
Headed by a National Security Advisor who is part of the Executive Office of the President
The Congress
Declaring war
Appropriating $
Confirming Appointments