Prophets of the South - Gordon College Faculty

Exams Back
[with a significant point adjustment]
• Check grading as
• Two exams without
names – please see me
if you do not receive
yours back in your
• Keys on Blackboard
• Exam Statistics
• Distribution of Grades
• Range of scores
– 42-100
Important Announcement
• Make-up exams – Friday, 12 December
– 3:00-5:30 in Jenks 406
– If you have missed an exam, this will be the day to retake
it. It will be in essay format.
– If you wish to re-take any exam on which you have not
earned the grade you would like, you may do so on
reading day. You must let me know via e-mail by the end
of this week (5 December) if you wish to take advantage
of this option.
– In order to study for these exams, please use the study
questions posted on Blackboard.
O Come, O Come Immanuel,
And ransom captive Israel,
That mourns in lonely exile here
Until the Son of God appear.
Rejoice, rejoice;
Immanuel shall come to thee, O Israel.
O Come, Thou Rod of Jesse, free
Thine own from Satan’s tyranny
From depths of hell Thy people save,
And give them victory o’er the grave.
Rejoice, rejoice
Immanuel shall come to Thee, O Israel.
O Come, Thou Key of David, come
And open wide our heavenly home;
Make safe the way that leads on high,
And close the path to misery.
Rejoice, rejoice;
Immanuel shall come to thee, O Israel.
Prophets of the South:
The Destruction of Jerusalem
Review Questions
• What “super-power” was the major threat during
the prophetic ministries of Isaiah and Micah?
• For which good king did Isaiah serve as
• Which king initiated a reform during which the
Torah was found?
• Approximately how many years passed between
that event and the fall of Jerusalem to the
“Let the one who has my word
speak it faithfully” (23:28)
The Political Circumstances
(Jer 1:2-3)
• From the 13th year of Josiah (627) to the 11th year of
Zedekiah (586) – oracles not in chronological order
– Jehoahaz
– Jehoiakim
– Jehoiachin
• Babylonians under Nebuchadnezzar were in control of
Judah – Jer 34:6-7 – only Lachish and Azekah left
• Israelites were deported to Babylon in 605 and 597 prior
to Temple’s destruction (586) – this is why Jeremiah
wrote to people already in Babylon
• Egypt was a tempting alternative for some – Jer 42-44
on the flight of the remaining people to Egypt
Exile to Babylon
Jeremiah’s Difficult Calling
• The initial calling as son of Hilkiah (1:1)
• Called before he was born (1:5)
• Called to stand in opposition to the Religious
Establishment (1:17-19)
• Continued opposition:
– From kings (32:3 – Zedekiah; 36:1-32 – Jehoiakim)
– From false prophets and priests (20:1-6 – Pashur;
23:9-40; 28:1-17 - Hananiah)
– From the people (11:18-22 – plot to kill him)
– Jeremiah’s feelings about his ministry: grief and
dismay (4:18-22); despair (20:7-18); apparently
ineffective ministry for 23 years (25:3)
The Imagery in Jeremiah’s
• Linen belt (ch 13) – symbolizing binding the people
of Israel to God
• Potter’s house (ch 18)
• Breaking a jar in Hinnom Valley (ch 19)
• Basket of figs (ch 24) – the good figs were those
who had gone to Babylon with Jehoiachin; the bad ones
were the ones remaining under Zedekiah
• Wearing a yoke (ch 27) – symbolizing
subservience to Nebuchadnezzar of Judah and all the
surrounding peoples
The Content of Jeremiah’s
• The disobedience of generation after generation
would bring the curses of the covenant (Lev 26)
• Exile and judgment
– Captivity in Babylon for 70 years (25:11)
– The cup of God’s wrath (25:15-17; see also Jer 13:13;
49:12; 51:7; Isaiah 52:17-23; Ezekiel 23:32-34; Psalm 60:3; and
the seven bowls of God’s wrath – Revelation 16-17)
• Promises
– Return from exile and restoration (29:10-14)
– New covenant (ch 31 quoted in Hebrews 8)
Additional Information about
• Baruch was Jeremiah’s scribe
• Jeremiah’s words contain prophecies for
other nations (chs 46-51)
• Lamentations was ascribed to Jeremiah
– Chapters 1-4 are acrostics
– Chapter 5 is not – representing complete
absence of order
– Note 3:21-26
• Literary forms in the book
– Questions (complaint) of the prophet and answers
from God
“How can evil go on unchecked?”
God will raise up the Babylonians!
“How can God use a nation so vile?”
The wicked will not last. Evil is self-destructive but the
righteous must live in faithfulness (note Galatians 3:11)
– Psalm of God’s appearing in judgment (3:1-16) and
the prophet’s faith (3:17-19)
• Lessons
• Background and date
– probably around the time of the fall of
– Parallels with Jeremiah 49:9
• Messages
– Doom on Edom
– Day of the Lord for all nations
– Restoration for Israel
“Clefts of the rock” (Sela)
• Background – descendant of Hezekiah;
during time of Josiah
• Messages
– Comprehensive destruction on the Day of the
Lord in conjunction with specific
condemnation of Judah and Jerusalem
– Condemnation of surrounding nations
– Restoration