Sec 2.4 p31
 Let’s check your work from last class!
Inorganic Molecule
 Not made with Carbon
 Still needed in living things
 Ex: NaCl (salt) & Water
 Usually involves ionic bonds
 Contain Carbon
 Usually involve covalent bonds!
 The Molecules of life
 Ex. Carbohydrates, Fats, Proteins,
*The Chemistry of Carbon
 characteristics of C make it very useful for
forming many types of molecules
•4 electrons in outer shell
•Shares with up to 4 other atoms
to fill outer shell
•Ex) CH 4 –methane
(covalent bonding)
•Often shares with other Cs to make a chain
 molecules that have opposite charges on either ends
 Ex: Water H2O
 Oxygen in more negatively charged
 Hydrogens are more positively charged
Contain BOTH carbon and hydrogen.
Can be short
 A hydrocarbon chain can bend back on itself to make a
ring structure
-atoms joined together that always function (behave) a
specific way
-are attached to carbon chain
Ex: Alcohols have the –OH functional group attached
 Ex:Fatty acids have Carboxyl Groups attached: COOH
 Can easily give up H+
 Ex: Amino Acids have H2N and COOH functional
groups attached
 “one”
 Small molecules
 Examples: glucose, nucleotide, amino acid,
 A chain of small molecules (monomers) joined
 Aka Macromolecule
 “macro”- big
molecule- atoms joined together
 Many molecules joined together to
form a large chain
 Aka “polymer”
 A reaction that joins smaller molecules
together & releases water in the process
hydroxyl (-OH) from one monomer combines with
hydrogen (H-) from next monomer
Forms a polymer
10. Hydrolysis:
 breakdown of polymers
 water splits the bond between monomers
 One monomer takes up –OH and another
takes up H-