Exam 1 Review: The Nervous SYStem

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ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY 13-14
Patient #1 is a 45 year old female, reporting
symptoms consistent with an aneurysm in the
carotid artery (i.e. throbbing sensation in neck,
numbness of neck muscles). Which
technology would be most effective:
A) Computer Assisted Tomography
B) Electrocardiogram
C) Endoscopy
 Patient #2 is a 57 year old male, who has suffered
an injury to his back while lifting. Symptoms
include sharp pains in the center of the lower
back? Which technology would be the most
efficient and cost effective:
 A) Endoscopy
 B) Magnetic Resonance Imaging
 C) Positron Emission Tomography?
 Patient #3 is a 27 year old pregnant female whose
amniocentesis (i.e. test of the fluid around the
fetus) shows the potential for neural tube birth
defects such as spina bifida. Which technology
would be the most efficient and cost effective?
 A) Computer Assisted Tomography
 B) Electrocardiogram
 C) 3D Ultrasound?
 4) Patient #4 is a 5 year old male whose parents
are reporting issues with tiring easily, difficulty
ascending or descending stairs and learning
disabilities. What is your preliminary diagnosis?
A) Amyolateral Sclerosis
B) Duchenne-Type Muscular Dystrophy
C) Multiple Sclerosis
D) Parkinson’s Disease
E) Tay-Sachs Disease
 Patient #5 is a 20 year old female reporting muscle
spasms in her feet, difficulty urinating, pronounced
fatigue and occasional “pins and needles” sensations in
her extremities. What is your preliminary diagnosis?
A) Amyolateral Sclerosis
B) Duchenne-Type Muscular Dystrophy
C) Multiple Sclerosis
D) Parkinson’s Disease
E) Tay-Sachs Disease
 #7-9) To which division of the nervous system, peripheral (PNS)or central
(CNS), do each of the following structures belong? Write your answer in the
space provided.
 ____________ #7) Rods and Cones
 ____________ #8) Broca’s Area
 ____________ #9) Medulla Oblongata
 Which division of the peripheral nervous system, somatic (SoNS) or autonomic (ANS),
would regulate each of the following aspects of human physiology?
 ____________ #10) Speech
 ____________ #11) Relaxation of the frontalis muscle in the face
 ____________ #12) Release of the hormone gastrin when food is ingested
 #13-15) Which division of the autonomic nervous system,
sympathetic (SNS) or parasympathetic (PSNS), would regulate
each of the following aspects of human physiology?
 __________ #13) Bradypnea (i.e decrease in breathing rate)
 __________ #14) Release of adrenaline
 __________#15) Decreased rate of defecation
_________#21) Which of the following is NOT a
structure utilized to protect the brain?
A) Cerebrospinal Fluid
B) Cranium
C) Dura Mater
D) Pia Mater
E) Transverse Fissure
 _________#22) Which of the following senses tends to
utilize chemoreceptors that are not polymodal (i.e.
meaning that they only respond to one specific type of
sensory input)? Mark as many as apply.
A) Auditory
B) Gustation
C) Olfaction
D) Opthalamoception
E) Tactile
 _________#23) Which of the following statements is correct regarding the
anatomy and physiology of the mammalian eye?
A) The tapetum reflects like inside the aqueous humor, allowing for more
stimulation of cones
B) The highest concentration of cones is in the periphery (outside edges) of
the retina
C) The Zonules of Zinn are involved in changing the shape of the lens
D) Most refraction/magnification of light waves occurs in the vitreous humor
E) The region surrounding the pupil is called the fovea centralis
 _________#24) In which region of the ear are
vibrations changed into pressure waves of fluid?
A) Outer Ear
B) Middle Ear
C) Inner Ear
D) Temporal Lobe
E) Eustachian Tube
_________ #25) Which of the following
structures would not be myelinated?
Efferent Neurons
Afferent Neurons
Spinal Cord
Cerebral Cortex
Medulla Oblongata
#51) Trace the passage of light through the
eye (from ventral to dorsal) including the
following terms in your answer: Aqueous
humor, Cornea, Lens, Retina, Vitreous humor
 #52) Describe energy is transduced/transformed
as one travels from outer ear to inner ear. Include
the following terms in your answer: external
auditory meatus/auditory canal, tympanic
membrane, ossicles, oval window, cochlea, organ of
corti
 #53-55) Takifugu rubipres is the second most lethal animal
on earth due to its ability to produce Tetrodotoxin (TTX).
TTX binds to the sodium gated channels of efferent
neurons, leading to paralysis of the diaphragm and
intercostal muscles associated with breathing. Explain why
TTX’s ability to bind to said sodium gated channels leads to
paralysis of these muscles. In your answer, explain how
these channels function normally and why blockage of
these channels would result in an inability to contract the
muscles necessary for breathing.
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