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Essay #1
The persistence of traditional definitions:
The cult of domesticity: Women only belong in the home. Limited to the
‘private sphere.’ This was established early in the Victorian Era, and
continued throughout the 20th century. During WWII women were
working in factories. The famous symbol of Rosie the Riveter came to
represent the active role of women in the war effort on the home front,
preparing bombs and ammunition. This was only a temporary reprieve
from domesticity. By the 1950’s, middle class women, as represented in
the television shows such as (I love Lucy, Leave it to Beaver), were mostly
house wives and followed guidelines and rules. Conformity was the way
of life. In schools girls were required to take Home Economics classes
were they learned how to become good housewives. Colleges wanted
women to attend but many courses were designed around home
economics as well. Few women were hired as college professors,
educators, or other high positioned jobs. Although progress has been
slow, conditions have changed for women. Today more women are
applying to colleges and applying for higher education degrees. The pay
scale, however, has remained unequal where women receive 75 cents
An organized Women’s Movement
• Starting with the publication of Betty Friedan’s Feminine Mystique,
women began to discuss the psychological repression of middle class
conformity.
• By 1966, women started the organization NOW which sought to achieve
economic and social equality for women. Similarly to earlier activists such
as the suffragists, these women held active protests to raise awareness.
The Miss America Pageant protest in Atlantic City…focused on the
stereotypes and limits placed on women.
• NOW was very active in the reproductive rights movement. The birth
control pill was legalized, and they also sought to legalize abortion on the
federal level. ROE V WADE was the infamous supreme court case that
legalized abortion.
• WITCH protests which “mocked” the idea that women were
witches/inferior (referring back to the Salem Witch Trials) and pointing out
the irrationality of the male superiority in the work force
• Equal Rights Amendment DIDN’T pass. Some states ratified it, but not
enough. This would have helped to insure that women could receive equal
pay and that abortion couldn’t be overturned by the court. However, TITLE
IX (9) gave women access to equal federal funding for public programs, like
school sports.
Essay #2
• 20th C: Vietnam War Hawks Vs Doves
• Hawks: Kennedy/CIA assassination of Diem, LBJ with the
Gulf of Tonkin Resolution – where we put the USS Maddox
in the Gulf in North Vietnam, escalated funding for the
war, instilled the draft. These motives were backed by the
ideology of containment started under Truman. It also
emphasized the domino theory which sought to prevent
the spread of communism in Asia. We looked very weak
when we were attacked at the Tet Offensive which
inspired an anti-war cry amongst the peace doves.
• NIXON, encouraged by his adviser Henry Kissinger,
bombed Vietnam and Cambodia to limit war supplies.
Even though his motivation was to stop the war, he chose
to do so with extreme military action, which was
incredibly unpopular.
Doves:
• College student protesters who did not want their generation lost by war. They didn’t
want to have a ‘lost generation’ like WWI. Many knew someone who was being drafted
IN 1970 at the Kent University protest against the war, four students were shot, and th
further enraged peace doves about the instability that was happening in this country.
Police violence seemed to represent the HAWK position. Men being drafted would
escape (defect) to Canada to avoid going to Vietnam.
• The Hippy Woodstock movement was part of the counter culture that arose in the Dov
community. The music focused on protesting the war as well with songs such as
“Blowing in the Wind” by Bob Dylan/Joan Baez and “War!” by Edward Starr and
“Revolution” by the Beatles. There was also an active drug culture that sprung up to
escape the stresses of the war and the conformity of the 50’s. This was encouraged by
psychologists such as Tim Leary who believed you should “Tune Out, Tune In” to
yourself.
• The student protesters were inspired by the Civil Rights Movement and the NAACP, in
particular the non violent civil disobedience. This was most evident at Berkeley
University where students formed the Free Speech Movement and the Students for
Democratic Society (SDS) which formed chapters all across the country. Major protests
happened at Columbia University where the closed down in protest to the war and the
race issues in NYC – GYM CROW. Some radical groups formed out of the SDS, including
the Weather Underground, where the FBI was searching for students who threatened
bomb and use violence in their protests.
• DEMOCRATIC PARTY fell apart over how the Dove/Hawk tensions should be addressed
with the assassination of RFK, the lack of popularity for LBJ, and the general
disagreement on issues of the WAR. Because of the HAWKS, the GS program didn’t
receive enough funding.
War of 1812
• Doves: Federailsts didn’t want to fight the british
• HAWKS democratic republicans upset about the impressment of our ships
by the british. We stopped trading with them, kept embargo with them,
started trading with France. This upset the british.
• The british were inciting native americans in the west to fight against
american expansion. Chief Tecumseh was organizing the tribes. General
Harrison fought back.
• Madison declares war.
• We don’t really lose much land. The capital does burn down and this is
when the star spangled banner was written… HUGE NATIONALISM!
Anyone who is NOT FOR THIS WAR is AGAINST THIS COUNTRY. This was
the hawk position.
• By 1814, the treaty of ghent ends the war.
• Federalists meet secretly at Hartford Convention to crticism the
democratic republicans for having this war and HURTING their north east
trade (federalists mostly from there). Federalists accused of treason and
sedition for having this meeting. It becomes the END of the federalist
party, which is similar to how the democratic party was falling apart in
1968 (chicago democratic convention violence).
Mex Am War 1848
• HAWKS wanted to take TX from mexico, wanted
to push all the way to the Rio Grande River.
President Polk was a war hawk – mr manifest
destiny.
• DOVES: Whigs didn’t want to expand out west
and south because they knew it meant the
expansion of slavery. Including Abe Lincoln who
was a young senator.
• DOVES published the WILMOT PROVISO which
BANNED slavery in the west- only passed by half
of congress but not enough votes.
1898 Spanish America War
• Anti Imperialist League Mark Twain, don’t go
to war
• McKinley – Le Dome Letter that called him a
‘chicken’
• Roosevelt was for the war, rough riders.
• Expansion/Monroe Doctrine
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