Pacifism - bhartleynhs

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Ch. 27.1: The Diplomacy of the New Era

Post-WWI Themes/Trends…

- Pacifism

- Anger/Resentment

- Economic Problems (1919-1920 +

Great Depression)

Ch. 27.1: The Diplomacy of the New Era

Pacifism/Disarmament

• Washington Naval

(

Disarmament

) Conference

(1921)

– 5-Power Treaty: U.S. (5), G.B.

(5), Japan (3), France (1.67),

Italy (1.67)

– 4-Power Treaty: U.S., France,

G.B., Japan agreed to respect each other’s territory in the

Pacific.

– Nine-Power Treaty: All agreed to respect Open Door Policy

Ch. 27.1: The Diplomacy of the New Era

Pacifism/Disarmament

• London Conference (1930)

– U.S., Europe, Japan reached further agreement on naval disarmament, but G.B. + France insisted on many loopholes.

• World Disarmament Conference (1932)

– Yet another effort at disarmament, although it failed.

• Kellogg-Briand Pact (1928)

– More than 50 nations signed this agreement, which “outlawed”

“the aggressive use of force to achieve national ends.”

– Was ineffective, b/c it 1) permitted defensive wars, and 2) had no provision for enforcing against offenders.

• Dawes Plan (1924)

– U.S. gave $ to Germany. Germany gave $ to Britain/France. B/F paid back $ to U.S.

Ch. 27.1: The Diplomacy of the New Era

Japanese Aggression

• Japanese Invasion of

Manchuria (1931)

– Reason?

Significance

?

– Sec. of State Henry

Stimson’s Response…

Ch. 27.2: Isolationism and Internationalism

U.S.S.R.

• America and the Soviet

Union

– Despite ideological/political differences, U.S. officially recognized the U.S.S.R. in

1933.

– Why?

Ch.

27.2: Isolationism and Internationalism

Good Neighbor Policy

• The U.S. had a tradition of involvement in Latin America

– Monroe Doctrine

– Mexican American War

– Roosevelt Corollary

– Cuba/Puerto Rico

– Mexico (Pancho Villa)

• The new policy (“Good

Neighbor”) meant that the U.S. would use economic means to bring about desired change

– rather than military means like in the past.

• Example: Nullification of Platt

Amendment in Cuba

Ch. 27.2: Isolationism and Internationalism

Isolationism

• Reasons for Isolationism…

– Despite a supposed tradition of isolationism, the

U.S. had largely been involved in world affairs since at least the late 19 th c. Wilsonian internationalists had attempted to apply democratic principles (i.e. self-determination, disarmament, etc.) to foreign policy.

– Failed disarmament conferences and ineffective

L.O.N. led to…

– Nye Committee…

Ch. 27.2: Isolationism and Internationalism

American Neutrality

Ch. 27.2: Isolationism and Internationalism

American Neutrality

• The Neutrality Act of 1935 authorized the president to prohibit all arms shipments to forbid U.S. citizens to travel on the ships of belligerent nations.

– Prompted by Mussolini’s invasion of

Ethiopia

• The Neutrality Act of 1936 forbade the extension of loans and credits to belligerents.

• The Neutrality Act of 1937 forbade the shipment of arms to the opposing sides in the Spanish Civil War, but allowed cash-and-carry…

– This will be revised in 1939 to allow

Cash-and-Carry for weapons too.

Ch. 27.2: Isolationism and Internationalism

Axis Aggression

• Aggression…

– Germany: Rhineland (1936), Austria

(

Anschluss

) (1938), Sudetenland (1938),

Czechoslovakia (1938)

• Then Poland on 9/1/39 = WWII Begins

– Italy: Ethiopia (1935), Albania (1939)

– Japan: Manchuria (1931), China (1937),

Panay

(1937)

Ch. 27.2: Isolationism and Internationalism

Appeasement

• Munich Conference

– Meeting between Hitler,

Chamberlain, Daladier,

Mussolini in 9/1938 in

Munich, Germany.

– Hitler got to keep everything he’s already taken (R.A.S.), but promised not to take anything else (e.g. Czechoslovakia).

Ch. 27.3: From Neutrality to Intervention

Nazi-Soviet Pact

• Nazi-Soviet Pact

– Agreement between

Hitler Stalin

• “non-aggression” for 10 years

• Split up

Poland/Eastern

Europe between them

• Why?

Ch. 27.3: From Neutrality to Intervention

Nazi-Soviet Pact

“This is the last territorial claim I have to make in

Europe”

He totally bought it!

The enemy did not expect my great determination….Our enemies are little worms, I saw them at

Munich…Now Poland is in the position I wanted”

A. Hitler

The

Empire of Japan

Complete isolation before WWI

(in brief)…

Left out of Versailles

Emperor –

Hirohito

During G. Depression…

Ultra -nationalist

forces take control (Tojo)

New Japanese empire

1931 – invasion of Manchuria

2

nd Sino - Japanese war – ‘37

As empire expands..

Needs natural resources to fuel expansion

Rely on U.S. (steel and oil)

July ’41 – U.S. embargo

Dutch East Indies…must neutralize U.S.

Pacific Fleet

– Pearl Harbor

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