Chapter 14- Forging the National Economy 1790-1860

Ch 14 PPT:
Forging the National Economy
Tmwk Ch 14
1. Pg 288 Describe how the frontier
looked in the 1830s.
2. Pg 290 Population Graph: Write two
trends or patterns you see from the
3. Pg 290 What is the bottom map
Western Demographics
• By 1840 - demographic center of American
population had crossed over the Alleghenies.
• 1850 - half of Americans under age 30.
• Pioneer Americans: ill-informed, superstitious,
had rugged individualism
• Ralph Waldo Emerson: lecturer, essayist, poet;
Wrote “Self-Reliance”
• Frontier life very difficult: Poorly fed, poor
housing, disease, premature death,
loneliness, isolation.
Use of Western Lands
• Tobacco exhausted soil, so moved west.
• Kentucky: After burning the tough sugar cane,
European bluegrass (Kentucky bluegrass) grewwas good for grazing livestock.
• “Rendezvous” system of trade: traders
went to Rocky Mt Valley to trade goods for
beaver pelts.
• Trade in buffalo robes and annihilation of bison
• Painter George Catlin: proposed creation of
national park - Yellowstone Park
Movement of Millions
• Pop. doubling every 25 years: due to high birth
rate and increased immigration in 1840s and
• Quick urbanization: slums, inadequate
policing, impure water, foul sewage, improper
garbage disposal
• Why do so many immigrate?
– 1840’s Potato Famine in Ireland
– “Surplus” of people in Europe
– Land of freedom and opportunity - rights
and religion
– Transoceanic steamships made voyage
4. Pg 292 Read the two letters: Describe the
experience of immigrants in the mid
Irish Immigrants
• Potato famine in Ireland: 2 million people died
• Irish Catholics immigrated to Boston and NY
– largest Irish city in the world.
• Irish experience: Lived in slums, scorned by
the older “American stock” – especially
Protestants; worked on railroads and in
kitchens; mostly low skill occupations
• “Molly Maguires”: Irish miner’s union
• Gain control of powerful city
machines, ie NY Tammany
Hall – patronage rewards
Tammany Hall: Patronage
• Democratic Party political machine: played a
major role in controlling NY City & NY State politics.
Controlled Democratic Party nominations and
political patronage in Manhattan (ie mayoral victory)
• Helped Irish immigrants rise up in American politics
from 1790s- 1960s.
German Immigrants
• Why immigrate? Crop failures, political
refugees, other hardships
• Where? Wisconsin
• German contributions to American society:
Conestoga wagon, Kentucky rifle, Christmas
• Against slavery
• Supported public schools
• Nativists: against immigrants – fear of being
out-voted, outbred, ousted from jobs
• American nativists formed Order of StarSpangled Banner - became “Know-Nothing
Party. This secret group worked for restriction
on immigration & naturalization and
deportation of alien paupers.
• 1840s Roman Catholics: created a separate
Catholic educational system. By 1850, Catholics
outnumbered all other denominations
• Violence: attacks on Catholic convents, schools,
5. Pg 300 Who built America’s first textile mill?
What state was it located?
6. Pg 300 What kind of machine was the “mule”?
7. Pg 301 Caption Name two effects of Eli
Whitney’s cotton gin.
8. Pg 301 Quote What was it like to work in a
factory in 1836?
Inventions & Industrialization
• Samuel Slater: “Father of American Factory
System” – He brought British textile technology to
America and designed the 1st textile mills.
• Eli Whitney: invented cotton gin - separated cotton
seeds from cotton fibers. (50 x’s more effective than
by hand) Now Cotton is King!
• Growing of cotton increased due to high profitability
and furthered increase use of slaves.
• American phase of Industrial Revolution 1st started
with cotton textiles.
• Factories in New England – Soil not good for farming,
seaports made shipping easy, water power from river.
• South had little manufacturing.
9. Pg 310 What was the mechanical
reaper used the best for?
10. Pg 310 Name four states where
the Cumberland National Road
Inventions Cont
• Eli Whitney: made machine parts that are alike =
interchangeable parts (adopted 1850) - became
basis of modern mass production - assembly line
• Elias Howe: sewing machine – ready made
clothing, drove seamstresses to factory work.
• Samuel Morse: telegraph (Morse Code):
revolutionized news gathering, diplomacy, finance.
• John Deere: 1837 steel plow to till soil. Light
enough to be pulled by horses.
• Cyrus McCormick: 1830s mechanical mowerreaper for harvesting - new machinery = increased
King Cotton (don’t write)
• 50 times more
effective than
handpicking seeds
• Cotton in the South
was spun in mills in
the North
• New England had
the textile mills
Life of Factory Worker
• Factory System led to labor problems: Long
hours, low wages, skimpy meals, unsanitary
buildings, unsafe conditions
• Labor unions forbidden
• Child labor
– Children under 10 are working
– “Whipping rooms” – corporal punishment
– Spurred need for public education
Life of Factory Worker Cont.
• 1820s - states granted laboring man the
• 1840 - Pres Van Buren established 10 hr.
work day for federal employees on public
• Commonwealth v. Hunt - Supreme Crt
case ruled labor unions were not illegal
conspiracies if peaceful and honorable.
Ladies in Factories
• Factory work replaced handmade production
• Mostly single “Factory girls” worked 6 days a week,
12-13 hrs a day.
• 20% had worked before marriage
• “Cult of domesticity” – Women’s focus should be
marriage, children, being home makers
• “Domestic feminism” – growing power and
independence of women.
Cause/Effect: Fertility rate (# of
births) dropped sharply after
Industrial Revolution
11. Pg 312-313 What types of
transportation developed in the United
States in the 1800s?
12. Pg 313 Where were most of the
railroads located in the 1850s?
Improvement in Transportation
• 1790s - Lancaster Turnpike toll road completed in PA
– hard-surfaced highway. (Cumberland Road: 1852)
• Led to canvas covered
Conestoga wagon
• Robert Fulton invents
steamboat (Clermont)
• Governor Clinton digs
Erie Canal, linking Great Lakes
in transportation
and Hudson River (boom in
industry, new cities)
• ‘Iron Horse’ – 1828 Railroad =
faster, more reliable, cheaper
Cost of shipping
than the rest (1860 - 30,000 miles)
13. Pg 318 Map What types of industry
were located in the North?
14. Pg 318 Map What types of
agriculture and livestock were
located in the South?
Market (Industrial) Revolution
• Transformed America from a subsistence economy
of the Antebellum Era (pre Civil War) to a national
network of industry and commerce
• Big business brought new problems for federal and
state governments
• Family structures changed as a result of industrial
• Polarity between rich and poor became heightened