# Measurement And Scaling Techniques

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```Measurement &amp; Scaling Techniques
Presented By:Angarika Acharekar (01)
Priya Gate (10)
Yeseul Jo (12)
Pradnya Juvekar (13)
Ruchira Koyande (17)
Content
Definition
• Measurement
Assignment of numbers or other symbols to
characteristics of objects according to certain pre
specified rules
• Scaling
Generation of continuum upon which measured
objects are located.
Characteristics
• Description
– Unique labels that are used to designate each
value of the scale. All scales possess description.\
• Order
– The relative sizes or positions of the descriptors.
Order is denoted by descriptors such as “greater
than”, “less than”, and “equal to”.
Characteristics
• Distance
– The characteristics of distance means that
absolute differences between the scale
descriptors are known and may be expressed in
units.
• Origin
– The origin characteristic means that the scale has
unique or fixed beginning.
Primary scales of measurement
• Nominal scale
– A scale whose number serve only labels to identify
and classify the objects.
– Example
– What is your hair colour
o Brown
o Black
o Blonde
o Gray
o other
• Ordinal scale
– A ranking scale in which number are assigned to
objects to indicate the relative extent to which
some characteristics is possessed.
– Example
– A fast food home delivery shop may wish to ask its
customers
– How would you rate the service of our staff
1.Excellent 2.very good 3.good 4.poor 5.worst
• Interval scale
– A scale in which numbers are used to rate objects.
• Ratio scale
– Ratio scale possesses all the properties of
nominal, ordinal and interval scale and in addition
an absolute zero point.
Scaling Techniques
Scaling Techniques
Noncomparative
scales
Comparative
Scales
Paired
comparison
Rank order
Constant Sum
Q-Sort
Continuous
rating scales
Itemized
rating scales
Likert
Semantic
differential
Stapel
Comparative Scaling Techniques
1. Paired comparison
– A respondent is presented with two objects at the
time and asked to select one object in the paired
according to some criterion.
– Date obtained are ordinal in nature.
• example
2. Rank order scaling
– Respondents are presented with several objects
simultaneously and asked to order or rank them
according to some criterion.
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Brand
Pepsi
Coca-cola
Sprite
Thumpsup
fanta
• Rank order
3. Constant sum scaling
– Respondents are required to allocate a constant
sum of unit such as points, dollars, chits, stickers,
or chips among a set of stimulus objects with
respect to some criterion.
• Example
• Please allocate 100 points on how you spend
your income
1. essentials
2. Education
3. Entertainment
4. Others
4. Q- Sort
– It uses a rank order procedure to sort objects
based on similarity with respect to some
criterion.
Non comparative
• Continuous rating scale
– Graphic rating scale
– Respondents rate objects by placing a mark at the
appropriate position on a line that runs from one
extreme of the criterion variable to another.
• Example
• Itemized rating scale
– A measurement scale having numbers or brief
descriptions associated with each category.
i. Likert
ii. Semantic differential
iii. Stapel
i. Likert
–
A measurement scale with five response
categories ranging from “strongly disagree,” to
“Strongly agree.”
• Example
ii. Semantic differential
–
It is a seven points rating scale with endpoints
associated with bipolar labels that have
semantic meaning.
iii. Stapel
–
A scale for measuring attitudes that consists of a
single adjective in the middle of an evennumbered range of values from -5 to +5, without
a neutral point.
Scale decisions
1. Number of scale categories to use
– Several factors should be taken into account in
deciding on the number of categories.
2. Balanced versus Unbalanced scale
– A scale with an equal number of favorable and
unfavorable categories.
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Balanced Scale
How did you find the movie
“NH-10”
Extremely good
Very good
Good
Bad
Very bad
Extremely bad
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Unbalanced Scale
How did you find the movie
“NH-10”
Extremely good
Very good
Good
Somewhat good
Bad
Very bad
```