Louisiana: The History of an American State Chapter 1 Louisiana’s Culture: Families and Festivals Study Presentation ©2005 Clairmont Press Chapter 1 Louisiana’s Culture: Families and Festivals Section Section Section Section 1: 2: 3: 4: What is Culture? Louisiana’s Festivals Louisiana’s Cultural Regions Louisiana’s People A Look at the Book • Each chapter contains: – – – – – – – – – Chapter Preview (terms, people, places) Focus on Skills (social studies skills lesson) Section Overview Lagniappes Photographs with captions Check for Understanding Spotlight (interesting information about Louisiana) Chapter Summary (good study guide) Activities for Learning (Review, Connect, Extend, Photo Question) • Appendixes – Vital Statistics, State Symbols, Governors, Parishes, Colleges & Universities, Atlas, Glossary, Index Parishes & Lagniappes • Click here to see a map of Louisiana’s parishes. • Click here for a definition of “parish”. • Each chapter contains some great lagniappes. Click here for the definition! Section 1: What is Culture? ESSENTIAL QUESTION: –What are the elements of culture? Section 1: What is Culture? What words do I need to know? 1. cultural diffusion 2. culture 3. jazz 4. blues 5. fais-do-do 6. zydeco 7. gospel music 8. spiritual Section 1: What is Culture? PREVIEW • Check out the headings and subheadings • Examine the pictures and read the captions • Left- what stood out the most in your mind after previewing Chapter 1? What is Culture? Culture: the way of life of a group of people. Includes: – religion – music – food – clothing – language – architecture – art – literature – games – sports Religion • 1st European religion in Louisiana was Roman Catholic • France and Spain were Catholic countries • After Louisiana Purchase in 1803, members of Protestant religions moved into the area • Methodists, Baptists, and Presbyterians later joined by others such as Lutherans • More recently - Jews, Buddhists, and Muslims Music • New Orleans is the birthplace of Jazz • Jazz has spread all over the globe as an ambassador for Louisiana culture Food • Louisiana has a world-class seafood industry – crawfish, crab, and shrimp • Cajun and Creole foods are associated with South Louisiana • Louisiana foods and recipes have spread across the world Click here to return to Main Menu. Section 2: Louisiana’s Festivals ESSENTIAL QUESTION: –What are the festivals of Louisiana? Section 2: Louisiana’s Festivals What words do I need to know? 1. gumbo 2. jambalaya 3. Mardi Gras Section 2: Louisiana’s Festivals PREVIEW • Check out the headings and subheadings • Examine the pictures and read the captions August and September • Shrimp Festival began more than 60 years ago (now the Shrimp and Petroleum Festival) • Frog Festival in Acadia Parish Frog Festival • Zydeco Music Festival in St. Landry Parish • Festival Acadians for dancing & music October and November • Shreveport & Hammond – the Arts in the Fall • Acadia Parish – traditional German OktoberFest • Zwolle (Sabine Parish) – the Tamale Festival • Crowley – the International Rice Festival • Opelousas – the Yambilee Festival • Abbeville – the Giant Omelette Festival • Colfax – the Louisiana Pecan Festival December • Natchitoches – the Christmas Festival of Lights • St. James Parish – celebrates with the burning of the willow logs on Christmas Eve January and February • Since 1993, the French and African American heritage celebrate Creole Heritage Day - traditional skills demonstrated • Gumbo: traditional hearty Creole soup made of seafood, chicken, okra, other vegetables March and April • Baton Rouge and New Orleans celebrate St. Patrick’s Day with parades • “The wearing of the green” honors the Irish heritage of Louisiana • The Strawberry Festival at Ponchatoula • The New Orleans Jazz and Heritage Festival is the 2nd largest celebration (Mardi Gras is largest) May • Crawfish Festival in Breaux Bridge (St. Martin Parish) – more than 100,000 visitors • Chank-a-chank is the music of the Cajun bands who sing in French – began 1959 • Legislature proclaimed Breaux Bridge as the “Crawfish Capital of the World” June and July • Ruston Peach Festival in Lincoln Parish • Mansfield Blueberry Festival in DeSoto Parish • Folklife Festival preserves information about Louisiana’s cultural elements –watch the Islenos mend a fishing net Mardi Gras “Fat Tuesday” • Louisiana’s BIGGEST Celebration! • Festive time before Lent • Begins on January 6 – also known as Twelfth Night • Associated with the culture of Lafayette, Morgan City, New Roads, and Thibodaux • Traditional country version in Basile, Church Point, Eunice, and Mamou Mardi Gras (Continued) • Described as “running the Mardi Gras” or le courir de Mardi Gras • Masked riders on horseback go from house to house collecting food • Riders entertain with singing and dancing • Tradition requires the participants to catch live chickens on the farms they visit to be used as part of the gumbo later • Official colors are purple, green, and gold – Purple represents justice – Green stands for faith – Gold stands for power Click here to return to Main Menu. Section 3: Louisiana’s Cultural Regions ESSENTIAL QUESTION: –What are the similarities and differences between the cultural regions of Louisiana? Section 3: Louisiana’s Cultural Regions What words do I need to know? 1. region 2. upland South 3. urban 4. rural Section 3: Louisiana’s Cultural Regions PREVIEW • Check out the headings and subheadings • Examine the pictures and read the captions Louisiana’s Cultural Regions • Region: area with similar features • Physical features include common climate and landforms • Elements of culture: ethnic heritage, language, religion, food, music, or recreation • Louisiana has five distinct cultural regions Sportsman’s Paradise Region Northern Louisiana – Many lakes, rolling hills, & forests – Abundant outdoor recreation for residents & visitors – Fishing and hunting a part of life for generations: – Bass fishing tournaments are big business on the lakes – Newer sports like water-skiing & power-boat now popular – Region has much in common with Mississippi, Alabama, & Georgia Crossroads Region • Covers the center of the state • Merges the cultures of North & South LA • Urban center is Alexandria-Pineville on the banks of the Red River • Found in Rapides Parish • Cheneyville & Winnfield feature Main Street stores and churches Cajun Country Region • Bordelonville filled with Cajun French Catholics • Acme settled by Anglo-Protestants • Culture divided into prairie Cajun and wetlands Cajun • Prairie Cajun – Agriculture & Livestock • Wetlands Cajun – Fishers & Trappers • Oil industry has changed traditional occupations of their forefathers Plantation Country Region • Common symbols of this region: old plantation homes, live oak trees, and Spanish moss • Baton Rouge is the urban center of this region & the capital city • Here is a mix of people & lifestyles with every ethnic group being represented Greater New Orleans Region • Often described as an American city more European than others • Busy port on the Mississippi River • French Quarter reminds one of Louisiana’s past • Largest city in the state • Seems to have much in common with the Caribbean & South America • Relaxed atmosphere Other Regional Labels • Cultural regions not mandatory boundaries • Many backgrounds live in each area of the state • Some divide state into three regions – North Louisiana, South Louisiana, & New Orleans • State cultures have been very different but not as great at present Click here to return to Main Menu. Section 4: Louisiana’s People ESSENTIAL QUESTION: –What are the ethnic groups of Louisiana? Section 4: Louisiana’s People What words do I need to know? 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. ethnic group Acadians free people of color Creoles Anglos Lowland South Isleños Section 4: Louisiana’s People PREVIEW • Check out the headings and subheadings • Examine the pictures and read the captions Louisiana’s People • Ethnic Groups –Ethnic group: people who share common traditions, beliefs, & patterns of living –These patterns include language, religion, customs, & food. –People of Louisiana more diverse than some tourists expect Acadians • French Canadians migrated from present day Nova Scotia to Louisiana in the 18th century • The word Cajun came from the French word Acadianne or “people of Acadia” • 22 parishes form this triangle of Cajun culture African Americans • Came first as slaves to colonial Louisiana from West Africa • Others came from the French colonies of the West Indies • Gumbo is a gift from these Wolof & Bambara people • Creoles were gnes de couleur libre or free people of color • St. Landry Parish home to several large Creole communities • Speak French and are known for Zydeco music American Indians • Descendants of the earliest residents • Have land and tribal headquarters in several parts of the state • Chitimacha, Choctaw, Coushatta, Tunica-Biloxi, & Houma are the primary tribes remaining in LA Anglos • Anglo culture developed in the British colonies on the eastern coast of the United States • Includes English-speaking heritage of the Scots-Irish • Religion is Protestant • Culture is described as lowland South Germans • Immigrated to Louisiana during early colonial years • German language soon blended with the dominant French culture • Creation of Robert’s Cove • Elements of German heritage remain • December 6th religious feast of St. Nicholas goes from house to house Hispanics • Isleños (LAY nyos) means “islanders” • Descended from Canary Islanders while Louisiana was a Spanish colony • Reside in St. Bernard Parish • Speak the Spanish dialect & sing those songs called decimas • Most recent Hispanics come from Mexico Italians • Large group of immigrants arrived in the 19th century • Largest group lives in Independence in Tangipahoa Parish • Contributed a custom known as St. Joseph’s Altar – Brought from Sicily & includes a feast for friends & families – Visitors are given a dried fava bean for good luck Other Ethnic Groups • Croatians from the coast of the Adriatic Sea – – • • • • Descendants live in Plaquemines Parish Share region with Filipino immigrants. Vietnamese have come to the wetlands Chinese came during the 19th century Czechs in Rapides Parish & Hungarian in Livingston Parish Arabs, Greeks, & natives of India Families • Tradition of family reunions continues & grows • Traditions of the past combine with the customs of today • Music, food, clothing, language, games, & sports blend into the cultural picture of Louisiana Click here to return to Main Menu. Click here to return to Main Menu.