States of Consciousness

States of Consciousness
What does it mean to be
• Consciousness
– Awareness of ourselves & our environment
– States of consciousness
• Awake
• Daydreaming
• Sleep
• Dreaming
• Hypnosis
• Drug Induced
• Meditation
Who Dunnit?
Selective Attention
• Selective Attention
–Ability to attend well
to only one thing at a
• Change blindness
– failing to notice
changes in the
Sleep and Dreams
Biological Rhythms and Sleep
Circadian Rhythm
• Circadian rhythm
–24 hour cycle
–Temperature changes
– melatonin
Objective 2
What is the biological rhythm of our sleep?
• Stages of sleep
• Alpha waves
–Awake but relaxed
–Stage 1
1-7 minutes
Light sleep
Hypnagogic sensations
Easy to awaken
Aroused from stage 1 report they were awake
Biological Rhythms and Sleep
Sleep Stages
Stage 2
– Onset of true sleep
– Sleep spindles
• High frequency bursts of brain
– Muscles relax, heart rate ,
respiration ,temp
• Stage 3
– Transition to deeper sleep
– Continue to show more delta
Stage 4
– Delta sleep
– Deepest stage of sleep;
most difficult to wake
– Sleepwalking & talking
– Night terrors in children
– If awaken, don’t
20% of sleep time
Eyes move rapidly back & forth
Fast frequency low amplitude
Paradoxical sleep
Heart rate & blood pressure increase
Lose muscle tension & movement
REM rebound – if deprived of REM; REM
increase next night.
Biological Rhythms and Sleep
REM Sleep
• REM sleep vs NREM sleep
–Paradoxical sleep
• Typical nights sleep
–90 minute cycle
Baby in REM
Biological Rhythms and Sleep
Typical Nights Sleep
Biological Rhythms and Sleep
Typical Nights Sleep
Biological Rhythms and Sleep
Typical Nights Sleep
Biological Rhythms and Sleep
Typical Nights Sleep
Biological Rhythms and Sleep
Typical Nights Sleep
Sleep Theories
Objective 4: What is sleep’s function?
• Sleep theories
8 min.
–Sleep protects
–Sleep helps recuperation
–Memory storage
–Sleep and creative thinking
–Sleep and growth
Objective 5:
What are the major sleep disorders?
• Sleep disorders
–Sleep apnea
–Night terrors
Objective 6: What Do We Dream?
• Manifest Content
– Storyline
• Daily life works way into
• External stimuli works way
into dreams
Latent Content
-symbolic meaning
“Sometimes a cigar is just a cigar.”
Objective 7:
• To satisfy our own wishes
– Freud; psychic safety valve;
– Manifest Content / Latent Content
• To file away memories
– Information processing
– Fix the day’s experiences in our minds
• To develop/preserve neural pathways
– Babies = Lots of REM
• To make sense of neural static
– Limbic system active during REM (i.e. amygdala) while
frontal lobe less active
A Lifetime of Sleep
Attitudes Towards Hypnosis
• A total score is obtained by 1st reversing the
numbers given in response to statements
6,7,9,10,11,13, & 14 (1=7, 2=6, 3=5, 4=4, 5=3,
6=2, 7=1)
• Now…add up all numbers in front of all 14
• Scores range from 14-98
• Higher scores reflect a more positive attitude
toward hypnosis
• Hypnosis
– a social interaction in which one person
(the hypnotist) suggests to another (the
subject) that certain perceptions, feelings,
thoughts, or behaviors will spontaneously
–Hypnotic induction
–Hypnosis as an altered
Facts and Falsehoods
• Can Anyone Experience Hypnosis?
– Yes…if willing
– Postural sway
• people who respond w/o hypnosis are the same
people who respond with
– Susceptibility
• imaginative activities; focus on task
• Can Hypnosis Enhance Recall of
Forgotten Events?
– no age regression / hypnotically refreshed memories
Facts and Falsehoods
• Can Hypnosis Force People to Act Against
Their Will?
– No…the person in authority can usually induce
unlikely behavior whether hypnotized or not
• Can Hypnosis Be Therapeutic?
– Hypnotherapists
• harness one’s own healing powers
– Posthypnotic suggestion
• Drug, alcohol & smoking addictions don’t respond well
• Can Hypnosis Alleviate Pain?
– Yes…hypnosis inhibits pain-related brain activity
Explaining the Hypnotic State
Hypnosis as a Social Phenomenon
• Social influence theory
– Trust hypnotist, let them direct their attention &
– Normal consciousness NOT AN ALTERED STATE
Divided Consciousness Theory
• Carry out suggestion even when think
no one watching
• Distinct brain activity
– areas of brain lit up when imagining color
• Mind split / levels of consciousness
• Hypnosis dissociates the sensation of
the pain stimulus from the emotional
suffering = feels cold but not painful