Database Security and Auditing

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Database Security and
Auditing: Protecting Data
Integrity and Accessibility
Chapter 7
Database Auditing Models
Objectives
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•
•
•
Gain an overview of auditing fundamentals
Understand the database auditing environment
Create a flowchart of the auditing process
List the basic objectives of an audit
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Objectives (continued)
• Define the differences between auditing
classifications and types
• List the benefits and side effects of an audit
• Create your own auditing models
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Auditing Overview
• Audit examines: documentation that reflects
(from business or individuals); actions,
practices, conduct
• Audit measures: compliance to policies,
procedures, processes and laws
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Definitions
• Audit/auditing: process of examining and
validating documents, data, processes,
procedures, systems
• Audit log: document that contains all activities
that are being audited ordered in a
chronological manner
• Audit objectives: set of business rules, system
controls, government regulations, or security
policies
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Definitions (continued)
• Auditor: person authorized to audit
• Audit procedure: set of instructions for the
auditing process
• Audit report: document that contains the audit
findings
• Audit trail: chronological record of document
changes, data changes, system activities, or
operational events
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Definitions (continued)
• Data audit: chronological record of data changes
stored in log file or database table object
• Database auditing: chronological record of
database activities
• Internal auditing: examination of activities
conducted by staff members of the audited
organization
• External auditing
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Auditing Activities
• Evaluate the effectiveness and adequacy of the
audited entity
• Ascertain and review the reliability and integrity
of the audited entity
• Ensure the organization complies with policies,
procedures, regulations, laws, and standards of
the government and the industry
• Establish plans, policies, and procedures for
conducting audits
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Auditing Activities (continued)
• Keep abreast of all changes to audited entity
• Keep abreast of updates and new audit
regulations
• Provide all audit details to all company
employees involved in the audit
• Publish audit guidelines and procedures
• Act as liaison between the company and the
external audit team
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Auditing Activities (continued)
• Act as a consultant to architects, developers,
and business analysts
• Organize and conduct internal audits
• Ensure all contractual items are met by the
organization being audited
• Identify the audit types that will be used
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Auditing Activities (continued)
• Identify security issues that must be addressed
• Provide consultation to the Legal Department
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Auditing Environment
• Auditing examples:
– Financial auditing
– Security auditing
• Audit also measures compliance with
government regulations and laws
• Audits take place in an environment:
– Auditing environment
– Database auditing environment
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Auditing Environment (continued)
• Components:
– Objectives: an audit without a set of objectives is
useless
– Procedures: step-by-step instructions and tasks
– People: auditor, employees, managers
– Audited entities: people, documents, processes,
systems
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Auditing Environment (continued)
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Auditing Environment (continued)
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Auditing Environment (continued)
• Database auditing environment differs slightly
from generic auditing environment
• Security measures are inseparable from
auditing
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Auditing Process
• Quality Assurance (QA):
– Ensure system is bug free and functioning
according to its specifications
– Ensure product is not defective as it is being
produced
• Auditing process: ensures that the system is
working and complies with the policies,
regulations and laws
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Auditing Process (continued)
• Performance monitoring: observes if there is
degradation in performance at various
operation times
• Auditing process flow:
– System development life cycle
– Auditing process:
• Understand the objectives
• Review, verify, and validate the system
• Document the results
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Auditing Process (continued)
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Auditing Process (continued)
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Auditing Objectives
• Part of the development process of the entity to
be audited
• Reasons:
–
–
–
–
Complying
Informing
Planning
Executing
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Auditing Objectives (continued)
• Top ten database auditing objectives:
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–
–
–
–
Data integrity
Application users and roles
Data confidentiality
Access control
Data changes
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Auditing Objectives (continued)
• Top ten database auditing objectives
(continued):
–
–
–
–
–
Data structure changes
Database or application availability
Change control
Physical access
Auditing reports
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Auditing Classifications and Types
• Industry and business sectors use different
classifications of audits
• Each classification can differ from business to
business
• Audit classifications: also referred as types
• Audit types: also referred as purposes
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Audit Classifications
• Internal audit:
– Conducted by a staff member of the company
being audited
– Purpose:
• Verify that all auditing objectives are met
• Investigate a situation prompted by an internal
event or incident
• Investigate a situation prompted by an external
request
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Audit Classifications (continued)
• External audit:
– Conducted by a party outside the company that
is being audited
– Purpose:
• Investigate the financial or operational state of the
company
• Verify that all auditing objectives are met
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Audit Classifications (continued)
• Automatic audit:
– Prompted and performed automatically (without
human intervention)
– Used mainly for systems and database systems
– Administrators read and interpret reports;
inference engine or artificial intelligence
• Manual audit: performed completely by humans
• Hybrid audit
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Audit Types
• Financial audit: ensures that all financial
transactions are accounted for and comply with
the law
• Security audit: evaluates if the system is as
secure
• Compliance audit: system complies with
industry standards, government regulations, or
partner and client policies
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Audit Types (continued)
• Operational audit: verifies if an operation is
working according to the policies of the
company
• Investigative audit: performed in response to an
event, request, threat, or incident to verify
integrity of the system
• Product audit: performed to ensure that the
product complies with industry standards
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Benefits and Side Effects of Auditing
• Benefits:
– Enforces company policies and government
regulations and laws
– Lowers the incidence of security violations
– Identifies security gaps and vulnerabilities
– Provides an audit trail of activities
– Provides means to observe and evaluate
operations of the audited entity
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Benefits and Side Effects of Auditing
(continued)
• Benefits (continued):
–
–
–
–
Provides a sense of security and confidence
Identifies or removes doubts
Makes the organization more accountable
Develops controls that can be used for purposes
other than auditing
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Benefits and Side Effects of Auditing
(continued)
• Side effects:
–
–
–
–
Performance problems
Too many reports and documents
Disruption to the operations of the audited entity
Consumption of resources, and added costs
from downtime
– Friction between operators and auditor
– Same from a database perspective
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Auditing Models
• Can be implemented with built-in features or
your own mechanism
• Information recorded:
– State of the object before the action was taken
– Description of the action that was performed
– Name of the user who performed the action
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Auditing Models (continued)
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Simple Auditing Model 1
• Easy to understand and develop
• Registers audited entities in the audit model
repository
• Chronologically tracks activities performed
• Entities: user, table, or column
• Activities: DML transaction or logon and off
times
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Simple Auditing Model 1 (continued)
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Simple Auditing Model 1 (continued)
• Control columns:
– Placeholder for data inserted automatically when
a record is created or updated (date and time
record was created and updated)
– Can be distinguished with a CTL prefix
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Simple Auditing Model 1 (continued)
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Simple Auditing Model 2
• Only stores the column value changes
• There is a purging and archiving mechanism;
reduces the amount of data stored
• Does not register an action that was performed
on the data
• Ideal for auditing a column or two of a table
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Simple Auditing Model 2 (continued)
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Advanced Auditing Model
•
•
•
•
Called “advanced” because of its flexibility
Repository is more complex
Registers all entities: fine grained auditing level
Can handle users, actions, tables, columns
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Advanced Auditing Model (continued)
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Advanced Auditing Model (continued)
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Historical Data Model
• Used when a record of the whole row is
required
• Typically used in most financial applications
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Historical Data Model (continued)
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Auditing Applications Actions Model
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C2 Security
• Given to Microsoft SQL Server 2000
• Utilizes DACLs (discretionary access control
lists) for security and audit activities
• Requirements:
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–
–
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Server must be configured as a C2 system
Windows Integrated Authentication is supported
SQL native security is not supported
Only transactional replication is supported
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Summary
• Audit examines, verifies and validates
documents, procedures, processes
• Auditing environment consists of objectives,
procedures, people, and audited entities
• Audit makes sure that the system is working
and complies with the policies, standards,
regulations, and laws
• Auditing objectives established during
development phase
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Summary (continued)
• Objectives: compliance, informing, planning,
and executing
• Classifications: internal, external, automatic,
manual, hybrid
• Models: Simple Auditing 1, Simple Auditing 2,
Advanced Auditing, Historical Data, Auditing
Applications, C2 Security
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