Science ace

Top 10 useful / amazing
BY: Yu Hao
1O2 31
10 ) Mercury
• Symbol : Hg (Greek: hydrargyrum, meaning watery or liquid
silver) with an atomic number of 80.
• Description : A heavy, silvery metal, mercury is one of few the
elements that are liquid at or near room temperature.
• Primary uses : 1) Thermometers, barometers and other
scientific apparatus.
2) Dental fillings.
3) Mercury vapour in a phosphor tube
produces short-wave ultraviolent light which then causes the
phosphor to fluoresce, making visible light.
Density (near room temp.) :13.534 g·cm−3
Melting point : 234.32 K, -38.83 °C, -37.89 °F
Boiling point : 629.88 K, 356.73 °C, 674.11 °F
History : Mercury was found in Egyptian tombs that date from
1500 BC. In China and Tibet, mercury use was thought to
prolong life, heal fractures, and maintain generally good
health, although it is now known that exposure to mercury
leads to serious adverse health effects. One of China's
emperors, Qín Shǐ Huáng Dì was killed by drinking a mercury
and powdered jade mixture formulated by Qin alchemists
(causing live failure, mercury poisoning, and brain death) who
intended to give him eternal life.
• The ancient Greeks used mercury in ointments; the ancient
Egyptians and the Romans used it in cosmetics which
sometimes deformed the face.
9 ) Chlorine
• Symbol : Cl
• Description : pale-yellow / green gas
• Primary uses : 1) Table salt ( chlorine + sodium )
2) Production of paper products, dyes, textiles,
petroleum products, medicines, antiseptics, insecticides, food,
solvents, paints, plastics, and many other consumer products.
3) Bleaching and disinfectant uses, such as in
swimming pools to keep them clean and sanitary.
4) Purify or clean water.
• Melting point : 171.6 K, -101.5 °C, -150.7 °F
• Boiling point : 239.11 K, -34.04 °C, -29.27 °F
8 ) Aluminum
• Symbol : Al
• Description : Silvery grey metallic
• Primary uses : 1) Alloyed with different amounts of copper,
magnesium, silicon, manganese or other elements to impart a
variety of useful properties. These alloys are of vital
importance in the construction of modern aircraft and
2) Decorative paper, packages, foils and toys.
• Density : (near room temp. )2.70 g·cm−3
• Melting point : 933.47 K, 660.32 °C, 1220.58 °F
• Boiling point : 2792 K, 2519 °C, 4566 °F
7 ) Magnesium
• Symbol : Mg
• Description : Shiny grey solid.
• Primary uses : 1) Flares and fireworks.
2) Common laxatives.
3) Stabilise of abnormal nerve excitation and
blood vessel spasm.
4) Fertilizer.
• Density (near room temp.) : 1.738g·cm−3
• Melting point : 923 K, 650 °C, 1202 °F
• Boiling point : 1363 K, 1091 °C, 1994 °F
6 ) Sodium
• Symbol : Na
• Description : silvery white metallic.
• Primary uses : 1) Sodium is used to descale metals. This gives
the metal a smooth surface. It is also used to refine metals
(such as zirconium and potassium) from their compounds.
2) Sodium is added to fatty acids to make
sodium salts.
3) Sodium vapour lamps (often used in street
lights) are a very efficient way of producing light from
electricity. These lamps give off a very distinctive yelloworange colour.
• Density : (near room temp.) : 0.968 g·cm−3
• Melting point : 370.87 K, 97.72 °C, 207.9 °F
• Boiling point : 1156 K, 883 °C, 1621 °F
5 ) Hydrogen
• Symbol : H
• Description : Colourless gas
• Primary uses : 1) Used to process fossil fuels.
2) Used to produce ammonia which is used in
common household cleaning products.
3) Hydrogen (either used on its own or
combined with nitrogen) is used in many manufacturing
plants to determine whether there are any leaks. It is also
used to detect leaks in food packages.
4) Hydrogen gas is used to reduce many
metallic ores.
5) Hydrogen gas can be used to make water.
4 ) Fluorine
• Symbol : Fl
• Description : very pale yellow (gas), bright yellow (liquid).
• Primary uses : 1) Compounds of fluorine are added to tooth
paste to prevent dental cavities.
2) Obtain pure uranium from uranium
3) Compounds of fluorine are used in
refrigeration and air-conditioning systems.
4) Another compound of fluorine is used in the
electrolysis of aluminium. This process allows pure aluminium
to be obtained.
3) Iron
• Symbol : Fe
• Description : Lustrous metallic with a greyish tinge.
• Primary uses : 1) Iron catalysts are used in the Haber-Bosch
Process to produce ammonia and the Fischer-Tropsch Process
to convert carbon monoxide to hydrocarbons used for fuels
and lubricants.
2) Most automobiles, machine tools, the hulls
of large ships, building parts and machine parts are made out
of iron.
3) Stainless steel is a very common type of
steel. Steel is made by combining iron with carbon. Stainless
steel is used in building parts, cooking pots and pans, cutlery
and surgical equipment. It is also used in aircraft and
2 ) Copper
• Symbol : Cu
• Description : red, orange metallic lustre
• Primary uses : 1) Copper is used to pipe water supplies. The
metal is also used in refrigerators and air conditioning
2) Computer heat sinks.
3) Magnetrons, found in microwave ovens.
4) Vacuum tubes and cathode ray tubes.
5) Some copper is added to fungicides and
nutritional supplements.
6) As a good conductor of electricity, copper is
used in Copper wire, electromagnets and electrical relays and
• 7) Water-proof roofing.
• 8) Structures, such as the Statue of Liberty.
• 9) Combined with nickel to make a corrosion resistant
material that is used in shipbuilding.
• 10) Copper is used in lightning rods. These attract lightning
and cause the electrical current to be dispersed rather than
striking, and possibly destroying, a more important structure.
• 11) Copper(II) sulfate is used to kill mildew.
• 12) Many musical instruments, particularly brass instruments,
are made out of copper.
• Any idea what the most useful
• Note : You may notice that I did not include oxygen and
nitrogen because they are too common.
1 ) CARBON !!
• Symbol : C
• Description : clear (diamond) & black (graphite)
• Primary uses : 1) The major use of carbon is in the form of
hydrocarbons, mainly methane gas and crude oil. Crude oil is used
to make gasoline and kerosene through distillation.
2) Cellulose, a natural carbon polymer found in
plants, is used in cotton, linen and hemp.
3) Plastics
4) Graphite, a form of carbon, is combined with clays
to make the ‘lead’ in pencils. Graphite is also used as an electrode
in electrolysis as it is inert (does not react with other
chemicals).Graphite is also used as a lubricant, pigment, a moulding
material in the manufacture of glass and as a neutron moderator in
nuclear reactors.
• 5) Charcoal, another form of carbon, is used in artwork and
for grilling (usually on a barbecue). Activated charcoal
(another form of carbon) is used as adsorbent in many filters.
These include gas masks, water purifiers and kitchen extractor
• 6) It can also be used in medicine to remove toxins, gases or
poisons from the digestive system.
• 7) Diamond are used in jewellery. Industrial diamonds are
used to drill, cut or polish metals and stones.
• 8) Reduce iron ore into pure iron metal.
• 9) When combined with silicon, tungsten, boron and titanium,
carbon forms some of the hardest compounds known. These
are used as abrasives in cutting and grinding tools.