Controversia l Events, Figures and Perspectives The 1920s Prohibition “Volstead Act” 1920-1933 (Temperance) th 18 amendment No person shall sell, barter, transport, import, export, deliver, furnish or possess any intoxicating liquor except as authorized by this act. Exceptions: - Industrial alcohol - Sacramental wine - Toilet preparations - Syrups - Cider days) - “near” beer (.05%) - Patent medicines - Flavoring extracts - Vinegar - Dr. prescriptions (no more than 1 pint/10 Why support the Regulate th 18 ? people’s behavior by force Better health Increased morality (and religiousness) Solve problems of delinquency Solve problems of poverty, prostitution, political corruptness Impacts of Prohibition MOONSHINE: Other names include: hooch, mountain dew and White lightening. This is high-poof distilled spirits which are produced illegally. TodayAppalachian area of the country BOOTLEGGING: The illegal business of transporting or smuggling the liquor SPEAKEASY: PA based, illegal liquor store or nightclub ASL and WCTU… “… an army of the Lord to wipe away the curse of drink." “Now an era of clear thinking and clean living!” "Come in and take a drop. The first drop led to other drops. He dropped his position; he dropped his respectability; he dropped his fortune; he dropped his friends; he dropped finally all prospects in this life, and his hopes for eternity; and then came the last drop on the gallows. BEWARE OF THE FIRST DROP.” A Child’s Promise: I promise not to buy, sell, or give Alcoholic liquors while I live; From all tobacco I'll abstain And never take God's name in vain. Outcomes of the 18th Who benefited? Politicians – got $ votes for looking other way… Bootleggers (Gangsters/Club Owners) – owned clubs, $$$$$$ Outcomes of the 18th Who suffered? (3) Politicians – lost $1/2 billion in taxes & respect Immigrants - blamed, lost culture, jailed Saloon Owners/Alcohol makers - lost jobs The Effects of the 18th… Created disrespect for the law Eroded respect for religion Created organized crime Corrupted law enforcement, courts, & politics Overburdened police Harmed people financially, emotionally, morally - lost jobs (profession became a crime) Harmed physically Unsafe alcohol – blindness, kidney/liver/brain damage Attacks by mob, police Changed drinking habits of the country Public drinking now common Women drinking Hard liquors more popular Increased cigarette smoking 1922: 5,000 Saloons 1927: 30,000 Speakeasies CA grape growers produced a grape juice product. It’s literature carefully instructed buyers what not to do, because, if they did those things, they would have wine in sixty days. The demand for grape juice grew dramatically. Owen Standy (Democratic Senator) “My country ‘tis of thee, Land of grape juice and tea, Of thee I sing, Land where we all have tried, To break the laws and lied! From every mountain side, The bootlegs spring.” Franklin P. Adams (The New York World – Feb. 1931) Prohibition is an awful flop, We like it. It can’t stop what it’s meant to stop, We like it. It’s left a trail of graft and slime, It don’t prohibit worth a dime. It’s filled our land with vice and crime, Nevertheless, we’re for it. Herbert Hoover (President 1929 – 1932) “Prohibition is a great social and economic experiment — noble in motive and far-reaching in purpose.” Andrew J. Volstead (U.S. Senator) “They can never repeal it.” In st 21 1933, the amendment was passed. It repealed the 18th. This has been the only amendment in U.S. History to be repealed. http://www.pbs.org/kenburns/pr ohibition/educators/activities/ Go to Prohibition Nationwide in the menu bar. Click on the bottle representing Seattle, WA and the bottles representing PA and NY. Complete the homework given in class that accompanies this. Gangsters of the 1920s Al Capone This Italian gangster is the most well known in history. He began in NY then moved to Chicago where he was known as a murderer, a pimp, and bootlegger. He was eventually arrested and served the rest of his life in Alcatraz where he died in 1947 of syphilis. Eliot Ness This special agent in the Prohibition Bureau is known for chasing Capone for two years until he finally brought him to justice. Or did he? He routinely seized alcohol, trucks, stills and equipment from bootleggers. His men earned the nickname “The Untouchables” because they couldn’t be bought out or bribed like other officials. Eliot Ness continued……. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=“ISTQ9 UZs4wY Why do you think that we have embellished Ness’s role in apprehending Capone? How do the different sides of Eliot Ness mirror the different sides of the 1920s? Explain. George Moran This Irish leader of the Northside Gang was nicknamed the “Jolly Murderer” and “Bugs”. He was the target of the Saint Valentine’s Day Massacre, but escaped harm. He was eventually arrested for bank robbery despite being known as “Chicago’s Robin Hood”. Charles Luciano This Italian gangster was considered the “Boss of Bosses” in NYC. He worked under Johnny Torrio and earned his nickname “Lucky” after surviving an attack with an icepick. After his arrest, he helped the U.S. during WWII with the invasion of Sicily and so he was set free to live the rest of his life in Italy. Dion O’Banion This Irish gangster owned a flower shop and consistently stole alcohol from Al Capone. He was killed in his flower shop by Torrio’s men because he often stole alcohol from Torrio. He was known for running the best distilleries in town. Johnny Torrio This Italian gangster killed his own uncle to take over the business. He attempted to unite all Chicago gangs and was successful in all cases except with O’Banion. He was retaliated against after attacking O’Banion. After this incident, he turned over his gang to his famous successor and moved back to NYC. Red Scare #1 1919-1920 Fear that communism was taking over the United States… and the WORLD! Why did the Red Scare begin? Rise of communism in the world Comintern = ____________ _______________ Increase in the number of anarchists, socialists and communists Continued immigration 1919: 141,000 Increase -- 1921: 805,000 in strikes Associated with socialism… Results of the Red Scare Palmer Raids Mitchell Palmer – U.S. Attorney General Raided houses of known anarchists, socialists and communists – i.e. immigrants WITHOUT a search warrant – this is illegal Still, many were jailed and/or deported WHY? 1. Fear the U.S would be overthrown 2. Bombs were being sent through the mail to powerful citizens and A. Results of the Red Scare Immigrants were put on trial for crimes they did not commit Ex: Sacco and Vanzetti Emergency Only Quota Act (1921) 2% of an ethnicity allowed in U.S. based on 1890 census Discriminated against Asians and Eastern Europeans because they had just begun emigrating in 1880 == not many here for census Results of the Red Scare Immigration Act (1924) Japanese can’t become citizens Which means no civil rights or voting National Only Origins Act (1929) 2% of an ethnicity allowed in U.S. based on 1920 census More fair to Asians and Eastern Europeans Rise of the Klan KU KLUX KLAN History: Died out in the 1870s Revived again in 1915 – WHY? Reached peak in 1924 - 4.5 million members Kept old practices: white hoods &burning crosses GOAL: to keep out “foreigners” Opposed unions and supported prohibition “felt threatened by changes in American society” LYNCHING What is it? Why was it done? Used as a scare tactic Existence of a racist environment Permissive government LYNCHING 1880 – 1950 = 5,000 killed with 70% being Black 1880 = 23 people every 2 ½ days Heaviest in Georgia, Mississippi, Alabama, Lousiana and Arkansas – What do they all have in common? Not restricted to South – for example: Zacharia Walker 1911 – Coatesville, PA Sacco & Vanzetti Victims of xenophobia or Guilty? Shoe Factory Sacco Southern Part Fish Peddler Vanzetti Northern Part Accused of murdering a paymaster & shoe store security guard Paymaster carrying $16,000 in payroll receipts when shot! Money was never traced to either man Not impartial Referred to Sacco & Vanzetti as “Dagos” Judge Webster Thayer Denounced their immigrant background & pol. beliefs Unfair treatment Both convicted of murder & sentenced to death Vanzetti - I wish to say to you that I am innocent. I have never done a crime, some sins, but never any crime. I thank you for everything you have done for me. I am innocent of all crime, not only this one, but of all, of all. …Only because they were foreigners Xenophobia Where were they coming from? No foreigners in US! Welcome Sacco & Vanzetti represented everything Americans feared about foreigners Politics in the 1920s Woodrow Wilson 1913-1921 Democratic (1st in 20 years) Campaign Platform: “New Freedom” A moderate Progressive: - Banking reform - Anti-trust legislation Developed League of Nations "Some people call me an idealist. Well, that is the way I know am an American. America is the only idealistic nation in the world." "If you want to make enemies, try to change something." Warren g harding 1921-1923 Republican Campaign Name: “A Return to Normalcy” Established high protective tax on imports: Why? Repealed war taxes on U.S. goods Restricted immigration (E. Europe) Cabinet: “Ohio Gang” - known for scandals ex: Teapot Dome – leased oil land to private companies Stress from scandals=stroke=died "My God, this is a hell of a job! I have no trouble with my enemies . . . but my damn friends, they're the ones that keep me walking the floor at nights." Calvin coolidge 1923-1929 Republican “Chief business of America is business” – offer jobs First president to address the nation on radio ('23) Credit introduced, it was a prosperous era with electricity being introduced into the home. There was wealth but not well distributed. Agriculture, RR, textiles and coal were in trouble. Kept the import tax. "If you don't say anything, you can't be called upon to repeat it.“ "I have never been hurt by anything I didn't say." Herbert hoover 1929-1933 Republican President during 1929 Stock Market Crash 1st president to have telephone on desk Believed in “Rugged Individualism” – local gov’t to help during depression Blamed for the Depression Dedicated to maintaining peace internationally "Peace is not made at the Council table or by treaties, but in the hearts of men." "A splendid storehouse of integrity and freedom has been bequeathed to us by our forefathers. In this day of confusion, of peril to liberty, our high duty is to see that this storehouse is not robbed of its contents." "Absolute freedom of the press to discuss public questions is a foundation stone of American liberty."