CHAPTER 8 The Nonverbal Code Defining Nonverbal Communication • The messages people send to each other that do not contain words – – – – – – – kinesics occulesics paralanguage haptics chronemics proxemics olfactics Nonverbal code often… complements substitutes accents contradicts repeats … the verbal message. Nonverbal vs. Verbal Communication Nonverbal Verbal Analogic Digital Signal-based Symbol based Informal Formal gestures stance/post ure hand/arm movement Kinesics leg movement eye gaze facial expressions Categories of Kinesics • Emblems—direct literal verbal translation. • Illustrators—accent/complement what is being said. – Metacommunicative • Affect displays—facial expressions of emotion. – Considered universal • Regulators—behaviors/actions that govern, direct, or manage conversation. • Adaptors—actions that satisfy physiological or psychological needs. Occulesics The study of eye contact • an essential biological skill • likely innate in humans and in animals as well • culture influences eye behavior across social contexts Paralanguage Vocal qualities that typically accompany speech. Silence is considered paralanguage. Two categories: • Voice qualities • Examples: pitch, rhythm, tempo, articulation. • Vocalizations • Laughing, crying, sighing, snoring • Intensity • Nonfluencies Proxemics Perception and use of space. Territoriality— physical geographical space. Personal space— perceptual or psychological space. Population size and socioeconomic factors affect perception of space. Haptics Tactile communication; the use of touch. Contact, moderate-contact and noncontact cultures Opposite sex touch in cultures. Touch avoidance. Prohibited touch. Olfactics Sense of smell. Humans detect up to 10,000 different compounds by smell. Scent can function as: Scent comes from two glands: sebaceous and apocrine. • A sex attractant • A marker for social class distinctions. Physical Appearance and Dress • Can communicate age, sex, and status within culture. –Masai –India –Japan Chronemics Nonverbal channel of time. M-time. P-time. Individualism vs. Collectivism Individualism Collectivism More distant proximally Smile more More distant psychologically Suppress affect displays More synchronized body movements More nonverbally affiliative Power Distance and Nonverbal Communication Low power distance cultures are less aware of vocalic. High power distance cultures avert eye contact more to show respect. Context and Nonverbal Communication Low-context cultures are more direct and talkative. High-context cultures pay more attention to nonverbal behavior in interactions. Nonverbal Expectancy Violations Theory Premise—people hold expectancies about the appropriateness of nonverbal behaviors in others. When violations are committed, arousal is triggered, and an evaluation is made. These expectancies are Evaluation is dependent learned and culturally upon: driven. The communicator. Implicit messages associated with violation. Evaluations of the act.