File - Professional Portfolio

All students are unique and different; there are no two that are the same. Thus it is that
each student experiences school in their own unique way, and learn in their own way.
The teachers responsibility is to ensure that each student has their specific learning
needs met. It is impossible to meet every students learning preferences with each
lesson, but varying your teaching methods lesson to lesson creates variety, interest,
and ensures student needs are met.
Students also vary in ability and disability whether that be in the form of a physical
disability, heightened intelligence, or mental or behavioural disability. The purpose of
an inclusive school is to make certain that each and every child feels accepted and is
given equal and fair opportunities to education and social interaction.
Multiple Intelligences
Students do not all learn and take in information effectively the same way; each
student views the world in their own specific way and learns in their own specific
Howard Gardner and his theory of multiple intelligences support that students learn in
different ways.
Gardner’s seven intelligences are:
 Linguistic (word smart) – think in words, use language to express meaning,
reading, writing, and listening
 Logical-Mathematical (math smart) –the use of logical structure, organization,
enjoy counting, computers, problem solving
 Visual-Spatial (picture smart) – create mental images, enjoy art, can easily read
maps and diagrams, use of all senses
 Musical (music smart) – able to recognize, remember, reproduce and reflect on
music, sensitive to rhythm and emotional power of music
 Bodily-Kinesthetic (body smart) – very responsive, great reflexes, learn best by
moving and touching, skilled with their hands
 Interpersonal (people smart) – understand and interact with others well, enjoy
group projects, communicate and negotiate well
 Intrapersonal (self smart) – understand oneself and one’s feelings and thoughts,
directing one’s own life
(Klassen, Elvin, 2005)
What does this mean for
Since every student learns differently, there are implications to education. Teachers need to
adapt to their students, examine their own learning methods which may be evident in their
teaching preferences, and be open to new educational techniques. Teachers must be able to
address the learning needs of all their students and to do this:
 Teachers should bring variety into their learning techniques so that each student has
their learning needs met, and also to develop students’ abilities in all intelligences
 Lessons and assignments should involve more than one intelligence so that students can
choose their better learning style
 Keep samples of work and observe students to see which intelligence best suits them
 Use different testing methods, as traditional tests may not accurately measure a
student’s true intelligence
(Klassen, Elvin, 2005)
Ability and Disability
As stated earlier, no two students are alike; whereas they vary in intelligences, they
also vary in ability. Some students will be able to play basketball during P.E., some
will not. Some students will be able to do complicated math equations at a remarkably
young age, some will not. Some may be able to sit still, pay attention well, and ask
appropriate questions, some will not. The fact of the matter is that some students do
have a disability, may that be physical, emotional, behavioral, mental, or learning.
However, these students should not be excluded from regular classrooms. To create an
inclusive school, all students must be included and feel accepted. Teachers have the
responsibility of creating a classroom in which students with and without disabilities
can learn and experience school together. It is the school’s responsibility to have in
place assistance and/or technology for students with disabilities, if they so wish to use
so, to be included in regular instruction.
There are many resources that a teacher can use for students with disabilities and for
students who excel past their grade level.
For students with disabilities:
 Special education classes are offered
 Teacher Assistants can be placed with a student for aid
 Resource Rooms can be used to take students aside for specialized one-on-one
instruction or help
 Assistive technologies can be set up so that a student with a disability can easier
interact with his/her peers
For students who excel past their grade level:
 The option to jump a grade ahead is available
 To be taught content from a grade level ahead while still in the same class as
his/her same age peers
 Summer classes
 After school programs
Saskatchewan Inclusive
Taken from the Saskatchewan Curriculum, the Ministry of Education (2011) places
importance on outcome-based education which is an advocate approach to inclusive
“In outcomes-based education, all outcomes are important. Outcomes are not adapted;
rather, teachers are responsible for adapting instructional materials, methods, and/ or
environment in order to assist all students in achieving the outcomes”(p.2).
“When teachers are planning for instruction, they must be aware of the set of
indicators to understand the breadth and depth of the outcome”(p.2).
“Teachers determine which indicators are most relevant at a particular time (e.g.,
developmental stage, time of year, relevant circumstance) by analyzing the needs and
interests of the student - what s/he already knows, understands, and is able to do”(p.2).
What does an inclusive
school look like?
According to Dr. Jacqueline Specht (2013) an inclusive school should have four main
 Supportive Environment – this refers to the physical structure of the building, that
it is accessible to all students. As well as the school’s policies, rules, and values
should be accepting of all students. This is also referring to the attitude and beliefs
of the staff and students of the school. Feelings of support and acceptance should
exist as well as realistic, but high expectations of students and staff. The school
culture should accept all student behavior, and should not judge or assume based on
students' abilities or disabilities.
 Positive Relationships – strategies should be used to promote inclusion and
acceptance. Teachers decide where students sit, and are role models to the entire
school. Teachers should promote positive social relations through their own
conduct and through encouraging social inclusion within their classroom.
 Feelings of Competence – students need to believe in themselves that they can
accomplish something, that they are competent at something. As the multiple
intelligences theory showed, there are many areas for students to explore their
competencies: social, athletic, musical, logical, creative, etc. By discovering and
understanding their areas of strength, students create stronger self-worth and selfesteem, building confidence.
 Opportunities to Participate – students require opportunities in which to understand
societal expectations. They can gain the necessary information needed to interact
within their classroom, home, and community. They can also build their own
confidence and gain understanding in their interrelations with others.
Klassen, Elvin. (2005). Using the Theory of Multiple Intelligences. Retrieved from
Specht, Dr. Jacqueline. (2013). Inclusion Defined. Retrieved from
The Ministry of Education. (2011). Frequently Asked Questions: Supporting
Curriculum Renewal. In Saskatchewan Curriculum: Education: The future
within us. Retrieved from