From Ted Lewellen,
Dependency and
Development: An
Introduction to the
Third World, 1995.
p. 5
From Ted Lewellen,
Dependency and
Development: An
Introduction to the
Third World, 1995.
p. 46
Salvatore J. Babones,
“Conducting Global
Social Research”, in
Global Social
Change: Historical
and Comparative
Perspectives , 2006
 Men make their own history, but they do not make it as they
please; they do not make it under self-selected
circumstances, but under circumstances existing already,
given and transmitted from the past. The tradition of all
dead generations weighs like a nightmare on the brains of
the living. (Marx, Eighteenth Brumaire of Louis Bonaparte
United States
New Economic Policy (NEP): Lenin
Socialism In One Country: Stalin
Underdevelopment is
not a condition
resulting from
‘traditional societies”
Instead: The
Development of
Underdevelopment is
functional for the
The system is a very
unequal one.
Not a Stageist Theory
Not state-based
Andre Gunder Frank
 There are underdeveloped countries, and they have
very, very poor prospects (perhaps no prospects) for
development within the global capitalist system.
 These limits on development possibilities are largely
the result of contact with the core countries.
 Core countries required the benefits they derived from
colonial extraction of resources in order to develop
themselves initially.
 Core countries continue to require the benefits they
derive from the continuing development of
underdevelopment in the 3rd world.
Moderate Dependency Theory
Radical Dependency Theory
Import Substitution Industrialization
Revolution, Decoupling from the
 “production for sale in a market in which the object is
to realize the maximum profit"
 "In such a system production is constantly expanded as
long as further production is profitable, and men
constantly innovate new ways of producing things that
will expand the profit margin“ (from Rise and Future
 “ceaseless accumulation of capital”
 Vs Traditional Marxist view: It ain’t capitalism if it is
not characterized by the separation of the workers
from the means of production.
 World Economy
 Economy of the world
 World-Economy
 Economy that is a world
 A world-empire is encompassed by a single political entity.
 A world-economy is composed of multiple political
 “Establish the rules of the game in the interstate
 “dominate the world economy in”
 Production
 Commerce
 Finance
 “Get their way politically with a minimal use of force”
 While having force in “goodly strength”
 “Formulate the cultural language with which one
discussed the world”
 1575 – 1590: Ascending hegemony
 1590 – 1620: Hegemonic victory
 1620 – 1650: Hegemonic maturity
 1650 – 1700: Hegemonic decline
 1798 - 1815: Ascending hegemony
 1815 -1850: Hegemonic victory
 1850 - 1873: Hegemonic maturity
 1873 - 1897: Hegemonic decline
 1897 – 1913/1920: Ascending hegemony A-phase
 1913/1920 – 1945: Hegemonic victory
 1945 – 1967: Hegemonic maturity
 1967 - ?: Hegemonic decline
 They [each of us] act freely, but their freedom is
constrained by their biographies and the social prisons
of which they are a part. Analyzing their prisons
liberates them to the maximum degree that they can
be liberated. To the extent that we each analyze our
social prisons, we liberate ourselves from their
constraints to the extent that we can be liberated."
 Cyclical Rhythms tend to return to equilibrium.
 East Asia would probably produce next hegemon later in
the 21st century. But . . . The CWE won’t last that long.
 Why?
 Secular Trends
 Personnel
 Inputs
 Taxation
 Secular Trends rise over time, approaching systemic
asymptote. As they do, cycles swing more wildly, system
cannot restore equilibrium.
 Deruralization of the world system;
 Global Proletarianization;
 Nowhere for capital to relocate
 Global end of a superexploitable work force
 Bioresource limitations
 Externalization of costs
 handling toxic waste,
 renewing raw materials, and
 building infrastructure.
 Transport
 Communication
 Antisystemic movements and political culture
 Democratic expectations of
 Education
 Health care
 Lifetime income (pensions, etc)
 Bifurcation:
 Two alternative paths
 “members of the system are called upon to make a
historical choice”
 Even capitalists are beginning to look for a new system:
capitalism is increasingly not profitable system-wide.
The manufactures of England have in some instances
superseded those of India. Of the trade which has
been attended with such a result, England at least has
no right to complain; and. though India may have
suffered thereby some temporary inconvenience, she
possesses in her internal resources the means of
recovering and of converting the trade with England
into a mine of wealth and prosperity. India can never
again be a great manufacturing country, but by
cultivating her connection with England she may
be one of the greatest agricultural countries in
the world. She may furnish the raw commodity,
which the local advantages of England enable that
nation more beneficially to work up. Here too,
England will gain a double advantage by securing in
India, at once a field for raising the raw material, and
a market' for the cosuniption of manufactured goods.
From A View of the present state of the question
as to Steam Communication with India (2nd ed)
Robert Melville GRINDLAY, 1837