Please check, just in case… APA Tip of the Day: Format of citation for quotes • You start AND end the quote with quotation marks. • You MUST include the authors’ last names, year of publication, and page number for all quotes – the author and year must go together, but the page number can be apart. • The page number must be in parentheses and either directly before or after the quote. Examples • According to Gomez (2010) “ blah, blah and more blah” (p. 27). • According to Gomez (2010, p. 27) “ blah, blah and more blah.” • Some argue that “blah, blah and more blah” (Gomez, 2010, p. 27). Announcements 1. Plagiarism certificate due – email me if you had trouble uploading your certificate. 2. Consider keeping a copy of your final essay with you as you do your readings reviews, so you can make those assignments most effective. 3. Make an appointment to meet with me with any questions you have about upcoming assignments or class topics/concepts. Quick questions or quandaries? Theoretical frameworks -overview Today’s Readings: Jones (1996) and Rosenblum & Travis (2006) February 4, 2016 Quick Small Group Activity: Take five minutes to brainstorm all of the movies you can think of that have a major character with a disability in it. Assign one group member to take notes and to send the list to Julia within the next day or two. Different Approaches to the Study of Social Construction of Disability: Disability studies Disability rights movement (minority group identity) Bilingual/multicultural special education (e.g. disproportionate representation) Intellectual and severe disabilities Ways to frame this topic: • Perspectives emic etic • Theories/models • Epistemologies • Paradigms Different Theoretical Perspectives • Medical Model • Functional Model • Social Model of Disability • Minority Model • Social Construction of Disability QUICK Small Group Activity: Look over the readings from this week and last week. Which ones (and on what pages) do you find reference to or definition of: • Medical model • Functional model • Social model • Minority model • Social construction of disability Epistemology: “The study of theories of knowledge or ways of knowing, particularly in the context of the limits or validity of the various ways of knowing.” http://www.pbs.org/faithandreason/gengloss/epist-body.html What is a Fact? “that which actually exists; reality; truth... something known to exist or to have happened... a truth known by actual experience or observation; that which is known to be true.” (Webster’s Encyclopedic Unabridged Dictionary, 1989, p. 509) Think, pair, share: • How do we really know when something is true? • What do we accept as evidence of “the truth”? • Are some ‘truths’ really ‘assumptions’? Essentialism vs. Constructivism Paradigm: “Paradigms represent a distillation of what we think about the world (but cannot prove). Our actions in the world… cannot occur without reference to those paradigms: ‘As we think, so do we act.’” Lincoln & Guba, 1985, p. 15 More to come on paradigms next week. Quick Write: Jones (1996) defined disability as "a socially constructed phenomenon that incorporates the experiences of those living with disabilities in interaction with their environments" (p. 348). What examples can you provide that might illustrate this contention? Jones (1996) defined disability as "a socially constructed phenomenon that incorporates the experiences of those living with disabilities in interaction with their environments" (p. 348). Social Constructionism: “What is assumed and understood to be objectively real by persons in the course of their activities is more accurately said to be constructed by those persons in their thoughts, words, and interactions.” (Danforth & Navarro, 1998, p. 31) Jones also argued that “to think of disability as a socially constructed phenomenon is to distinguish between the biological fact of disability and the handicapping social environment in which the person with disabilities exists… This biological fact cannot be meaningfully understood outside the contexts, relationships, institutions, or situations that define and shape the meaning of disability.” Master Status: “a label, that once attached to an individual, becomes the central focus of how others relate to that individual. It is a stigma that tells the world you do not measure up; your identity is spoiled (Goffman, 1963).” (Bogdan, 1980, p. 77) Defective Identities & Spoiled Identities: Stigma: “the situation of the individual who is disqualified from full social acceptance.” (Goffman, 1963, preface) Stigmas: • Physical • Individual Character • Tribal Read aloud from “Stigma” Whole Group Discussion: A flyer for Kaplan test preparation (posted on campus Spring 2001) stated: Darwin got you this far. We'll take it from here. Kaplan gets you in. Deconstruct the assumptions underlying this advertisement. How does it relate to this class? Julia’s underlying assumptions related to disability: • Disability is not directly caused by a condition that an individual has – disability is a social construction. • Disability is continually constructed and reconstructed (enacted) through interactions within and across contexts (e.g. family, community, cultural, political, social, institutional, and regional). Julia’s underlying assumptions, cont.: • These constructions differ according to a variety of interacting social conditions (e.g. race, class, gender, age). • Disability is a normal part of human life. • The way to ameliorate “disability” is through understanding and addressing the social conditions that limit an individual’s opportunities. Looking ahead… Topic: Theoretical frameworks – the sociology of disability Read: Bogdan & Knoll (1995) Note: This is an important reading and will be useful for your film essay and the final paper. Consider looking over those assignments before you begin reading Please take a minute for the minute paper. And don’t forget to turn your phone back on.