Please check, just in case…
APA Tip of the Day: Format of citation
for quotes
• You start AND end the quote with
quotation marks.
• You MUST include the authors’ last
names, year of publication, and page
number for all quotes – the author and
year must go together, but the page
number can be apart.
• The page number must be in
parentheses and either directly before
or after the quote.
• According to Gomez (2010) “ blah,
blah and more blah” (p. 27).
• According to Gomez (2010, p. 27) “
blah, blah and more blah.”
• Some argue that “blah, blah and more
blah” (Gomez, 2010, p. 27).
1. Plagiarism certificate due – email me if you
had trouble uploading your certificate.
2. Consider keeping a copy of your final
essay with you as you do your readings
reviews, so you can make those
assignments most effective.
3. Make an appointment to meet with me with
any questions you have about upcoming
assignments or class topics/concepts.
questions or
frameworks -overview
Today’s Readings: Jones (1996) and
Rosenblum & Travis (2006)
4, 2016
Quick Small Group Activity:
Take five minutes to brainstorm all
of the movies you can think of that
have a major character with a
disability in it. Assign one group
member to take notes and to send
the list to Julia within the next day
or two.
Different Approaches to the Study of
Social Construction of Disability:
 Disability studies
 Disability rights movement (minority
group identity)
 Bilingual/multicultural special
education (e.g. disproportionate
 Intellectual and severe disabilities
Ways to frame this topic:
• Perspectives
 emic
 etic
• Theories/models
• Epistemologies
• Paradigms
Different Theoretical
• Medical Model
• Functional Model
• Social Model of Disability
• Minority Model
• Social Construction of Disability
QUICK Small Group Activity:
Look over the readings from this week and
last week. Which ones (and on what
pages) do you find reference to or
definition of:
• Medical model
• Functional model
• Social model
• Minority model
• Social construction of disability
“The study of theories of knowledge
or ways of knowing, particularly in
the context of the limits or validity
of the various ways of knowing.”
What is a Fact?
“that which actually exists; reality;
truth... something known to exist or to
have happened... a truth known by
actual experience or observation; that
which is known to be true.”
(Webster’s Encyclopedic Unabridged
Dictionary, 1989, p. 509)
Think, pair, share:
• How do we really know when
something is true?
• What do we accept as
evidence of “the truth”?
• Are some ‘truths’ really
“Paradigms represent a
distillation of what we think about
the world (but cannot prove). Our
actions in the world… cannot
occur without reference to those
paradigms: ‘As we think, so do
we act.’”
Lincoln & Guba, 1985, p. 15
More to come on
paradigms next
Quick Write:
Jones (1996) defined disability as
"a socially constructed
phenomenon that incorporates the
experiences of those living with
disabilities in interaction with their
environments" (p. 348). What
examples can you provide that
might illustrate this contention?
Jones (1996) defined disability as
"a socially constructed
phenomenon that incorporates the
experiences of those living with
disabilities in interaction with their
environments" (p. 348).
Social Constructionism:
“What is assumed and understood
to be objectively real by persons in
the course of their activities is more
accurately said to be constructed
by those persons in their thoughts,
words, and interactions.”
(Danforth & Navarro, 1998, p. 31)
Jones also argued that “to think of disability
as a socially constructed phenomenon is to
distinguish between the biological fact of
disability and the handicapping social
environment in which the person with
disabilities exists… This biological fact
cannot be meaningfully understood outside
the contexts, relationships, institutions, or
situations that define and shape the meaning
of disability.”
Master Status:
“a label, that once attached to an
individual, becomes the central
focus of how others relate to that
individual. It is a stigma that tells
the world you do not measure
up; your identity is spoiled
(Goffman, 1963).”
(Bogdan, 1980, p. 77)
Defective Identities &
Spoiled Identities:
Stigma: “the situation of the
individual who is disqualified
from full social acceptance.”
(Goffman, 1963, preface)
• Physical
• Individual Character
• Tribal
Read aloud from “Stigma”
Whole Group Discussion:
A flyer for Kaplan test preparation (posted on
campus Spring 2001) stated:
Darwin got you this far.
We'll take it from here.
Kaplan gets you in.
Deconstruct the assumptions underlying this
advertisement. How does it relate to this
Julia’s underlying assumptions related to disability:
• Disability is not directly caused by a
condition that an individual has –
disability is a social construction.
• Disability is continually constructed and
reconstructed (enacted) through
interactions within and across contexts
(e.g. family, community, cultural,
political, social, institutional, and
Julia’s underlying assumptions, cont.:
• These constructions differ according to
a variety of interacting social conditions
(e.g. race, class, gender, age).
• Disability is a normal part of human life.
• The way to ameliorate “disability” is
through understanding and addressing
the social conditions that limit an
individual’s opportunities.
Looking ahead…
Topic: Theoretical frameworks –
the sociology of disability
Read: Bogdan & Knoll (1995)
Note: This is an important reading and will be useful for
your film essay and the final paper. Consider looking over
those assignments before you begin reading
Please take a
minute for the
minute paper.
And don’t forget to turn
your phone back on.