Some Highlights and Examples from SAB 101

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REVENUE RECOGNITION
Some Highlights and Examples
from SAB 101
Authoritative Literature
The accounting literature on revenue recognition includes both broad
conceptual discussions as well as certain industry-specific guidance.
Examples of existing literature on revenue recognition include: Financial
Accounting Standards Board (FASB) Statements of Financial Accounting
Standards (SFAS) No. 13, Accounting for Leases, No. 45, Accounting for
Franchise Fee Revenue, No. 48, Revenue Recognition When Right of
Return Exists, No. 49, Accounting for Product Financing Arrangements, No.
50, Financial Reporting in the Record and Music Industry, No. 51, Financial
Reporting by Cable Television Companies, and No. 66, Accounting for
Sales of Real Estate ; Accounting Principles Board (APB) Opinion No. 10,
Omnibus Opinion - 1966 ; Accounting Research Bulletin (ARB) Nos. 43
(Chapter 1a) and 45, Long-Term Construction-Type Contracts ; American
Institute of Certified Public Accountants (AICPA) Statements of Position
(SOP) No. 81-1, Accounting for Performance of Construction-Type and
Certain Production-Type Contracts, and No. 97-2, Software Revenue
Recognition ; Emerging Issues Task Force (EITF) Issue No. 88-18, Sales of
Future Revenues, No. 91-9, Revenue and Expense Recognition for Freight
Services in Process, No. 95-1, Revenue Recognition on Sales with a
Guaranteed Minimum Resale Value, and No. 95-4, Revenue Recognition on
Equipment Sold and Subsequently Repurchased Subject to an Operating
Lease ; and FASB Statement of Financial Accounting Concepts (SFAC) No.
5, Recognition and Measurement in Financial Statements of Business
Enterprises.
Criteria for Revenue Recognition
The staff believes that revenue generally is realized or
realizable and earned when all of the following criteria
are met:

Persuasive evidence of an arrangement exists,

Delivery has occurred or services have been
rendered,

The seller's price to the buyer is fixed or
determinable, and

Collectibility is reasonably assured.
If a transaction is within the scope of specific
authoritative literature that provides revenue
recognition guidance, that literature should be
applied.
However, in the absence of authoritative literature
addressing a specific arrangement or a specific
industry, the staff will consider the existing
authoritative accounting standards as well as the
broad revenue recognition criteria specified in the
FASB's conceptual framework that contain basic
guidelines for revenue recognition.
Persuasive Evidence of an Arrangement
Question 1: May Company A recognize the revenue in
the current fiscal quarter for the sale of the product to
Customer Beta when (1) the product is delivered by the
end of its current fiscal quarter and (2) the final written
sales agreement is executed by Customer Beta's
authorized representative within a few days after the
end of the current fiscal quarter?
Interpretive Response: No. Generally the staff believes that, in view of
Company A's business practice of requiring a written sales agreement
for this class of customer, persuasive evidence of an arrangement would
require a final agreement that has been executed by the properly
authorized personnel of the customer.
Customary business practices and processes for documenting sales
transactions vary among companies and industries. Business practices
and processes may also vary within individual companies (e.g., based on
the class of customer, nature of product or service, or other
distinguishable factors). If a company does not have a standard or
customary business practice of relying on written contracts to document
a sales arrangement, it usually would be expected to have other forms of
written or electronic evidence to document the transaction. For
example, a company may not use written contracts but instead may rely
on binding purchase orders from third parties or on-line authorizations
that include the terms of the sale and that are binding on the customer.
In that situation, that documentation could represent persuasive
evidence of an arrangement.
Persuasive Evidence of an Arrangement
Question 2: Company Z enters into an arrangement
with Customer A to deliver Company Z's products to
Customer A on a consignment basis. Pursuant to the
terms of the arrangement, Customer A is a consignee,
and title to the products does not pass from Company
Z to Customer A until Customer A consumes the
products in its operations. Company Z delivers
product to Customer A under the terms of their
arrangement.
May Company Z recognize revenue upon delivery of
its product to Customer A?
Interpretive Response: No. Products delivered to a
consignee pursuant to a consignment arrangement
are not sales and do not qualify for revenue
recognition until a sale occurs.
Other situations may exist where title to delivered
products passes to a buyer, but the substance of the
transaction is that of a consignment or a financing.
The staff believes that the presence of one or more of the
following characteristics in a transaction precludes revenue
recognition even if title to the product has passed to the buyer:
1.
The buyer has the right to return the product and:
a) the buyer does not pay the seller at the time of sale, and
the buyer is not obligated to pay the seller at a specified date or
dates.
b) the buyer does not pay the seller at the time of sale but
rather is obligated to pay at a specified date or dates, and the
buyer's obligation to pay is contractually or implicitly excused
until the buyer resells the product or subsequently consumes or
uses the product,
c) the buyer's obligation to the seller would be changed
(e.g., the seller would forgive the obligation or grant a refund) in
the event of theft or physical destruction or damage of the
product,
d) the buyer acquiring the product for resale does not have
economic substance apart from that provided by the seller, or
e) the seller has significant obligations for future
performance to directly bring about resale of the product by the
buyer.
2.
The seller is required to repurchase the product (or a substantially
identical product or processed goods of which the product is a component) at
specified prices that are not subject to change except for fluctuations due to
finance and holding costs, and the amounts to be paid by the seller will be
adjusted, as necessary, to cover substantially all fluctuations in costs incurred
by the buyer in purchasing and holding the product (including interest).
The staff believes that indicators of the latter condition include:
a) the seller provides interest-free or significantly below market financing
to the buyer beyond the seller's customary sales terms and until the products
are resold,
b) the seller pays interest costs on behalf of the buyer under a third-party
financing arrangement, or
c) the seller has a practice of refunding (or intends to refund) a portion of
the original sales price representative of interest expense for the period from
when the buyer paid the seller until the buyer resells the product.
3.
The transaction possesses the characteristics set forth in EITF Issue No.
95-1, Revenue Recognition on Sales with a Guaranteed Minimum Resale Value,
and does not qualify for sales-type lease accounting.
4.
The product is delivered for demonstration purposes.
Delivery and Performance
Questions 1 & 2: Company A receives purchase orders for
products it manufactures. At the end of its fiscal quarters,
customers may not yet be ready to take delivery of the products
for various reasons. These reasons may include, but are not
limited to, a lack of available space for inventory, having more
than sufficient inventory in their distribution channel, or delays
in customers' production schedules.
 May Company A recognize revenue for the sale of its
products once it has completed manufacturing if it
segregates the inventory of the products in its own
warehouse from its own products?
 May Company A recognize revenue for the sale if it ships
the products to a third-party warehouse but (1) Company A
retains title to the product and (2) payment by the customer
is dependent upon ultimate delivery to a customerspecified site?
Interpretative Response: Generally, no. The staff believes that
delivery generally is not considered to have occurred unless the
customer has taken title and assumed the risks and rewards of
ownership of the products specified in the customer's purchase
order or sales agreement. Typically this occurs when a product is
delivered to the customer's delivery site (if the terms of the sale
are "FOB destination") or when a product is shipped to the
customer (if the terms are "FOB shipping point").
The Commission has set forth criteria to be met in order to recognize
revenue when delivery has not occurred. These include:
 The risks of ownership must have passed to the buyer;
 The customer must have made a fixed commitment to purchase
the goods, preferably in written documentation;
 The buyer, not the seller, must request that the transaction be on
a bill and hold basis. The buyer must have a substantial business
purpose for ordering the goods on a bill and hold basis;
 There must be a fixed schedule for delivery of the goods. The
date for delivery must be reasonable and must be consistent with
the buyer's business purpose (e.g., storage periods are
customary in the industry);
 The seller must not have retained any specific performance
obligations such that the earning process is not complete;
 The ordered goods must have been segregated from the seller's
inventory and not be subject to being used to fill other orders;
and
 The equipment [product] must be complete and ready for
shipment.
Delivery and Performance
Delivery generally is not considered to have occurred unless the product
has been delivered to the customer's place of business or another site
specified by the customer. If the customer specifies an intermediate site but
a substantial portion of the sales price is not payable until delivery is made
to a final site, then revenue should not be recognized until final delivery has
occurred.
After delivery of a product or performance of a service, if uncertainty exists
about customer acceptance, revenue should not be recognized until
acceptance occurs. Customer acceptance provisions may be included in a
contract, among other reasons, to enforce a customer's rights to (1) test the
delivered product, (2) require the seller to perform additional services
subsequent to delivery of an initial product or performance of an initial
service (e.g., a seller is required to install or activate delivered equipment),
or (3) identify other work necessary to be done before accepting the
product. The staff presumes that such contractual customer acceptance
provisions are substantive, bargained-for terms of an arrangement.
Accordingly, when such contractual customer acceptance provisions exist,
the staff generally believes that the seller should not recognize revenue
until customer acceptance occurs or the acceptance provisions lapse.
Examples of Disclosures
Ultratech Stepper
The Company previously recognized revenue from the sales of its products
generally upon shipment, which usually preceded installation and final
customer acceptance, provided that final customer acceptance and collection
of the related receivable were probable.
Effective January 1, 2000, the Company changed its method of accounting for
product sales to recognize such revenues when the contractual obligation for
installation has been satisfied, or when installation is substantially complete,
and customer acceptance provisions have lapsed, provided collections of the
related receivable are probable.
The Company believes the change in accounting principle is preferable based
on guidance provided in SEC Staff Accounting Bulletin No.101 (SAB 101),
"Revenue Recognition in Financial Statements." The cumulative effect of the
change in accounting principle, $18,883,000 (or $.88 per share, basic and
diluted) was reported as a charge in the quarter ended March 31,2000 in the
accompanying statement of operations.
The cumulative effect of the change in accounting principle includes system
revenue, cost of sales and certain expenses, including warranty and
commission expenses, that will be recognized when both installation and
customer acceptance provisions are satisfied, subsequent to January 1, 2000.
10-Q
Metris Companies
In December 1999, the Securities and Exchange Commission released
Staff Accounting Bulletin No. 101 - Revenue Recognition in Financial
Statements.
This SAB formalized the accounting for services sold with a full refund,
requiring all companies to defer recognition of service revenues until the
cancellation period is complete. We adopted this practice for membership
programs in 1998,before the official guidance was released.
Due to the adoption of this SAB, we expect to record a cumulative effect
of exchange in accounting principle in the first quarter of 2000, with a net
after-tax impact of $3-4 million. This one-time, non-cash, adjustment is to
defer recognition of debt waiver revenue until the cancellation period is
complete, which is one month. Prior to this change, we recognized onehalf of the current period revenues in the month billed. 10-K
Delivery and Performance
Question 3: Company R is a retailer that offers "layaway" sales
to its customers. Company R retains the merchandise, sets it
aside in its inventory, and collects a cash deposit from the
customer. Although Company R may set a time period within
which the customer must finalize the purchase, Company R does
not require the customer to enter into an installment note or
other fixed payment commitment or agreement when the initial
deposit is received. The merchandise generally is not released to
the customer until the customer pays the full purchase price. In
the event that the customer fails to pay the remaining purchase
price, the customer forfeits its cash deposit. In the event the
merchandise is lost, damaged, or destroyed, Company R either
must refund the cash deposit to the customer or provide
replacement merchandise.
When may Company R recognize revenue for merchandise sold
under its layaway program?
Interpretive Response: Provided that the other criteria for
revenue recognition are met, the staff believes that Company R
should recognize revenue from sales made under its layaway
program upon delivery of the merchandise to the customer. This
is consistent with the Commission's criteria for bill-and-hold
transactions which states that "the customer must have made a
fixed commitment to purchase the goods."
Question 4: Registrants may negotiate arrangements pursuant to which they
may receive nonrefundable fees upon entering into arrangements or on certain
specified dates. In some circumstances, the right, product, or service conveyed
in conjunction with the nonrefundable fee has no utility to the purchaser separate
and independent of the registrant's performance of the other elements of the
arrangement. Therefore, in the absence of the registrant's continuing
involvement under the arrangement, the customer would not have paid the fee.
Examples of this type of arrangement include the following:



A registrant sells a lifetime membership in a health club. After paying a
nonrefundable "initiation fee," the customer is permitted to use the
health club indefinitely, so long as the customer also pays an additional
usage fee each month.
A registrant in the biotechnology industry agrees to provide research
and development activities for a customer for a specified term.
A registrant requires a customer to pay a nonrefundable "activation fee"
when entering into an arrangement to provide telecommunications
services.
When should the revenue relating to nonrefundable, up-front fees in these types
of arrangements be recognized?
Interpretive Response: The staff believes that registrants
should consider the specific facts and circumstances to
determine the appropriate accounting for nonrefundable, upfront fees. Unless the up-front fee is in exchange for products
delivered or services performed that represent the culmination
of a separate earnings process, the deferral of revenue is
appropriate.
Examples of Disclosures
Continental Airlines
The Company also sells mileage credits in the OnePass program to participating
partners, such as hotels, car rental agencies and credit card companies. During
1999, as a result of the recently issued Staff Accounting Bulletin No. 101 "Revenue Recognition in Financial Statements," the Company changed the
method it uses to account for the sale of these mileage credits. This change,
which totaled $27 million, net of tax, was applied retroactively to January 1, 1999.
Under the new accounting method, revenue from the sale of mileage credits is
deferred and recognized when transportation is provided.
Previously, the resulting revenue, net of the incremental cost of providing future
air travel, was recorded in the period in which the credits were sold. This change
reduced net income for the year ended December 31, 1999 by $21 million ($32
million pre-tax). The Company believes the new method is preferable as it results
in a better matching of revenues with the period in which services are provided.
10-K
Crosswalk Com
Recognizing that there is diversity of practice within the Internet industry in
recognizing revenue and associated cost on initial content integration and/or
development fees, the Securities and Exchange Commission released Staff
Accounting Bulletin No. 101 "Revenue Recognition in Financial Statements" in
December 1999 (SAB 101).
Prior to the issuance of SAB 101, the Company had been recording revenue for the
content integration or development fee portion of sponsorships of its Web site upon
completion of work scope related to the contract implementation.
Pursuant to SAB 101, effective January 1, 2000, the Company has elected to
change its revenue recognition on these content integration or development fees to
a more preferable method whereby revenue will be recognized ratably over the
term of the contract. The cumulative effect of this change is to increase the
accumulated deficit by approximately $1.4 million at January 1, 2000. Had the
change been made at January 1, 1999, revenues for the year ended December 31,
1999 would have been reduced by approximately $2.2 million and the net loss of
the Company for the year ended December 31, 1999 would have been increased
by $1.4 million or ($0.20) per share. 10-K
Fixed or Determinable Sales Price
A company's contracts may include customer cancellation or
termination clauses. Cancellation or termination provisions may be
indicative of a demonstration period or an otherwise incomplete
transaction. Examples of transactions that financial management and
auditors should be aware of and where such provisions may exist
include "side" agreements and significant transactions with unusual
terms and conditions. These contractual provisions raise questions as
to whether the sales price is fixed or determinable.
Question 1: Company M is a discount retailer. Company M is a
discount retailer. It generates revenue from annual membership fees
it charges customers to shop at its stores and from the sale of
products at a discount price to those customers. The membership
arrangements with retail customers require the customer to pay the
entire membership fee (e.g., $35) at the outset of the arrangement.
However, the customer has the unilateral right to cancel the
arrangement at any time during its term and receive a full refund of
the initial fee. Based on historical data collected over time for a large
number of homogeneous transactions, Company M estimates that
approximately 40% of the customers will request a refund before the
end of the membership contract term. Company M's data for the past
five years indicates that significant variations between actual and
estimated cancellations have not occurred, and Company M does not
expect significant variations to occur in the foreseeable future.
May Company M recognize in earnings the revenue for the
membership fees and accrue the costs to provide membership
services at the outset of the arrangement?
Interpretive Response: No. In the staff's view, it would be
inappropriate for Company M to recognize the membership fees as
earned revenue upon billing or receipt of the initial fee with a
corresponding accrual for estimated costs to provide the
membership services. This conclusion is based on Company M's
remaining and unfulfilled contractual obligation to perform services
(i.e., make available and offer products for sale at a discounted price)
throughout the membership period. Therefore, the earnings process,
irrespective of whether a cancellation clause exists, is not complete.
In addition, the ability of the member to receive a full refund of the
membership fee up to the last day of the membership term raises an
uncertainty as to whether the fee is fixed or determinable at any
point before the end of the term.
Fixed or Determinable Sales Price
Exception: The staff will not object to the recognition of refundable
membership fees, net of estimated refunds, as earned revenue over the
membership term in the limited circumstances where all of the following
criteria have been met:

The estimates of terminations or cancellations and refunded
revenues are being made for a large pool of homogeneous items
(e.g., membership or other service transactions with the same
characteristics such as terms, periods, class of customers, nature
of service, etc.).

Reliable estimates of the expected refunds can be made on a
timely basis.

There is a sufficient company-specific historical basis upon
which to estimate the refunds, and the company believes that
such historical experience is predictive of future events.

The amount of the membership fee specified in the agreement at
the outset of the arrangement is fixed, other than the customer's
right to request a refund.
Examples of Disclosures
Ankia Therapeutics
The Company has also adopted the provisions of SEC Staff Accounting
Bulletin 101 (SAB 101) in its 1999 operating results. The issuance of SAB
101 changes revenue recognition practices for non-refundable up-front
payments received as part of broad supply, distribution and marketing
agreements, including $2,500,000 and $1,500,000, respectively, received
from Zimmer in the fourth quarter of 1997 and the second quarter of 1998.
These amounts were previously recognized in the period received. In
accordance with SAB 101, the company has retroactively recorded the
cumulative effect of the change in accounting principle of $3,625,000 as a
charge in the first quarter of 1999. These payments will be recognized as
revenue ratably over the 10-year term of the distribution agreement.
The amount received and deferred to future periods is $3,125,000 at March
31, 2000 of which $2,725,000 is included in long-term deferred revenue. The
Company has recognized as revenue $100,000 of the payments in each of
the quarters ended March 31, 1999 and 2000. 10-Q
Fixed or Determinable Sales Price
Question 2: Company A owns and leases retail space to
retailers. Company A (lessor) renews a lease with a customer
(lessee) that is classified as an operating lease. The lease term
is one year and provides that the lease payments are $1.2
million, payable in equal monthly installments on the first day of
each month, plus one percent of the lessee's net sales in excess
of $25 million if the net sales exceed $25 million during the lease
term (i.e., contingent rental). The lessee has historically
experienced annual net sales in excess of $25 million in the
particular space being leased, and it is probable that the lessee
will generate in excess of $25 million net sales during the term
of the lease.
Should the lessor recognize any rental income attributable to the
one percent of the lessee's net sales exceeding $25 million
before the lessee actually achieves the $25 million net sales
threshold?
Interpretive Response: No. The staff believes that
contingent rental income "accrues" (i.e., it should be
recognized as revenue) when the changes in the
factor(s) on which the contingent lease payments is
(are) based actually occur.
Examples of Disclosures
Equity Inns
In December 1999, the Securities and Exchange Commission issued Staff
Accounting Bulletin No. 101, "Revenue Recognition in Financial Statements"
("SAB 101"). SAB 101 provides that a lessor shall defer recognition of
contingent rental income in interim periods until specified targets that
trigger the contingent income are met. The Company has reviewed the terms
of its percentage leases and has determined that the provisions of SAB 101
will significantly impact the Company's current revenue recognition on an
interim basis, but will have no impact on the Company's annual percentage
lease revenue, funds from operations or interim cash flow from its third
party Lessees. The Company has adopted the provisions of SAB 101 and
elected to implement these provisions as a change in accounting principle
effective January 1, 2000. For comparative purposes, the Company has
elected to illustrate the proforma effect of SAB 101 for the three-month
period ended March 31, 1999. The effect of the change on the three months
ended March 31, 2000 was to decrease lease revenues by $6,750,412 and,
therefore, net income applicable to common shareholders by $6,521,989
($.18 per share-basic and diluted) to a loss of $6,179,676 [$(.17) per sharebasic and diluted]. The proforma effect of the change on the three months
ended March 31, 1999 was to decrease lease revenues by $7,353,579 and,
therefore, net income applicable to common shareholders by $7,089,906
($.19 per share-basic and diluted] to a loss of $3,830,561 [$(.10) per sharebasic and diluted). 10-Q
Income Statement Presentation (Gross vs. Net)
Question 1: Customers place their orders for the product by making a
product selection directly from the internet site and providing a credit card
number for the payment. Company A receives the order and authorization
from the credit card company, and passes the order on to Company T.
Company T ships the product directly to the customer. Company A does
not take title to the product and has no risk of loss or other responsibility
for the product. Company T is responsible for all product returns, defects,
and disputed credit card charges. The product is typically sold for $175 of
which Company A receives $25. In the event a credit card transaction is
rejected, Company A loses its margin on the sale (i.e., the $25).
Should Company A report revenue on a gross basis as $175 along with
costs of sales of $150 or on a net basis as $25, similar to a commission?
Interpretive Response: Company A should report the revenue from the
product on a net basis. In assessing whether revenue should be reported
gross with separate display of cost of sales to arrive at gross profit or on a
net basis, the staff considers whether the registrant:




acts as principal in the transaction,
takes title to the products,
has risks and rewards of ownership, such as the risk of loss for
collection, delivery, or returns, and
acts as an agent or broker (including performing services, in
substance, as an agent or broker) with compensation on a
commission or fee basis.
If the company performs as an agent or broker without assuming the risks
and rewards of ownership of the goods, sales should be reported on a net
basis.
Examples of Disclosures
iEntertainment Network
iEntertainment Network recognizes Internet advertising revenue generated
through third party agency representation on a net basis, after deduction of
agency commission expense in accordance with Staff Accounting Bulletin No.
101, Revenue Recognition in Financial Statements in December 1999.The
recognition of revenue in this manner is consistent with the actual cash received.
This reporting approach, although it does reduce the Company's reported
revenues by the amount of the agency commission, has zero impact on cash or
earnings. In those instances where the Company's own internal sales personnel
sells advertising direct to the advertiser, there is no outside sales commission,
therefore revenues are recognized on a gross basis which is consistent with the
cash received.
10-K
In December 1999, the Securities and Exchange Commission released Staff
Accounting Bulletin ("SAB") No. 101, "Revenue Recognition in Financial
Statements", which provides guidance on the recognition, presentation, and
disclosure of revenue in financial statements. SAB No. 101 provides guidance on
a variety of revenue recognition issues, including gross versus net income
statement presentation. The Company's 1999 quarterly reporting on Form 10-QSB
reported advertising revenues gross with related fees reported as selling and
marketing expenses. Based on the criteria of SAB No. 101, the Company has
retroactively reclassified its 1999 quarterly reporting to present its advertising
revenues net of these sales and marketing expenses. The total amount
reclassified for the three months ended March 31, 1999 was $53,000. 10-Q
More Applications of Revenue Recognition
STARSTREAM INC.
Starstream Inc. produces motion pictures and distributes them
through theaters, television and home video media. The films
usually are sold (licensed) to theaters for a percentage of the
box office receipts or, in some markets, for a flat fee. Starstream
may receive a nonrefundable guarantee against a percentage of
the box office receipts. Guarantees in foreign markets are
essentially outright sales because there is a lack of control over
distribution.
 When should Starstream recognize its revenue?
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
At contract signing?
At showing in theaters?
Is it different for flat fees vs. % of ticket sales?
Is it different for guarantees vs. non-guarantees?
Is it different in US from foreign markets?
 How does Starstream allocate (amortize)
its film production costs?
Individual film forecast method:
Amortization in Yr. X = (Gross Revenue in Yr.
X / Anticipated Revenue Remaining) x
Unamortized Film Cost
 How does Starstream allocate (amortize)
its film production costs?
Individual film forecast method
Example #1:
Film cost: $10 million
Anticipated total gross revenues: $25 million
Actual gross revenues:
Yr. 1: $15 million
Yr. 2: $8 million
Yr. 3: $2 million
Film cost: $10 million
Anticipated total gross revenues: $25 million
Actual gross revenues:
Yr. 1: $15 million
Yr. 2: $8 million
Yr. 3: $2 million
Amortization:
Year 1: ($15 million/$25 million) x $10 million = $6
million
Year 2: ($8 million/$10 million) x $4 million = $3.2 million
Year 3: ($2 million/$2 million) x $0.8 million = $0.8
million
Total amortization (yrs. 1-3) = $10 million
Example #2:
Film cost: $10 million
Actual gross revenues:
 Yr. 1: $15 million
 Yr. 2: $8 million
 Yr. 3: $2 million
Anticipated total gross revenues:
At end of Year 1: $50 million
At end of Year 2: $43 million
At end of Year 3: $39 million
Film cost: $10 million
Actual gross revenues:
 Yr. 1: $15 million
 Yr. 2: $8 million
 Yr. 3: $2 million
Anticipated total gross revenues:
At end of Year 1: $50 million
At end of Year 2: $43 million
At end of Year 3: $39 million
Amortization:
Year 1: ($15 million/$50 million) x $10 million = $3
million
Year 2: ($8 million/$28 million) x $7 million = $2 million
Year 3: ($2 million/$16 million) x $5 million = $0.625
million
Total amortization (yrs. 1-3) = $5.625 million
Tradecity.com
Tradecity.com is an internet-based retailer (e-tailer) with a high volume,
low margin business strategy. Among its means of generating
revenues is to sell ads to other e-tailers. It advertises also, both
through traditional media, as well as key internet sites.
In recent months, Tradecity.com has been in a tight liquidity situation,
as have many others in the industry. Consequently, it has entered into
several agreements to swap ads and other products with its customers.
How should Tradecity.com
recognize revenues on these swaps?
1. Not at all.
2. It depends. On what?
Case 5-1 (pg. 268)
Requirement 1
A bill and hold strategy accelerates the recognition of revenue. In this case,
sales that would normally have occurred in 1998 were recorded in 1997.
Assuming a positive gross profit on these sales, earnings in 1997 is inflated.
Requirement 2
A customer would probably not be expected to pay for goods
purchased using this bill and hold strategy until the goods actually
were received.
Therefore, Receivables would increase.
Requirement 3
Sales that would normally have been recorded in 1998 were
recorded in 1997. This bill and hold strategy shifted sales revenue
and, therefore, earnings from 1998 to 1997.
Requirement 4
Earnings quality refers to the ability of reported earnings (income)
to predict a company’s future earnings. Sunbeam’s earnings
management strategy produced a 1997 earnings figure that was
not indicative of the company’s future profit-generating ability.
Case 5-8 (pg. 270)
[Excerpts from SFAS 46]
3. This Statement specifies criteria for recognizing revenue on a sale in which a
product may be returned, whether as a matter of contract or as a matter of
existing practice, either by the ultimate customer or by a party who resells the
product to others. The product may be returned for a refund of the purchase
price, for a credit applied to amounts owed or to be owed for other purchases,
or in exchange for other products. The purchase price or credit may include
amounts related to incidental services, such as installation.
STANDARDS OF FINANCIAL ACCOUNTING AND REPORTING
Factors that May Impair Reasonable Estimates of Returns
8. The ability to make a reasonable estimate of the amount of future returns
depends on many factors and circumstances that will vary from one case to the
next. However, the following factors may impair the ability to make a reasonable
estimate:
• The susceptibility of the product to significant external factors, such as
technological obsolescence or changes in demand;
• Relatively long periods in which a particular product may be returned;
• Absence of historical experience with similar types of sales of similar
products, or inability to apply such experience because of changing
circumstances, for example, changes in the selling enterprise's marketing
policies or relationships with its customers; and
• Absence of a large volume of relatively homogeneous transactions.
The existence of one or more of the above factors, in light of the significance of
other factors, may not be sufficient to prevent making a reasonable estimate;
likewise, other factors may preclude a reasonable estimate.
STANDARDS OF FINANCIAL ACCOUNTING AND REPORTING
Criteria for Recognizing Revenue When Right of Return Exists
6. If an enterprise sells its product but gives the buyer the right to return
the product, revenue from the sales transaction shall be recognized at time
of sale only if all of the following conditions are met:
• The seller's price to the buyer is substantially fixed or determinable at the
date of sale;
• The buyer has paid the seller, or the buyer is obligated to pay the seller
and the obligation is not contingent on resale of the product;
• The buyer's obligation to the seller would not be changed in the event of
theft or physical destruction or damage of the product;
• The buyer acquiring the product for resale has economic substance apart
from that provided by the seller;
• The seller does not have significant obligations for future performance to
directly bring about resale of the product by the buyer; and
• The amount of future returns can be reasonably estimated (paragraph 8).
Sales revenue and cost of sales that are not recognized at time of sale
because the foregoing conditions are not met shall be recognized either
when the return privilege has substantially expired or if those conditions
subsequently are met, whichever occurs first.
Hewlett Packard Company
Product is considered delivered, and revenue is
recognized when title and risk of loss have been
transferred to the customer. Under the terms and
conditions of the sale, this may occur either at the time of
shipment or when product is delivered to the customer.
Revenue is reduced for estimated customer returns, price
protection, rebates and other offerings that occur under
sales programs established by HP directly or with HP's
distributors and resellers.
Advanced Micro Devices, Inc.
The Company recognizes revenue from product sold direct to
customers when the contract is in place, the price is determined,
shipment is made and collectibility is reasonably assured.
The Company sells to distributors under terms allowing the
distributors certain rights of return and price protection on unsold
merchandise held by them. The distributor agreements, which may
be canceled by either party upon specified notice, generally
contain a provision for the return of the Company’s products in the
event the agreement with the distributor is terminated and the
distributor’s products have not been sold.
Accordingly, the Company defers the net gross margin, resulting
from the deferral of both revenue and related product costs from
sales to distributors with agreements that have the aforementioned
terms until the merchandise is resold by the distributors.
Why the difference?
Reasons for the difference in policies could relate to the types of
products sold by the two companies, the distribution channels, and
the actual agreements with customers.
1. AMD sells semiconductors, a highly volatile industry. It may be more
difficult for AMD to see through the distribution channels to
reasonably estimate returns.
2. The agreements with distributors of AMD’s products may be more
liberal than those of HP with respect to things like price protection
and returns. For example, AMD might offer a longer time period for
customers to return product than does HP.
3. AMD’s sales to distributors might be contingent on resale of the
product to end users, one of the six criteria that must be met before
revenue can be recognized when the right of return exists.
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