Lecture 7

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AENG 223
Professional Ethics and Conduct
Lecture 7
Case Studies
Slide 1
C.Markides
AENG 223: Professional Ethics & Conduct
16/03/2016
Overview
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Cyberstalking
Ethics and Copyrights
Profiling and Data Mining
Case studies
Slide 2
C.Markides
AENG 223: Professional Ethics & Conduct
16/03/2016
Cyberstalking
• “Killer Keeps Web Pages on Victim, Stalks Her
Through Internet”
• Stories of criminal intimidation, harassment, fear,
and suggestive violence where individuals use the
Internet as a tool to stalk another person.
• The term cyberstalking has emerged to describe
the use of such technology to harass or stalk.
• Cyberstalking is defined as the repeated use of the
Internet, e-mail, or related digital electronic
communication devices to annoy, alarm, or
threaten a specific individual or group of
individuals.
Slide 3
C.Markides
AENG 223: Professional Ethics & Conduct
16/03/2016
Computer Crime
• The Internet has made a relevant difference
because of the way stalking activities can
now be carried out.
• Internet stalkers can operate anonymously
or pseudononymously while online.
• A cyberstalker can stalk one or more
individuals from the comfort of his/her
living room.
Slide 4
C.Markides
AENG 223: Professional Ethics & Conduct
16/03/2016
Case Study
• Amy Boyer, a twenty-year-old resident of Nashua,
NH, was murdered by a young man who had
stalked her via the Internet. provided by Internet
• Youens gathered information about Boyer that was
readily accessible from databases available to
online search requests.
• Through Internet Service Providers (ISPs), two
Web sites were constructed. On one site, he posted
personal information about Boyer, including her
picture, and on another the other site he described,
in explicit detail, his plans to murder Boyer.
Slide 5
C.Markides
AENG 223: Professional Ethics & Conduct
16/03/2016
Sexual harassment via email
Slide 6
C.Markides
AENG 223: Professional Ethics & Conduct
16/03/2016
Sexual Harassment
• The combination of email, an increasingly
common form of corporate communication,
and sexual harassment lawsuits in the U.S.,
a negative by product of corporate
communication, represents a new source of
legal and financial risk for employees and
employers alike.
Slide 7
C.Markides
AENG 223: Professional Ethics & Conduct
16/03/2016
Definition of Sexual Harassment
• Harassment on the basis of sex is a violation of the law.
Unwelcome sexual advances, requests for sexual favours
and other verbal or physical conduct of a sexual nature
constitute sexual harassment when:
• “Submission to such conduct is made either explicitly or
implicitly a term or condition of an individual’s
employment;
• “Submission to or rejection of such conduct by an
individual is used as the basis for employment decisions
affecting such individual; or
• “Such conduct has the purpose or effect of unreasonably
interfering with an individual’s work performance or
creating an intimidating, hostile or offensive working
environment.
Slide 8
C.Markides
AENG 223: Professional Ethics & Conduct
16/03/2016
Sexual Harassment via Email
Slide 9
C.Markides
AENG 223: Professional Ethics & Conduct
16/03/2016
Sexual Harassment via Email
Slide 10
C.Markides
AENG 223: Professional Ethics & Conduct
16/03/2016
Sexual Harassment via Email
• Deleted email is still regarded as evidence in
court, as it leaves an electronic signature of proof
of authenticity.
Slide 11
C.Markides
AENG 223: Professional Ethics & Conduct
16/03/2016
Case Study
• Deleted email messages and those subsequently
overwritten may still provide evidence in lawsuits, if they
can be expertly recovered. In one sexual harassment case, a
female employee’s boss contended her firing was due to
financial considerations. John H. Jessen, managing director
of Electronic Evidence Discovery, Inc., in Seattle,
recovered an email message that had been deleted by its
sender and then overwritten. The company’s president had
written to her direct manager, the head of human resources,
‘I want you to get that tight-[expletive deleted] out of here.
I don’t care what you have to do.’ The company agreed to
settle for $250,000. Without expert recovery of the deleted
and overwritten message, it would have been simply her
word against his word.
Slide 12
C.Markides
AENG 223: Professional Ethics & Conduct
16/03/2016
Conclusions
• In the cases of sexual harassment via
employee email described here, the
companies’ own internal records provided
some of the legal evidence used against
specific employees and the company itself
in court.
• Indicative of the seriousness of such email
abuse is the increasing number of lawsuits
dealing with email in workplace sexual
harassment.
Slide 13
C.Markides
AENG 223: Professional Ethics & Conduct
16/03/2016
Conclusions
• As technology, such as Internet access,
becomes increasingly sophisticated,
opening the door to a vast array of sexually
explicit digitized content on the World Wide
Web and bulletin boards, email is likely to
become more sexually explicit. Indeed,
email-related litigation, including abuses,
such as sexual harassment, is one of the
fastest growing areas in employment related
civil litigation in the U.S.
Slide 14
C.Markides
AENG 223: Professional Ethics & Conduct
16/03/2016
From Intel to AMD for $1 bn.
• The Indictment further alleges that unbeknownst to
Intel, PANI had been offered a job at Advanced Micro
Devices, Inc. (“AMD”), a major competitor of Intel, in
late March 2008, and had begun employment at AMD
on June 2, 2008. Also unbeknownst to Intel at the time,
PANI had started downloading Intel’s trade secrets and
confidential and proprietary information while he was
on his “vacation” from Intel, still on Intel’s payroll, but
after he had started working for AMD. From June 8
through June 11, 2008, PANI remotely accessed Intel’s
computer system numerous times and downloaded 13
“top secret” (according to Intel’s classification system)
Intel documents, along with other confidential and
proprietary information. PANI accessed and downloaded
a document explaining how the encrypted documents
could be reviewed when not connected to Intel’s
computer system.
Slide 15
C.Markides
AENG 223: Professional Ethics & Conduct
16/03/2016
Copyright Act
• To reproduce the work in copies or phonorecords;
• To prepare derivative works based upon the work;
• To distribute copies or phonorecords of the work to the public
by sale or other transfer of ownership, or by rental, lease, or
lending;
• To perform the work publicly, in the case of literary, musical,
dramatic, and
• choreographic works, pantomimes, and motion pictures and
other audiovisual works;
• To display the work publicly, in the case of literary, musical,
dramatic, and choreographic works, pantomimes, and pictorial,
graphic, or sculptural works, including the individual images of
a motion picture or other audiovisual work; and
• In the case of sound recordings, to perform the work publicly by
means of a digital audio transmission.
Slide 16
C.Markides
AENG 223: Professional Ethics & Conduct
16/03/2016
Digital Copyright
• If the work is in a CD-ROM format, the
deposit requirement is one complete copy of
the material, that is, the CD-ROM, the
operating software, and any manual(s)
accompanying it. If registration is sought
for the computer program on the CD-ROM,
the deposit should also include a printout of
the first 25 and last 25 pages of source code
for the program.
Slide 17
C.Markides
AENG 223: Professional Ethics & Conduct
16/03/2016
Digital Rights Management
• Digital Rights Management technologies in the field of
copyright protection should meet four objectives:
– give consumers new freedom to enjoy music and other forms of
content;
– give copyright owners and other value chain participants the means
to manage and protect their rights in published works;
– implement elements of law, such as copyright exceptions, that
ensure that rights are managed in accordance with the public
interest;
– provide users with the means to manage their legitimate personal
rights and
• This technology can ensure the neutrality, security,
commercial reliability, and trusted interoperability of
applications and services used to protect and manage rights
in all forms of information, including creative works
protected by copyright.
Slide 18
C.Markides
AENG 223: Professional Ethics & Conduct
16/03/2016
The Dawn of MP3s
• Traditional standards allow music to be sampled at 44,100
times per second (in stereo-2 channels) with each sample
having 16 bits.
• In comparison, MP3 uses music compression algorithms
like advanced audio coding to replicate original music at a
bit rate of 128Kps.
• This represents a compression ratio of 11:1. Although MP3
has a much lower bit rate than traditional standards, music
quality does not suffer because human ears cannot discern
the difference for bit rates beyond 128Kps.
• But with this compression ratio, a CD that has 12 songs
encoded in traditional standards can contain more than 130
songs encoded in MP3.
Slide 19
C.Markides
AENG 223: Professional Ethics & Conduct
16/03/2016
More MP3s
• Increasing availability of broadband access
and reducing costs of hard disks allow
downloading and storing of songs in MP3
economically attractive.
• Because it is operable across many
technology platforms and has no security or
copyright features, MP3 is immensely
popular.
Slide 20
C.Markides
AENG 223: Professional Ethics & Conduct
16/03/2016
MP3s and Copyrights
• MP3s began with a huge underground movement
of college students on the Internet who converted
songs from their CDs into MP3 files, and
circulated the files over the Net, allowing people
worldwide to download these files and play
original music on PCs using free software.
• This MP3 movement sparked worry in the music
industry, where key players (the retailers, record
labels, and artists) were concerned about losing
money.
Slide 21
C.Markides
AENG 223: Professional Ethics & Conduct
16/03/2016
Napster and RIAA
• Recording Industry Association of America (RIAA).
• To date, RIAA has brought lawsuits upon Napster,
MP3.com, Aimster, and others in its bid to control piracy.
• RIAA argued that Napster facilitated music piracy on a
large scale with its 80 million registered users trading
millions of songs daily.
• Copyright disclaimers on Napster’s Web site were not
adequate; copyright laws state that a person is liable for
copyright infringement when he or she materially
contributes (either directly or indirectly) to that activity
with the knowledge of its implications.
Slide 22
C.Markides
AENG 223: Professional Ethics & Conduct
16/03/2016
The Dawn of Amazon and iTunes
• Download MP3s to specific devices with
DRM (in this case a watermark on MP3
song).
• The DRM watermark will not allow the
MP3 to copied and duplicated and played
on other devices (iPod, iPhone, etc).
• Download MP3s at the prices of €0.99 per
song.
Slide 23
C.Markides
AENG 223: Professional Ethics & Conduct
16/03/2016
Conclusions
• Lawsuits filed against Internet companies serves
to underscore the impact the Net has on the music
industry.
• However, lawsuits are not the best approach for
record labels to deal with emerging technologies.
• The Internet is bringing new key players and
business models into the music industry.
• Technological advancements and emergence of
industry standards is accelerating such changes.
Slide 24
C.Markides
AENG 223: Professional Ethics & Conduct
16/03/2016
Conclusions
• Consumers will be the biggest winners amidst
• intense competition.
• All other key players in the music industry must
concentrate on their core competencies and reexamine their value propositions so as to remain
truly valuable and relevant to consumers.
• What remains to be seen is whether brick-andmortar retailers or online retailers, such as
Amazon or iTunes (if any) will prevail.
Slide 25
C.Markides
AENG 223: Professional Ethics & Conduct
16/03/2016
What is Data Mining?
• Generally, data mining (sometimes called data or
knowledge discovery) is the process of analyzing data
from different perspectives and summarizing it into useful
information - information that can be used to increase
revenue, cuts costs, or both.
• Data mining software is one of a number of analytical tools
for analyzing data.
• It allows users to analyze data from many different
dimensions or angles, categorize it, and summarize the
relationships identified.
• Technically, data mining is the process of finding
correlations or patterns among dozens of fields in large
relational databases.
Slide 26
C.Markides
AENG 223: Professional Ethics & Conduct
16/03/2016
What can Data Mining do?
• Data mining is primarily used today by companies
with a strong consumer focus.
• Blockbuster Entertainment mines its video rental
history database to recommend rentals to
individual customers.
• American Express can suggest products to its
cardholders based on analysis of their monthly
expenditures.
• The National Basketball Association (NBA) is
exploring a data mining application that can be
used in conjunction with image recordings of
basketball games.
Slide 27
C.Markides
AENG 223: Professional Ethics & Conduct
16/03/2016
Data Mining TV Viewers
• The Advertising Delivery System (ADS) – to
identify the demographic and psychographic
(behavioral) characteristics of viewers based on
their viewing patterns.
• Viewing patterns include types of shows viewed,
the frequency each show is viewed, the time each
show is viewed, and the duration of each viewing.
• The related data mining techniques use these
components to identify subsets of viewers rich in
the target groups of interest to TV advertisers and
networks.
Slide 28
C.Markides
AENG 223: Professional Ethics & Conduct
16/03/2016
Data Mining Issues
• One of the key issues raised by data mining
technology is not a business or technological one,
but a social one.
• It is the issue of individual privacy.
• Data mining makes it possible to analyze routine
business transactions and glean a significant
amount of information about individuals buying
habits and preferences.
• Another issue is that of data integrity. Clearly, data
analysis can only be as good as the data that is
being analyzed.
Slide 29
C.Markides
AENG 223: Professional Ethics & Conduct
16/03/2016
Data Mining Issues
• As computer technologies make consumer
behavioural data increasingly accessible.
• It also becomes increasingly important to address
the analytical, business, social/privacy, legal, and
ethical considerations in data mining for consumer
marketing.
• Purchasing data can be used to construct
demographic profiles of consumers, enabling
retailers to target their marketing efforts and
advertising to individual consumers.
Slide 30
C.Markides
AENG 223: Professional Ethics & Conduct
16/03/2016
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