Lectures 2 and 3 (PowerPoint format)

```Lecture 2-3: Digital Circuits &amp; Components
(1) Logic Gates
(2) Boolean Algebra
(6) Registers
Shift Register
Counter
(3) Logic Simplification
(4) Combinatorial Circuits
Decoder
Encoder
Multiplexers
(5) Flip-Flops
SR Flip-Flop
JK Flip-Flop
D Flip-Flop
T Flip-Flop
(7) Sequential Circuits
Input Equations
State Tables
(8) Memory
Random-Access
Logic Gates
Transmission Gates &amp; Switches
Gate Implementations Using Switches
Logic Gates
Gate-Level Components
Gate-Level Components
Name
Symbol
VHDL Equation
Truth Table
AND
A
B
X
X &lt;= A and B
A
0
0
1
1
B
0
1
0
1
X
0
0
0
1
OR
A
B
X
X &lt;= A or B
A
0
0
1
1
B
0
1
0
1
X
0
1
1
1
NOT
A
X
X &lt;= not A
A X
0 1
1 0
Composite Gates
Name
Symbol
VHDL Equation
Truth Table
NAND
A
B
X
X &lt;= not (A and B)
A
0
0
1
1
B
0
1
0
1
X
1
1
1
0
NOR
A
B
X
X &lt;= not (A or B)
A
0
0
1
1
B
0
1
0
1
X
1
0
0
0
X &lt;= A xor B
A
0
0
1
1
B
0
1
0
1
X
0
1
1
0
XOR
A
B
X
Boolean Algebra
Functional Operators
Axiomatic Definitions
Other Identities
Logic Simplification
Two basic methods:
Boolean Algebra
Complicated
Accident Prone
Only way when the number of variables &gt; 5
Karnaugh Map
Graphical - Pictorial
Simple when the number of variables &lt;= 5
Map Simplification
B
A
0
0 (A,B)
=0
1 (A,B)
=2
1
(A,B)
=1
(A,B)
=3
BC
A
00
0 (A,B,C)
=0
1 (A,B,C)
=4
01
11
(A,B,C)
=1
(A,B,C)
=5
CD
00
AB
00 (A,B,C,D)
=0
01 (A,B,C,D)
=4
(A,B,C,D)
11 = 12
(A,B,C,D)
10 = 8
10
(A,B,C)
=3
(A,B,C)
=7
01
(A,B,C,D)
=1
(A,B,C,D)
=5
(A,B,C,D)
= 13
(A,B,C,D)
=9
(A,B,C)
=2
(A,B,C)
=6
11
(A,B,C,D)
=3
(A,B,C,D)
=7
(A,B,C,D)
= 15
(A,B,C,D)
= 11
10
(A,B,C,D)
=2
(A,B,C,D)
=6
(A,B,C,D)
= 14
(A,B,C,D)
= 10
Map Simplification Example
A
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
B
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
C
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
D
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
X
0
1
1
1
0
0
1
1
0
1
1
1
1
0
0
1
=&gt; X = sum(1,2,3,6,7,9,10,11,12,15)
CD
00
AB
00
01
11
10
01
11
10
Circuit Types
Function table:
A
0
0
1
1
B
0
1
0
1
Sum
0
1
1
0
Logic diagram:
A
B
Carry-out
0
0
0
1
VHDL Code:
Sum
Carry-out
begin
Sum &lt;= A xor B;
Carry_out &lt;= A and B;
Function table:
Carry-in
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
A
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
B
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
Sum
0
1
1
0
1
0
0
1
Carry-out
0
0
0
1
0
1
1
1
Logic diagram:
A
B
CI
Sum
Carry-out
VHDL Code:
begin
Sum &lt;= A xor B xor Carry-in;
Carry_out &lt;= (A and B) or ((A xor B) and Carry_in);
Combinatorial Circuit Example- Decoder
n inputs and 2n outputs
Function table:
I2
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
I1
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
I0
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
Y7
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
Y6
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
Y5
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
Y4
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
Y3
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
Y2
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
Y1
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
Y0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Combinatorial Circuit Example- Decoder
VHDL Code:
DECODER : process ( I(2 downto 0) )
begin
Y(7 downto 0) &lt;= others =&gt; ‘0’;
case ( I(2 downto 0) ) is
when “000” =&gt; Y(0) &lt;= ‘1’;
when “001” =&gt; Y(1) &lt;= ‘1’;
when “010” =&gt; Y(2) &lt;= ‘1’;
when “011” =&gt; Y(3) &lt;= ‘1’;
when “100” =&gt; Y(4) &lt;= ‘1’;
when “101” =&gt; Y(5) &lt;= ‘1’;
when “110” =&gt; Y(6) &lt;= ‘1’;
when “111” =&gt; Y(7) &lt;= ‘1’;
end case;
end process DECODER;
Combinatorial Circuit Example- Encoder
Combinatorial Circuit Example- Encoder
VHDL Code:
ENCODER : process ( I(7 downto 0) )
begin
case ( I(7 downto 0) ) is
when “00000001” =&gt; Y &lt;= “000”;
when “00000010” =&gt; Y &lt;= “001”;
when “00000100” =&gt; Y &lt;= “010”;
when “00001000” =&gt; Y &lt;= “011”;
when “00010000” =&gt; Y &lt;= “100”;
when “00100000” =&gt; Y &lt;= “101”;
when “01000000” =&gt; Y &lt;= “110”;
when “10000000” =&gt; Y &lt;= “111”;
end case;
end process ENCODER;
Combinatorial Circuit Example- Multiplexer
Combinatorial Circuit Example- Multiplexer
VHDL Code:
MULTIPLEXER : process ( S(1 downto 0) )
begin
case ( S(2 downto 0) ) is
when “00” =&gt; Y &lt;= I(0);
when “01” =&gt; Y &lt;= I(1);
when “10” =&gt; Y &lt;= I(2);
when “11” =&gt; Y &lt;= I(3);
end case;
end process MULTIPLEXER;
Flip-Flops
Flip-flops are the most basic of sequential (clocked) circuits
Inputs are only considered valid during a clock edge transition
==&gt; Inputs must be held stable during the transition
(called setup and hold interval)
Outputs only change after a clock edge transition
==&gt; Outputs change after an interval called the
clock-to-output time
Flip-Flop Types - SR
SR flip-flops have two inputs, set and reset, that act as follows:
Truth Table (set dominant):
S
R
C
x
x
0
x
x
1
1
x
0
1
Q
Q_last
Q_last
1
0
Truth Table (reset dominant):
S
R
C
x
x
0
x
x
1
1
0
x
1
Q
Q_last
Q_last
1
0
Flip-Flop Types - SR
Symbolic representation:
S
R
C
Q
VHDL code (set dominant):
SR_FF : process (C)
begin
if (C’event and (C = ‘1’)) then
if (S = ‘1’) then
Q &lt;= ‘1’;
elsif (R = ‘1’) then
Q &lt;= ‘0’;
else
Q &lt;= Q_last;
end if;
end if;
end process SR_FF;
Q_last &lt;= Q;
Flip-Flop Types - JK
JK flip-flops have two inputs, that act as follows:
Truth Table:
J
x
x
0
0
1
1
K
x
x
0
1
0
1
C
0
1
Q
Q_last
Q_last
Q_last
0
1
/Q_last
Flip-Flop Types - JK
Symbolic representation:
J
K
C
Q
VHDL code:
JK_FF : process (C)
begin
if (C’event and (C = ‘1’)) then
if ((J = ‘0’) and (K = ‘0’)) then
Q &lt;= Q_last;
elsif ((J = ‘1’) and (K = ‘0’)) then
Q &lt;= ‘1’;
elsif ((J = ‘0’) and (K = ‘1’)) then
Q &lt;= ‘0’;
else
Q &lt;= not Q_last;
end if;
end if;
end process JK_FF;
Q_last &lt;= Q;
Flip-Flop Types - D
D flip-flops have one input, data, that act as follows:
Truth Table:
D
x
x
0
1
C
0
1
Q
Q_last
Q_last
0
1
Flip-Flop Types - D
Symbolic representation:
D
C
Q
VHDL code:
D_FF : process (C)
begin
if (C’event and (C = ‘1’)) then
Q &lt;= D;
end if;
end process D_FF;
Flip-Flop Types - T
T flip-flops have one input, toggle, that act as follows:
Truth Table:
T
x
x
0
1
C
0
1
Q
Q_last
Q_last
Q_last
/ Q_last
Flip-Flop Types - T
Symbolic representation:
T
C
Q
VHDL code:
T_FF : process (C)
begin
if (C’event and (C = ‘1’)) then
if (T = ‘1’) then
Q &lt;= not Q_last;
else
Q &lt;= Q_last;
end if;
end process T_FF;
Q_last &lt;= Q;
Registers
Groups of D-type flip-flops, with each FF holding 1 bit of information
==&gt; A 32-bit register would require 32 FF’s to implement
In parallel -- all bits at once
In serial -- one bit at a time, from either end
Registers are used to:
Temporarily store information for arithmetic operations
Implement control functions -- sets, resets, enables, etc.
Report status -- overflows, error conditions, etc.
Implement interrupts
Symbolic representation:
D(n-1..0)
Q(n-1..0)
C
Truth table:
x
x
0
1
C
0
1
Q
Q_last
Q_last
Q_last
D
VHDL code:
REGISTER : process (C)
begin
if (C’event and (C = ‘1’)) then
Q &lt;= D;
else
Q &lt;= Q_last;
end if;
end process REGISTER;
Q_last &lt;= Q;
Symbolic representation:
D
Q(n-1..0)
SHIFT
C
Truth table:
SHIFT
x
x
0
1
C
0
1
Q(0)
Q_last(0)
Q_last(0)
Q_last(0)
D
Q(n-1..1)
Q_last(n-1..1)
Q_last(n-1..1)
Q_last(n-1..1)
Q_last(n-2..0)
VHDL code (8-bit register, for example):
REGISTER : process (C)
begin
if (C’event and (C = ‘1’)) then
if (SHIFT = ‘1’) then
Q (7 downto 1) &lt;= Q_last (6 downto 0);
Q (0) &lt;= D;
else
Q &lt;= Q_last;
end if;
end process REGISTER;
Q_last &lt;= Q;
Counters
A counter is a register capable of incrementing or decrementing
its contents
Q &lt;= Q plus n
Q &lt;= Q minus n
The definition of &quot;plus&quot; and &quot;minus&quot; depend on the way the
register contents encode the integers
Binary Counters: Encode the integers with the binary number
code
Counters - Example: 3-bit Binary Up Counter
Truth Table:
CNT
C
x
0
x
1
0
1
1
1
1
State Diagram:
Symbolic Representation
Q_last
xxx
xxx
xxx
000
...
110
111
Q
Q_last
Q_last
Q_last
Q_last+1
Q_last+1
Q_last+1
000
CNT
CNT
001
010
000
CNT
011
CNT
CNT
111
CNT
100
110
101
CNT
CNT
Q(2..0)
CNT
C
Counters - Example: 3-bit Binary Up Counter
Truth Table:
CNT
C
x
0
x
1
0
1
1
1
1
State Diagram:
Q_last
xxx
xxx
xxx
000
...
110
111
Q
Q_last
Q_last
Q_last
Q_last+1
Q_last+1
Q_last+1
000
CNT
CNT
001
010
000
CNT
011
CNT
CNT
111
CNT
100
110
101
CNT
CNT
Counter Design:
Bit Q(0) Toggles on every
CNT = 1
Bit Q(1) Toggles on every
CNT = 1 and
Q(0) = 1
Bit Q(2) Toggles on every
CNT = 1 and
Q(0) = 1
Q(1) = 1
Counters - Example: 3-bit Binary Up Counter
Logic Diagram (one design):
CNT
T
T
T
Q
Q
Q
C
This is called series
(or ripple) carry logic
Q(0)
Logic Diagram (another design):
CNT
T
Q
Q(1)
T
Q
Q(2)
T
Q
C
This is called parallel
Q(0)
Q(1)
Q(2)
Counters - Example: 3-bit Binary Up Counter
VHDL Code:
COUNTER : process (C)
begin
if (C’event = (C = ‘1’)) then
if (CNT = ‘1’) then
if (Q_last = “111”) then
Q &lt;= “000”;
else
Q &lt;= Q_last + ‘1’;
end if;
end if;
end if;
end process COUNTER;
Q_last &lt;= Q;
Does this make ripple or
Sequential Circuits
A sequential circuit which satisfies the following conditions:
There is at least one flip-flop in every loop
All flip-flops have the same type of dynamic clock
All clock inputs of all the flip-flops are driven by the
same clock signal.
Is called a synchronous sequential circuit
Sequential Circuits
Any synchronous sequential circuit can be drawn in Canonical
form by pulling the flip-flops to the bottom of the figure (think of the
lines as elastic).
Since all loops have a flip-flop in them, this will leave the remaining
circuit without loops, and hence combinational.
Outputs
Combinatorial
Logic
Inputs
C
Combinatorial
Logic
D
Q
State
This is called a
Moore state
machine outputs depend
only on current
state
Sequential Circuits
Another way to design a state machine is a follows:
Outputs
Combinatorial
Logic
Inputs
C
Combinatorial
Logic
D
Q
State
This is called a
Mealy state
machine outputs depend
on current state
and inputs
Sequential Circuit Descriptions
Structural
Logic diagram
Excitation Equations
Logical equations for the flip-flop inputs as a function
of current flip-flop states and circuit input signals
Output equations
Logical equations for circuit outputs as a function of
current flip-flop states and circuit inputs signals
Sequential Circuit Descriptions
Behavioral
Transition and output equations
Logical equations for next flip-flop states and circuit
outputs in terms of current flip-flop states and circuit
input signals
Transition table
Two-dimensional truth table of transition and output
equations
State table
Transition table with the states given descriptive names
State diagram (graph)
A graph with nodes corresponding to states and
directed edges corresponding to state transistions
Sequential Circuit Description- Example
Problem:
Build a 2-bit binary up/down counter, with the following I/O:
UP
in
: increment the count
DN
in
: decrement
Q(1..0) out
: count
State diagram:
VHDL Code:
Sequential Circuit Description- Example
Transition Table:
UP
DN
Q
State Table:
Q_next
UP
DN
Q
Q_next
Sequential Circuit Description- Example
Excitation Equation Q(1):
Excitation Equation Q(0):
Q_next(1) =
Q_next(0) =
Q(1..0)
UP DN
Q(1..0)
00
01
11
10
UP DN
00
00
01
01
11
11
10
10
00
01
11
10
Sequential Circuit Timing
The following global timing parameters are important to the reliable
working of a sequential circuit:
Global Setup and Hold: The window around any FF’s
clock edge during which its input must be valid
Global Clock-to-out: The amount of time that it takes to
get a signal, from the input clock, out of a circuit.
Maximum Clock Frequency: The fastest a global clock
can be run within a design.
Maximum Clock Skew: The greatest difference between
when a clock hits two different FF’s clock inputs
Global Setup,Hold,&amp;Propagation Delay
Consider the following circuit:
tPNI
D_ext
Combinatorial
Logic Delay
D_int
CLK_ext
Clock Tree
Network Delay
CLK_int
tPC
D
Q
Q_int
Output Net Q_ext
Delay
tPNO
tPFF
Global Setup,Hold,&amp;Propagation Delay
Consider the following timing diagram:
CLK_ext
tSU_E
tHD_E
tSU_E = tSU_I + tPNI - tPC
D_ext
tPNI
tPC
tHD_E = tHD_I - tPNI + tPC
CLK_int
tSU_I
tHD_I
D_int
tPFF
Q_int
tPNO
Q_ext
tP
tP = tPC + tPFF + tPNO
Maximum Clock Frequency
The maximum clock frequency, minimum clock width, is determined
by the time required for changes at one flip-flop output to be seen
at another flip-flop input.
Consider the following circuit:
tPFF
D1
D
Q
tPN
Q1
Combinatorial D2
Logic Delay
Skew Between C1
Clocks
C1
tSKEW
D
Q
Q2
Maximum Clock Frequency
Consider the following timing diagram:
tPER
C1
tSKEW
tSKEW
C2
tPER = tPFF + tPN
+ tSU + tSKEW
tPFF
Q1
tPN
tSU
D2
Note the skewing C1 after C2 is the worst case. If the skew had
delayed C2 after C1, it would have increased the maximum clock
frequency.
Maximum Clock Skew
Consider the same circuit as above:
tPFF
D1
D
Q
tPN
Q1
Combinatorial D2
Logic Delay
Skew Between C1
Clocks
C1
tSKEW
D
Q
Q2
Maximum Clock Skew
Consider the same timing diagram as above:
C1
tSKEW
tHD
tSKEW = tPFF + tPN - tHD
C2
tPFF
Q1
tPN
D2
Note the skewing C2 after C1 is the worst case. If the skew had
delayed C1 after C2, it would have increased the maximum clock
skew allowed.
Introduction to Memory
Memory Hierarchy Technology
Random Access:
“Random” is good: access time is the same for all locations
DRAM: Dynamic Random Access Memory
High density, low power, cheap, slow
Dynamic: need to be “refreshed” regularly
SRAM: Static Random Access Memory
Low density, high power, expensive, fast
Static: content will last “forever”(until lose power)
“Non-so-random” Access Technology:
Access time varies from location to location and from time to time
Examples: Disk, CDROM
Sequential Access Technology: access time linear in location (e.g.,Tape)
Introduction to Memory
Performance of Main Memory:
Latency: Cache Miss Penalty
Access Time: time between request and word arrives
Cycle Time: time between requests
Bandwidth: I/O &amp; Large Block Miss Penalty (L2)
Main Memory is DRAM: Dynamic Random Access Memory
Dynamic since needs to be refreshed periodically (8 ms)
Addresses divided into 2 halves (Memory as a 2D matrix):
RAS: Row Access Strobe
CAS: Column Access Strobe
Cache uses SRAM: Static Random Access Memory
No refresh (6 transistors/bit vs. 1 transistorSize: DRAM/SRAM 4-8,
Cost/Cycle time: SRAM/DRAM 8-16
Introduction to Memory
Why do computer designers need to know about RAM technology?
Processor performance is usually limited by memory bandwidth
As IC densities increase, lots of memory will fit on processor chip
Tailor on-chip memory to specific needs
Instruction cache
Data cache
Write buffer
What makes RAM different from a bunch of flip-flops?
Density: RAM is much more denser
Logic Diagram of a Typical SRAM
A
N
WE_L
OE_L
2 N words
x M bit
SRAM
M
D
Write Enable is usually active low (WE_L)
Din and Dout are combined to save pins:
A new control signal, output enable (OE_L) is needed
WE_L is asserted (Low), OE_L is disasserted (High)
D serves as the data input pin
WE_L is disasserted (High), OE_L is asserted (Low)
D is the data output pin
Both WE_L and OE_L are asserted:
Result is unknown. Don’t do that!!!
Timing of a Typical SRAM
A
N
WE_L
2 N words
x M bit
SRAM
OE_L
M
Write Timing:
D
Data In
D
High Z
Data Out
Data Out
Junk
A
OE_L
WE_L
Write
Hold Time
Write Setup Time
Time
Time
Logic Diagram of a Typical DRAM
RAS_L
A
9
CAS_L
WE_L
256K x 8
DRAM
OE_L
8
D
Control Signals (RAS_L, CAS_L, WE_L, OE_L) are all active low
Din and Dout are combined (D):
WE_L is asserted (Low), OE_L is disasserted (High)
D serves as the data input pin
WE_L is disasserted (High), OE_L is asserted (Low)
D is the data output pin
Row and column addresses share the same pins (A)
RAS_L goes low: Pins A are latched in as row address
CAS_L goes low: Pins A are latched in as column address
RAS/CAS edge-sensitive
Timing of a Typical DRAM Write
Every DRAM access begins at:
The assertion of the RAS_L
2 ways to write:
early or late v. CAS
RAS_L
A
CAS_L
WE_L
256K x 8
DRAM
9
OE_L
D
8
DRAM WR Cycle Time
RAS_L
CAS_L
A
Junk
Junk
OE_L
WE_L
D
Junk
Data In
WR Access Time
Early Wr Cycle: WE_L asserted before CAS_L
Junk
Data In
Junk
WR Access Time
Late Wr Cycle: WE_L asserted after CAS_L
Timing of a Typical DRAM Read
Every DRAM access begins at:
The assertion of the RAS_L
early or late v. CAS
RAS_L
CAS_L
A
WE_L
256K x 8
DRAM
9
OE_L
D
8
RAS_L
CAS_L
A
Junk
Junk
WE_L
OE_L
D
High Z
Junk
Data Out
Time
Early Read Cycle: OE_L asserted before CAS_L
High Z
Data Out
Output Enable
Delay
Late Read Cycle: OE_L asserted after CAS_L
Motivation for Fast Page Mode DRAM
Column
N cols
DRAM
N rows
Regular DRAM Organization:
N rows x N column x M-bit
Read &amp; Write M-bit at a time
Each M-bit access requires
a RAS / CAS cycle
Fast Page Mode DRAM
N x M “register” to save a row
Row
M-bit Output
1st M-bit Access
M bits
2nd M-bit Access
RAS_L
CAS_L
A
Junk
Junk
Operation of Fast Page Mode DRAM
N cols
DRAM
Row
N rows
Fast Page Mode DRAM
N x M “SRAM” to save a row
After a row is read into the register
Only CAS is needed to access other
M-bit blocks on that row
RAS_L remains asserted while
CAS_L is toggled
Column
N x M “SRAM”
M-bit Output
1st M-bit Access
2nd M-bit
3rd M-bit
M bits
4th M-bit
RAS_L
CAS_L
A