th 7 Grade Poetry Unit Poetry A kind of rhythmic, compressed language that uses figures of speech and imagery to appeal to the reader’s emotions and imagination One of the oldest forms of communication Often sung Passed down from generation to generation Meant to be read aloud Read a poem several times to get the feel of it Poetry v. Prose Prose = anything that is not poetry Poetry is a language which says more and says it more intensely than prose Poets say the same thing as prose writers. . . They just say it with fewer words The Implied Poets often write with implied ideas. That is. . . Reader must make an educated guess to the idea that is suggested Make inferences Lines What a poem is written in; may or may not be complete sentences Pay attention to punctuation- just because a line ends, that doesn’t mean the sentence or thought has ended. This is one of the keys to understanding poetry! Numbering Lines in Poetry 5’s only The purpose of numbering lines is to make it easier to make reference to something in the poem Battle in the Sky by Shel Silverstein It wasn't quite day and it wasn't quite night, 'Cause the sun and the moon were both in sight, A situation quite all right With everyone else but them. So they both made remarks about who gave more light And who was the brightest and prettiest sight, And the sun gave a bump and the moon gave a bite, And the terrible sky fight began. 5 With a scorch and a sizzle, a screech and a shout, 10 Across the great heavens they tumbled about, And the moon had a piece of the sun in its mouth, While the sun burned the face of the moon. Stanza A group of consecutive lines that forms a single unit Something like a paragraph in prose Often expresses a unit of thought May consist of any number of lines In some poems, each stanza has the same rhyme scheme I’m Nobody! I’m Nobody! Who are you? Are you Nobody too? Then there’s a pair of us! Don’t tell! They’d banish us, you know! How dreary to be Somebody! How public - like a Frog To tell your name the livelong June To an admiring Bog! - Emily Dickinson If I Can Stop One Heart from Breaking If I can stop one Heart from breaking I shall not live in vain If I can ease one Life the Aching Or cool one Pain Or help one fainting Robin Unto his Nest again I shall not live in Vain. - Emily Dickinson Emily Dickinson* She wrote nearly 1,800 poems, but only 7 were published during her lifetime. She is known as the mysterious woman in white She rarely left her property. In the last 12 years of her life, she left only once to visit an eye doctor! 1830 – 1886 An Introduction to Literary Devices in Poetry Some of these terms will be familiar to you, while others will be new Alliteration Couplet Image Metaphor Onomatopoeia - Personification - Refrain - Rhyme scheme - Simile - Stanza Theme A theme in poetry is the main idea of the poem and/or the authors' feelings about it. Understanding a central theme in poetry takes some concentrating on each individual poem. Some themes stand out, some are subtle. Some common themes are love, friendship, betrayal, good vs. evil, the fight for survival, and regret. “Do Not Go Gentle Into That Good Night” by Dylan Thomas Do not go gentle into that good night, Old age should burn and rave at close of day; Rage, rage against the dying of the light. Though wise men at their end know dark is right, Because their words had forked no lightning they Do not go gentle into that good night. Good men, the last wave by, crying how bright Their frail deeds might have danced in a green bay, Rage, rage against the dying of the light. Wild men who caught and sang the sun in flight, And learn, too late, they grieved it on its way, Do not go gentle into that good night. Grave men, near death, who see with blinding sight Blind eyes could blaze like meteors and be gay, Rage, rage against the dying of the light. And you, my father, there on that sad height, Curse, bless, me now with your fierce tears, I pray. Do not go gentle into that good night. Rage, rage against the dying of the light. “Me Against the World” by Tupac Shakur With all this extra stressin The question I wonder is after death, after my last breath When will I finally get to rest? Through this supression They punish the people that's askin questions And those that possess, steal from the ones without possessions The message I stress: to make it stop study your lessons Don't settle for less - even a genius asks questions Be grateful for blessings Don't ever change, keep your essence The power is in the people and politics we address Always do your best, don't let the pressure make you panic And when you get stranded And things don't go the way you planned it Dreamin of riches, in a position of makin a difference Politicians and hypocrites, they don't wanna listen If I'm insane, it's the fame made a brother change It wasn't nuttin like the game It's just me against the world Your reward for those two hard poems??? http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZBR 2G-iI3-I Tone vs. Mood The tone of the poem is the attitude you feel in it- the writer’s attitude towards the subject of the poem. It can be angry, sinister, joyous, sad, etc. The mood is very close to the tone as the tone often adds to the mood of the poem. The mood is the overall feeling of the poem. This can be created by the tone or by the language choices of the poem. For example, if the mood is sad there may be a lot of words that are related to death. There may also be lots of punctuation that slows the reader down, or the writer may use a rhythm that is quite somber. Tone and mood are very similar. If you can figure out one, you’ve probably figured out the other. Tone The tone of a poem is the attitude you feel in it — the writer's attitude toward the subject or audience. The tone in a poem of praise is approval. In a satire, you feel irony. In an antiwar poem, you may feel protest or moral indignation. Tone can be playful, humorous, regretful, anything — and it can change as the poem goes along. Tone (Continued) When you speak, your tone of voice suggests your attitude. In fact, it suggests two attitudes: one concerning the people you're addressing (your audience) and one concerning the thing you're talking about (your subject). That's what the term tone means when it's applied to poetry as well. Tone can also mean the general emotional weather of the poem. Tone (Continued) Sometimes tone is fairly obvious. You can, for example, find poems that are absolutely furious. The Scots poet Hugh MacDiarmid didn't care for mercenary soldiers (men who fight not because they believe in a cause, but because someone is paying them to fight). Here is MacDiarmid's very angry "Another Epitaph on an Army of Mercenaries": It is a ***-****** lie to say that these Saved, or knew, anything worth any man's pride. They were professional murderers and they took Their blood money and impious risks and died. In spite of all their kind some elements of worth With difficulty persist here and there on earth. Tone (Continued) Poetry is already so packed with emotion that seeing a poet swearing right at the start may be a shock, but MacDiarmid does exactly that. He makes the disturbing move of insulting the dead soldiers, calling them "professional murderers." Usually, people try not to speak ill of the dead, but evidently MacDiarmid thinks so little of the mercenaries that he feels justified in insulting them. In the last two lines, he implies that, with such evil men in existence, human goodness persists only "with difficulty." These clues lead you to MacDiarmid's tone and his attitude toward his subject: contempt. Personification A nonhuman thing is given human-like qualities and characteristics Disney movies The soft gray hands of sleep Toiled all night long To spin a beautiful garment Of dreams - Edward Silvera, from “Forgotten Dreams” Refrain A group of words repeated at intervals in a poem, song, or speech. Often used to build rhythm Can also emphasize the main theme of the work Refrain A group of words repeated at intervals in a poem, song, or speech. (Same as a chorus in a song.) Examples: “I have a dream. . .” - Martin Luther King, Jr. “I’ve got a feeling. . .” -Black Eyed Peas Form The physical structure of a poem There are 55 different kinds! http://www.poemofquotes.com/articles/poetr y_forms.php Ones you may have heard of: haiku, concrete, found, limerick, narrative, quatrain, etc. Narrative and Lyric Poems Narrative poems tell a story (Can be either an epic or a ballad) It has a plot The focus is often on the pros and cons of life Romantic- involves chivalry (has a hero who saves the day) Example: “The Highwayman” by Alfred Noyes Example: “The Ballad of Bonnie and Clyde” by Bonnie Parker Lyric poem- any short poem Sonnets- Have 14 lines, are highly musical and emotional Example: “Sonnet 18” by William Shakespeare Javan’s Poems “Sonnet 18” by William Shakespeare Shall I compare thee to a summer's day? Thou art more lovely and more temperate; Rough winds do shake the darling buds of May, And summer's lease hath all too short a date; Sometime too hot the eye of heaven shines, And often is his gold complexion dimm'd; And every fair from fair sometime declines, By chance or nature's changing course untrimm'd; But thy eternal summer shall not fade, Nor lose possession of that fair thou ow'st; Nor shall Death brag thou wander'st in his shade, When in eternal lines to time thou grow'st: So long as men can breathe or eyes can see, So long lives this, and this gives life to thee. Javan Poems I am not very good At this Game called Life For I've not learned to see children crying Without feeling pain For I've not learned to watch animals destroyed Without wondering why For I've not yet met a king or celebrity That I would bow down to Or a man so insignificant That I would use for a stepping-stone For I've not learned to be a "yes man" To narrow minded bosses Who quote rules without reason And I've not learned to manipulate The feelings of others To be used for my own advantages Then cast aside as I see fit No, I am not very good At the Game called Life And if everything goes well Maybe I never will be We are born into the World Like a blank canvas And every person that crosses our path Takes up the brush And makes their mark Upon our surface So it is that we develop But we must realize there comes a day That we must take up the brush And finish the work For only we can determine If we are to be Just another painting Or a Masterpiece Epic Poems Very long, book-length poems Examples: Paradise Lost by John Milton The Divine Comedy by Dante Beowulf Parodies A parody deliberately copies the form or pattern of a poem (or other literature), often done to be funny or to point out a problem Examples: Weird Al’s songs Scary Movie Saturday Night Live “I, too, sing America” by Langston Hughes “I Hear America Singing” by Walt Whitman I HEAR America singing, the varied carols I hear; Those of mechanics—each one singing his, as it should be, blithe and strong; The carpenter singing his, as he measures his plank or beam, The mason singing his, as he makes ready for work, or leaves off work; The boatman singing what belongs to him in his boat—the deckhand singing on the steamboat deck; 5 The shoemaker singing as he sits on his bench—the hatter singing as he stands; The wood-cutter’s song—the ploughboy’s, on his way in the morning, or at the noon intermission, or at sundown; The delicious singing of the mother—or of the young wife at work—or of the girl sewing or washing—Each singing what belongs to her, and to none else; The day what belongs to the day—At night, the party of young fellows, robust, friendly, Singing, with open mouths, their strong melodious songs. “I, too, sing America” by Langston Hughes I, too, sing America. I am the darker brother. They send me to eat in the kitchen When company comes, But I laugh, And eat well, And grow strong. Tomorrow, I'll be at the table When company comes. Nobody'll dare Say to me, "Eat in the kitchen," Then. Besides, They'll see how beautiful I am And be ashamed— Structured vs. Free Verse Structured Formwhen lines in a stanza have a regular, repeated pattern Free Verse- when a poem has no pattern Rhyme Scheme A pattern of rhymes (the repetition of sounds at the ends of words) in a poem End rhymes Internal rhymes Near rhymes End Rhymes Rhymes at the end of lines of poetry Darkness settles on roofs and walls, But the sea, the sea in the darkness calls; The little waves, with their soft, white hands, Efface the footprints in the sands, And the tide rises, the tide falls. - Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, from “TheTide Rises, the Tide Falls” What else is here? Rhymes at the end of lines of poetry Darkness settles on roofs and walls, But the sea, the sea in the darkness calls; The little waves, with their soft, white hands, Efface the footprints in the sands, And the tide rises, the tide falls. - Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, from “TheTide Rises, the Tide Falls” Internal Rhymes Rhymes within lines of poetry Back into the chamber turning, all my soul within me burning, Soon there came again a tapping somewhat louder than before - Edgar Allan Poe, from “The Raven” Near Rhymes Rhymes involving sounds that are similar but not exactly the same Also called slant rhymes milly befriended a stranded star whose rays five languid fingers were - E.E. Cummings, from “maggie and milly and molly and may” (page 522) Rhyme Scheme Rhymes at the end of lines of poetry To indicate the rhyme scheme of a poem, use a separate letter of the alphabet for each rhyme The rhyme scheme of Longfellow’s stanza of “The Tide Rises, the Tide Falls” is a-a-b-b-a Rhyme Scheme Darkness settles on roofs and walls, a_ But the sea, the sea in the darkness calls; a_ The little waves, with their soft, white hands, b_ Efface the footprints in the sands, b_ And the tide rises, the tide falls. a_ - Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, from “TheTide Rises, the Tide Falls” Speaker The speaker is the voice that relates the story or ideas of the poem Ask yourself: Male or female? Age? What is his or her attitude regarding the events/ideas in the poem? Where are they from? Do they speak in a certain dialect (a form of language spoken in a certain place by a certain group of people)? Example: “Mother to Son” by Langston Hughes “Mother to Son” by Langston Hughes Mother to Son Well, son, I'll tell you: Life for me ain't been no crystal stair. It's had tacks in it, And splinters, And boards torn up, And places with no carpet on the floor— Bare. But all the time I'se been a-climbin' on, And reachin' landin's, And turnin' corners, And sometimes goin' in the dark Where there ain't been no light. So, boy, don't you turn back. Don't you set down on the steps. 'Cause you finds it's kinder hard. Don't you fall now— For I'se still goin', honey, I'se still climbin', And life for me ain't been no crystal stair. Langston Hughes Your old friend, the Simile! A comparison between two unlike things, using a word such as like, as, than, or resembles. When the last bus leaves, moths stream toward lights like litter in the wind. - Roberta Hill, from “Depot in Rapid City” You’ve been waiting for, the mighty Metaphor! An imaginative comparison between two unlike things in which one thing is said to be another thing. When she comes slip-footing through the door, she kindles us like lump coal lighted and we wake up glowing. She puts a spark even in Papa’s eyes and turns out all our darkness. When she comes sweet-talking in the room, she warms us like grits and gravy, and we rise up shining. Even at nighttime Mama is a sunrise that promises tomorrow and tomorrow. - Evelyn Tooley Hunt, from “Mama Is a Sunrise” Metaphor An imaginative comparison between two unlike things in which one thing is said to be another thing. Dreams Hold fast to dreams For if dreams die Life is a broken-winged bird That cannot fly. Hold fast to dreams For when dreams go Life is a barren field Frozen with snow. - Langston Hughes Image from http://goinglocoinyokohama.files.wordpress.com/2009/06/hughes.jpg Madam and the Rent Man The rent man knocked. He said, Howdy-do? I said, What Can I do for you? He said, You know Your rent is due. I said, Listen, Before I'd pay I'd go to Hades And rot away! The sink is broke, The water don't run, And you ain't done a thing You promised to've done. Back window's cracked, Kitchen floor squeaks, There's rats in the cellar, And the attic leaks. He said, Madam, It's not up to me. I'm just the agent, Don't you see? I said, Naturally, You pass the buck. If it's money you want You're out of luck. He said, Madam, I ain't pleased! I said, Neither am I. So we agrees! - Langston Hughes Idiom A descriptive expression that means something other than the combination of the words that make it up Example: Don’t put all of your eggs in one basket. Example: I’m really on the fence about it. Example: He’s on Cloud Nine! Hyperbole A hyperbole is a wild exaggeration “The Christmas Tree” Momma bought a tree bigger than Jack’s giant. The branches were so long They gave each other huge bear hugs. It took a million lights To even make the tree seem half awake And a thousand gifts to soothe The giant’s appetite. Alliteration The repetition of the same or very similar consonant sounds in words that are close together. Usually occurs at the beginning of words Can also occur within or at the end of words Can help establish a mood, emphasize words, or serve as a memory aid Alliteration The repetition of the same or very similar consonant sounds in words that are close together. Example: s sound repeated at beginning of silken and sad and within the words uncertain and rustling. . . And the silken sad uncertain rustling of each purple curtain, Thrilled me--filled me with fantastic terrors never felt before; - Edgar Allan Poe, from “The Raven” Assonance Assonance- The repetition of vowel sounds “Hear the mellow wedding bells, Golden bells! What a world of happiness their harmony foretells!” Poetic Sleuth this same example from “The Raven”, what other poetic device(s) can you find? Using And the silken sad uncertain rustling of each purple curtain, Thrilled me--filled me with fantastic terrors never felt before; - Edgar Allan Poe, from “The Raven” Couplet A pair of lines of verse Usually consists of two lines that rhyme and have the same meter (rhythm of stressed and unstressed syllables) While traditionally couplets rhyme, not all do Couplet Because the rhyme comes so quickly in rhyming couplets, it tends to call attention to itself Good rhyming couplets tend to "snap" as both the rhyme and the idea come to a quick close in two lines An example of a rhyming couplet: Whether or not we find what we are seeking is idle, biologically speaking. — Edna St. Vincent Millay (at the end of a sonnet) “A Minor Bird” I have wished a bird would fly away, And not sing by my house all day; Have clapped my hands at him from the door When it seemed as if I could bear no more. 5 The fault must partly have been in me. The bird was not to blame for his key. And of course there must be something wrong In wanting to silence any song. ` Robert Frost* Imagery A single word or phrase that appeals to one or more of our senses The scientific names for the 5 senses: 1. Sight- (Visual) 2. Hearing- (Auditory) 3. Taste- (Gustatory) 4. Smell- (Olfactory) 5. Touch- (Tactile) Imagery refers to the "pictures" which we perceive with our mind's eyes, ears, nose, tongue, and skin Imagery A single word or phrase that appeals to one or more of our senses Night Watch (Ode to the Gargoyle) Frozen jaws snap at timeless air And concrete eyes stare at passers-by Claws deeply imbedded, sadly not in flesh As you crouch forever ready to pounce - Mary O. Fumento, 1989 Imagery A single word or phrase that appeals to one or more of our senses Read also “Sarah Cynthia Sylvia Stout Would Not Take the Garbage Out” by Shel Silverstein (in Literature book) “A Boy Named Sue”, sung by Johnny Cash, was written by Shel Silverstein. What examples of imagery can you find in this song? http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WOHPuY88Ry 4 Onomatopoeia When a word sounds like what it means Important element in creating the music of poetry Onomatopoeia In “The Bells”, by Edgar Allan Poe, he creates a frenzied mood by choosing words that imitate the sounds of alarm bells 5 10 Oh, the bells, bells, bells! What a tale their terror tells Of Despair! How they clang, and clash, and roar! What a horror they outpour On the bosom of the palpitating air! Yet the ear, it fully knows By the twanging And the clanging How the danger ebbs and flows. E. A. Poe In “The Bells”, Poe uses onomatopoeia, it’s true, but he is also utilizing the recurring use of a sound, word, a phrase, or a line. What is this called? Oh, the bells, bells, bells! What a tale their terror tells Of Despair! How they clang, and clash, and roar! What a horror they outpour On the bosom of the palpitating air! Yet the ear, it fully knows By the twanging And the clanging How the danger ebbs and flows. Repetition The recurring use of a sound, a word, a phrase, or a line Can also be used to create music, to appeal to our emotions, and to emphasize important ideas Poe used this quite a bit “Annabel Lee” Note how the lines are numbered! “I Went to a Party, Mom”- What’s the purpose of the repetition in this poem? “Annabel Lee” by Edgar Allen Poe It was many and many a year ago, In a kingdom by the sea, That a maiden there lived whom you may know By the name of ANNABEL LEE; And this maiden she lived with no other thought Than to love and be loved by me. I was a child and she was a child, In this kingdom by the sea; But we loved with a love that was more than loveI and my Annabel Lee; With a love that the winged seraphs of heaven Coveted her and me. And this was the reason that, long ago, In this kingdom by the sea, A wind blew out of a cloud, chilling My beautiful Annabel Lee; So that her highborn kinsman came And bore her away from me, To shut her up in a sepulchre In this kingdom by the sea. The angels, not half so happy in heaven, Went envying her and meYes!- that was the reason (as all men know, In this kingdom by the sea) That the wind came out of the cloud by night, Chilling and killing my Annabel Lee. But our love it was stronger by far than the love Of those who were older than weOf many far wiser than weAnd neither the angels in heaven above, Nor the demons down under the sea, Can ever dissever my soul from the soul Of the beautiful Annabel Lee. For the moon never beams without bringing me dreams Of the beautiful Annabel Lee; And the stars never rise but I feel the bright eyes Of the beautiful Annabel Lee; And so, all the night-tide, I lie down by the side Of my darling- my darling- my life and my bride, In the sepulchre there by the sea, In her tomb by the sounding sea. “I Went to a Party, Mom” by Anonymous I went to a party, Mom and remembered what you said. You told me not to drink, Mom so I drank soda instead. I felt proud of myself, Mom the way you said I would, because I didn't drink and drive, though some friends said I should. I made a healthy choice, Mom and your advice to me was right. As the party finally ended, and the kids drove out of sight, I got into my car, Mom sure to get home in one piece. I never knew what was coming, Mom something I expected least. Now I'm lying on the pavement, Mom And I hear the policeman say, "The kid that caused this wreck was drunk", Mom, his voice seems far away. My own blood's all around me, Mom as I try hard not to cry. I can hear the paramedic say, "This girl is going to die". I'm sure the guy had no idea, while he was flying high, because he chose to drink and drive, now I would have to die. So why do people do it, Mom? Tell daddy to be brave, and when I go to Heaven, write "Daddy's Girl" on my grave. Someone should have taught him, Mom that it's wrong to drink and drive. Maybe if someone had, I'd still be alive. My breath is getting shorter, Mom I'm getting really scared. These are my final moments, and I'm so unprepared. I wish that you could hold me Mom, as I lie here and die. Just one last time, I’d tell you, Mom I love you and good-bye. Symbolism When an image in a poem is used to represent both itself and something larger than itself “O Captain! My Captain!” “O Captain! My Captain!” by Walt Whitman O Captain! My Captain! our fearful trip is done; The ship has weather'd every rack, the prize we sought is won; The port is near, the bells I hear, the people all exulting, While follow eyes the steady keel, the vessel grim and daring: But O heart! heart! heart! O the bleeding drops of red, Where on the deck my Captain lies, Fallen cold and dead. O Captain! my Captain! rise up and hear the bells; Rise up—for you the flag is flung—for you the bugle trills; For you bouquets and ribbon'd wreaths—for you the shores a-crowding; For you they call, the swaying mass, their eager faces turning; O captain! dear father! This arm beneath your head; It is some dream that on the deck, You've fallen cold and dead. My Captain does not answer, his lips are pale and still; My father does not feel my arm, he has no pulse nor will; The ship is anchor'd safe and sound, its voyage closed and done; From fearful trip, the victor ship, comes in with object won; Exult, O shores, and ring, O bells! But I, with mournful tread, Walk the deck my captain lies, Fallen cold and dead. “Those Winter Sundays” by Robert Hayden Sundays too my father got up early And put his clothes on in the blueblack cold Then with cracked hands that ached From labor in the weekday weather made Banked fires blaze. No one ever thanked him. I’d wake and hear the cold splintering, breaking. When the rooms were warm, he’d call, And slowly I would rise and dress, Fearing the chronic angers of that house, Speaking indifferently to him, Who had driven out the cold And plished my good shoes as well. What did I know, what did I know Of love’s austere and lonely offices?